Skip to main content

Full text of "The Practical brick and tile book"

See other formats


SIlic 39, it ii\ii Xtbniru 




ZX'orth (Carnliita ^tatc College 

TP927 ♦«• 
P7 



I 





S00601527 L 



THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE DATE 
INDICATED BELOW AND IS SUB- 
JECT TO AN OVERDUE FINE AS 
POSTED AT THE CIRCULAilPION 
DESK. /^ 




APR 1 B 1984 

OCT 1 01984 

APR - 9 1986 



Digitized by tine Internet Arcliive 

in 2010 witli funding from 

NCSU Libraries 



littp://www.arcliive.org/details/practicalbricktiOOdobs 




)iiiL:»^2. « 




iC 


■'H 


1 


! 


i 


4*. 


* 







[[ 



RNAMENTAL BRICKWORK. 
-V". 43, St. Martin's Lane, London. 



TRE PRACTICAL 

BRICK AND TILE BOOK 



COMPRISINO 



I.— A RUDIMENTARY TREATISE ON 

BRICK AND TILE MAKING 

By EDWARD DOBSON, A.I.C.E., M.I.B.A. 



II.— THE RUDIMENTS OF 

PRACTICAL BRICKLAYING 

By ADAM HAMMOND 



iii.-BRICKWORK 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON 

BRICKLAYING, CUTTING, AND SETTING 

By F. WALKER 



. smith ohtx %^o ISttuireb ani) Stbtxxt^ iiiustratwns 




LONDON 

CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND CO. 

7, STATIONERS' HALL COURT, LUDQATE HILL 



^^ 



THE 

PRACTICAL BRICK AND TILE BOOK 



PART I. 
A RUDIMENTARY TREATISE ON 

BRICK AND TILE MAKING 

By EDWAED DOBSON, A.I.C.E., etc. 



\ Q> "o O 



A RUDIMENTARY TREATISE 

ON THE MAXUfACTt'RE OF 

BRICKS AND TILES 

CONTAINING AN OUTLINE OF THE 

PRINCIPLES OF BRICKMAKING 
By EDWARD DOBSON, A.I.C.E., M.I.BA. 

AUTnOR OP "the art op BtllLDrMG," "MASONRY AND STO;<K-CUTTI-\0," 
" FOUXDATIOXS AND COXCRKTE WORK," ETC., ETC. 

HE VISED AXD COSRECTED BY CEARLES TOMLINSON, F.R.S. 

EIGHTH EDITION 

WITH ADDITIONS BY EOBEKT MALLET, A.M., F.R.S., M.I.C.E., Etc. 

SHith numerous illustrations 




LONDON 
CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND CO. 

7, STATIONERS' HALL COURT, LUDGATE HILL 

1886 



THE AUTHOE'S PEEFACE. 



The preparation of this little work has necessarily es. 
tended over a considerable period of time, and, although 
our limits preclude anything like an attempt at a com- 
plete view of the principles and practice of Brick- 
making, it will be found to contain much practical 
information which has never yet been published, and 
descriptions of processes which are little known be- 
yond the localities where they are practised. The 
whole of the illustrations have been drawn expressly 
for the work, and the descriptions of tools and pro- 
cesses have been written from personal observation, 
no dependence having been placed on verbal descrip- 
tion, even by experienced workmen. Working brick- 
makers are mostly illiterate men, imable to describe 
correctly their own operations, and still less to explain 
their meaning. I have therefore considered it necessary 
to have every process here described carefully watched 
throughout, either by myseK or by some one on whose 
accuracy of observation I coidd place dependence. 

In the course of last autumn I drew up several papers 
of questions, embracing a variety of points on which it 
was found difl&cult to obtain correct information, but 
which were distributed amongst those of my friends 
who were likely to have opportunities of ascertaining 
what was required. 

b 



iv THE author's PREFACE. 

Many of these papers in course of time were returned, 
accompanied by valuable details, and I have to express 
my thanks and obligations to many gentlemen per- 
sonally unknown to me for the assistance thus afforded. 
i\jnongst those from whom I have received valuabio 
assistance during the progress of the work, I may 
especially mention the names of Mr. Arthur Aikin ; 
Mr. John Lees Brown, of Lichfield ; Mr. William 
Booker, of Nottingham ; Mr. Richard Prosser, of Bir- 
mingham ; and Mr. Frederick Ransome, of Ipswich. 

Mr. Richard Prosser has kindly contributed a valuable 
accoimt of the practice of Brickmaking in Stafford- 
shire, which will be read with much interest, and it will 
be worth the reader's while to compare the processes 
described in this chapter with those made use of in the 
neighbourhood of iN'ottingham, described in Chapter III. 

The details given in Appendix I. respecting the manu- 
facture of Suffolk bricks Mere Idndly furnished by Mr. 
Frederick Ransomc, to vv'hom I am also indebted for 
drawings of a Suffolk kiln, which were intended by 
him as a contribution to the work, but which, un- 
fortunately, were committed to the post for transmis- 
sion, and never reached their destination. 

In collecting the information requisite for writing the 
accounts of Brickmaking and Tilemaking as practised 
in the neighbourhood of London, I am under great obli- 
gations to Mr. Adams and ^Ir. Itandcll, of the Maiden 
Lane Tileries, and to Mr. Samuel Pocock, of the Cale- 
donian Fields, Islington, for the kindness with which 
they afforded me facilities for inspecting and sketching 
their works, and for the liberal manner in ^hich they 
furnished me with details of prices and quantities. 

Although much time and pains have been bestowed 
upon the work, there is so much difficulty in writing o 



THE AUTHOR S TllEFACE. V 

strictly accurate account, even of a simple operation, that 
I cannot hope that it is perfectly free from errors ; but I 
trust that they are only of a trivial nature, and I shall 
be greatly obliged to any reader who will point out any 
omissions or mis-statements, that I may be able to 
correct them in a future edition. 

There has long been a want of rudimentary treatises 
on the Materials of Construction, published in a cheap 
form, and written in a simple and practical style, 
divested of scientific technicalities, which render such 
books nearly useless to those by whom they are most 
needed. I venture to express a hope that this work may 
be of service in supplying this deficiency with regard to 
one very important class of building materials. At the 
same time it must be observed that the Science of Brick- 
making is as yet untrodden ground, comparatively little 
being known of the manner in which different sub- 
stances mutually act upon each other when exposed to 
furnace heat, or of the relative proportions of silica, 
alumina, lime, and other usual ingredients of brick- 
earths, which are best calculated to produce a sound, 
well-shaped brick, of a pleasing colour. All that I have 
attempted here, therefore, is to give a clear description 
of the actual manufacture of bricks and tiles, and to 
explain the leading difierences which exist in the manner 
of conducting the several operations of Brickmaking iu 
various parts of this country. How far I have succeeded 
in this attempt the reader alone can determine. 

EDWARD D0B80N. 



PEEFACE TO THE FOUETH EDITION. 



This work was revised by Professor Tomlinson in 1863, 
and some matter become useless by time and the altera- 
tion of the Excise laws judiciously expunged. A chapter 
was at the same time appended on making bricks by 
machinery, but since that period many improvements 
and new inventions have necessitated a supplemental 
chapter, in which the editor has endeavoured to give 
an outline of that part of the subject reaching to the 
present day. lie has also added a sketch of that which 
was properly called by the author of the work the Science 
of Brickmaking. A few notes, revising the text gene- 
rally, will be found in the Appendix, and to which the 
alphabetical index now given affords easy reference. 

Though small and elementary, this work may pro- 
bably claim to be the most complete upon its siibjcct 
in the English language. 

ROBEPvT MALLET. 

Auyu:t, IStiJJ. 



CONTENTS. 



ti.B. — Th' Xicibcis refer to the Farar/rapJis and mt to (he prtgcs, except 
tchcre otherwise stated. 



INTRODUCTION (Pages 1-12.) 

I. Early history of the art -would not add to our practical know- 
ledge, li. Burnt brick used in the building of the Tower of Babel ; in 
the walls of Babylon ; both biuiat and sun-dried bricks used in ancient 
Egypt. III. Bricks extensively used by the Romans ; the art of brick- 
making abandoned at the decline of the Roman Empire ; subsequently 
revived in the middle ages. IV. Early and extensive use of bricks in 
Holland and the Netherlands. V. Brickmaking introduced into England 
by the Romans ; arrived at great perfection at the time of Henry VIII. ; 
only used for large mansions in the time of Queen Elizabeth. VI. Brick 
generally introduced as a building material in London after the great fire 
of 1666; many fine specimens of brickwork still extant, executed at the 
beginning of the 18th century. VII. Enumeration of the duties suc- 
cessively imposed upon bricks and tiles ; abolition of the distinction 
between common and dressed bricks, by 2nd and 3rd Vict. c. 24. VIII. 
The new act a great boon to the public. IX. Nimiber of bricks uiade 
yearly in Great Britain. X. Differences in the processes employed in 
brickinaking in differents parts of England. XI. Average strength of 
various kinds of bricks. XII. Comparison between the crushing strength 
cf hand-made and machine-made bricks. 



CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OP THE MANUFACTURE OF BRICKS 
AND TILES. 

I. Bricks. (Pago 12.) 

1. Classification of the various operations of the bnckmaker. 

Peepaeation of Brick-eaeth. (Pages 12 — 2b.) 

2. Enumeration of qualities to be aimed at in making bricks. 3. Suc- 
cess depends principally on the selection and preparation of brick-earth. 
4. Br'ck-carths may be divided into three principal classes; viz., pure 
clays, marls, and loams ; few earths fit for brickmaking without some 

i3 



VI U CONTENTS. 

mixtui-c. 5. ^Vlumina the principal ingredient in britk-carth ; cracka 
in drying, after being moulded, and will not stand firing ; necessary to 
add sand to strong claj's, to diminish their contraction ; lime and sifted 
orecze used near London for the same purpose. 6. Composition of firo 
clay; mode of making the Dinas fire brick. 7. Fire clay generally 
mixed with burnt clay, broken crucibles, &c. 8. Enumeration of prin- 
cipal localities where fire bricks are made ; relative cost of Windsor, 
Welch, and Stourbridge fire bricks. 9. Bricks made of refractory clay, 
ia/iYf^ rather than burnt. 10. Composition of fusible earths. 11. London 
bricks not made of clay, but of loams and marls. 12. Bricks may be 
divided into two classes, hahccl and hurnt ; difficulties in treating the 
fusible earths. 13. Catting bricks made from sandy loams, eitlicr natural 
or artificial. 14. Colour depends not on the natural colour of the clay, 
but upon its chemical composition. 15. Bricks might be made of various 
colours by the employment of metallic oxides. 16. Floating bricks. 
17. Unsoiliug. 18. Clay digging and iceathering. 19. Stones must be 
picked out by hand ; injurious effect of limestone in the clay. 20. Grind- 
ing. 21. IFashing. 22. Cutters made of washed earth mixed with sand. 
23. Sufficient attention not generally paid to the preparation of brick- 
earth. 

Temperi^-o. (Pages 25—28.) 

24. Object of tempering ; is effected in various ways ; treading, grind- 
ing, pugging, 2-5. Briclcmaking on the Nottingham and Grantham 

railway. 26. Use of the pug-mill. 

MouLDiNO. (Pages 28—35.) 

27. Slop moulding and pallet moulding. 28. Description of sli)p 
moulding. 29. Description of pallet moulding. 30. Description of 
moulding table. 31. Brick moulds, their varieties. 32. Diiferenee in 
rate of production per stool, according to the process employed. 33. Slop 
and pallet moulding sometimes combined. 34. Moulding by machinery. 
35. Disadvantages of dense bricks. 36. Method invented by Mr. Prosscr 
of moulding in the dry state. 37. Defects of pressed bricks. 38. Dif- 
ficulties in making moulded bricks, arising from warping in the kiln. 
39. Dimensions of bricks. 40. Bricks made of various shapes in country 
yards, but not generally in London. 41. Bricks with hollow beds. 
42. Ventilating bricks. 

Drying. (Pages 35—38.) 

43. Slop-moulded bricks dried on flats, and liacked under cover. 
44. Bricks hacked in the open air where brickmaking is conducted on a 
large scale. 45. Clamp bricks hacked at once, and not dried on flats. 
46. Recapitulation of differences between slop moulding and pallet 
mouldirg. 47. Different clays require different treatment. 

BunNiNO. (Pages 38—42.) 

48. Bricks burnt in clamps and in /ciliis. 49. Peculiarities of clamp 
burning. 50. Three classes of kilns. 51. Management of a kiln. 
52. Impossible in a rudimentary tix'atisc to describe all the proecssei> 



CONTENTS. IX 

II. Tiles. (Pages 42— 47.) 

53. Differences in the manufacture of bricks and tiles, 54. Three 
classes of tiles, viz., paving (tics, roofing tiles, and draining tiles. 55, 
Business of a tilery includes the making of pottery. 56. Tiles burnt ia 
the countiy together with bricks ; in London in separate kihis. 57. Drain- 
ing-tiles principally moulded by machinery. 58. Importance of making 
di-ain tiles a /lome manufaeture. 59. Concluding observations. 



CHAPTER II. 

ON THE MANUFACTURE OF BRICKS AND TILES IN 
HOLLAND. BY HYDE CLARKE, C.E. 

I. Bricks. (Pages 47— 48.) 

Bricks extensively used in Ilolland. — Dutch clinkers made at Moor, 
near Gouda. — Materials for making them; — river slime and sand; 
localities from whence obtained. — For Flemish bricks the sand is brought 
from the river Scheldt. — The slime and sand are mixed and kneaded 
together by treading. — Dimensions of paving bricks and Dutch clinlvs. — 
House bricks and tiles made at Utrecht from brick-earth formd in the 
neiKhbourhood. — Dimensions of house bricks. 



II. Brick-kilns. (Pages 48 — 51.) 

Sometimes made to burn upwards of a million of bricks. — Fii'c holes 
left in the side walls. — Doorway made in the breadth of the kiln. — Sheds 
erected on each side of the kiln to shelter the fii'es.— ^Mode of setting the 
kiln. — Mode of filing. 

III. Tiles. (Page 52.) 

Varieties of tiles made in Ilolland. — Clay ground in a pug-mill. — 
Kueaded by women before moulding. — Two moulders, viz., a rough 
moulder and a finisher. — Tiles diied tirst in sheds and afterwards in the 
sun. — Moulding of flat paving tiles. — Iron moulds used in Switzerland. 



IV, TiLE-KiLNS. (Pages 53—55.) 

Tiles burnt in covered kilns with arched furnaces. — Setting. — Burn- 
ing. — Cooling. — Mode of giving a grey colour. — Glazing. — Utrecht the 
principal seat of the tile manufactui-e. — Gouda celebrated for pottery and 
tobacco-pipes. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER III. 

BiaCKJIAKING AS PRACTISED AT NOTTINGHAM. 

(Pages 55—59.) 

1. Peculiarities in manufacture of bricks near Nottingham. 2. Use 
of brass moulds not confined to Nottingham. 3. Object of crmhiiig the 
brick-earth between rollers. 4. Advantages and disadvantages of the 
use of rollers. 5. Description of brickmaking at Nottingham applies, 
^vith slight variations, to the practice of the neighbouring counties. 
6. Brick-earth from the marls of the new red sandstone ; abounds with 
layers of skerry and veins of gypsum. 7. Colour of Nottingham bricks. 
8. Common bricks made without picking the clay. 9. Preparation of 
clay for making front bricks. 10. ilanufacture of rubbers. 11. Clay 
at Nottingham not generally suited for making roofing tiles. 1 2. Size 
of old and modem bricks. 

General Arrangemext or .\ Brickwork. 

(Pages 59—80.) 

13. Locality of existing yards. 14. Eental and cost of clay. 15. Ar- 
rangement of buildings. 16. Description of clay-mill. 17. Addition of 
a setond set of rollers a great improvement. 18. Keference to engravings 
of clay-mill ; mode of boxing up the machinery. 19. Improvement to 
conceal machinery. 20. Duty performed. 21. Length of time a clay- 
mill will remain in working condition. 22. Description of Wash-mill. 
23. The PMi7-»ii7/ not used at Nottingham. 2\. Moulding sand. 25. Mould- 
ing table, description of. 26. Brick mould, description of. 27. Use of 
copper moulds confined to small articles. 28. Mould placed on the 
moulding table and not upon a stock-boaid. 29. Plane, description of. 
30. The Flats, how prepared; size of. 31. The Hovel, description of; 
sometimes provided with flues. 32. Best bricks dried wholly under cover 
in fined hovels. 33. The Clapper, description of; use of. 34. Dressing 
bench and dresser. 35. Machinery for pressing bricks ; points to be 
attained in making machinery. 36. Machine-pressed bricks cheaper than 
those dressed by hand. 37. Kiln, detailed description of. 38. Difierent 
mode of constructing the walls. 39. Comparison of the two moth -ids. 
40. Reference to engravings. 41. Stops to the tops of the kilns. 42. Sizes 
of kilns. 43. Duration of kilns. 

Process of Brickmaking. (Pages 80 — 87.) 

44. Claij dinging. A5. Tempering. 46. Cost of. 47. J/omWi'w^, descrip- 
tion of process. 48. Drying ; laying on flats; hacking. 49. Time 
that should be allowed for drying'. 50. Cost of mouldimg and drying. 
51. Tressed bricks. [2. Folishcd bricks. 63. Size of brick-moulds. 
54. Rate of production. 55. Burning; management of the firing. 
56. Cost of fuel. 57. Effect of the fire upon the colour of the bricks. 
58. Cost of setting and drawing the kiln. 59. Cost of labour in firing. 
60. Enumeration of the varieties of britksvare manufactured at Not- 
*vagham, 



CVSTESIS. XI 

Cost of MAxrFAcrvRE. (Pages S7— 94.) 

61. Land and brick-earth ; difficulty of estimating rental ; cost of clay. 
62. Buildings and machinery ; difficijlty of ascertaining best relative 
sizes of \rorking floors, horels, and kilns. 63. Approximate estimate of 
extent of buildings and plant required for a weekly production of 46,800. 
64. Additional biiildings required in a yard, where all kinds of brickware 
are made. 65. Enumeration of iooJs required. 66. labour, how paid 
for. 67. Summary of cost of production. 68. Eelatire value of dif- 
ferent qualities of bricks. 69. Seferenre to Ulustiationa, figs. 1 to 18. 



CHAPTEE IT. 

BRICKMAKIXG AS PRACTISED IN THE STAFFORDSHIRE 
POTTERIES. BY R. PROSSER, C.E. 

Bricks. (Pages 95—96.) 

1. ^/-iV^-s ; enumeration of kinds of brick manufactured. 2. Drab bricka 
chiefly used for furnace work. 3. Tiles. 4. Clay. 5. Xames of strata 
in the pottery district. 6. Two examples given of the process of brick 
and tile making. 

First Example — Brick:xiaki>"g. (Pages 97 — 101.) 

7. Buildings and plant. 8. Hates of production. 9. Tempering. 10. 
Moulding. 11. Drying. 12. Loss of weight whilst drying. 13. Burn- 
ing. 14. Cost of manufacture. 15. Rental. 

Desckiptiok of Illistratioxs. (Pages 102 — 105.) 

16. Clay-null. 17. Moulding table. 18. Brick mould. 19. The oven 
or cupola. 

Second Example — TiLE->LVK.rxG. (Pages 105 — 111.) 

20. Enumeration of articles made at Basford. 21. Weathering and 
tempering. 22. Moulding. 23. Drying. 24. The Set. 25. Quarries and 
Dust Bricks. 26. Drain tilei. 27. Tile machines. 28. Tiring; detailed 
description of. 29. Selling prices of difi"erent articles. 

Descriptiox of IllvstpvAtioxs. (Pages 111 — 117.) 

30. Moulding bench. 31. Mode of drying tiles. 32. Tile-block and 
horse. 33. Mode of setting lower part of oven. 34. Mode of setting 
upper part of oven. 35. Desirability of improving the mode of conduct- 
ing the manufacture of bricks. 36. Expense of carriage. 37. Analysis 
of clays, &c. 



Xll CONTEXTS. 

Bbicsuakcco on the Socth Stajtokdsbibe Railway. 

(Pages 117—119.) 

38. Bricks made for this line Ly Mr. George Bro\m, of "Walsall Wood. 
— Material not clay, but marl. — Description of strata. — Description 0/ 
processes employed.-— Cost of bricks at the kiln. 



CHAPTER Y. 

BRICEMAKIXG IX THE VICIXITY OF LONDON. 

(Page 119.) 

1. Subject divided into three heads. 

I. ^L\TERiALS ANT) Plaxt. (Poges 119—133.) 

2. Brick -earth divided into three qualities. Z. Strong clay. i. Loom. 
b. MaJin. 6. Different modes of preparation. 7. Object of adding chalk. 
8. Soil. 9. Sand. 10. General arrangement of a BricJitcork. 11. ChaLt 
and Clay MU!s. 12. The Fuo-mUl. 13. The'CuckhoM. 14. The Mould- 
ing Stool. \o. The Brick Mould. \^. The Stock-board. \1. The Strike 
and Pallets. 18. Tlu Hack Barrow. 19. The Sack Ground. 

II. Process of ^Iaxvpactciie. (Pages 138 — 158.) 

20. Claij digging. 21. Quantity of clay rcqiiired per 1,000. 22. 
Maiming. 23. Soiling. 24. Tempering. 25. Tugging. 26. Moulding. 
27. Hacking. 28. Clamping, requires skill. 29. General principles of. 
30. Foundation. 31. Upright. 32. Xecks. 33. Firing. 34. Breeze. 
35. Proportion required depends on the nature of the clay. 36. Time 
allowed for burning. 3". Upright and Outside. 38. Variations in the 
mode of clamping. 39. Table of the qualities and prices of bricks made 
for the London market. 40. Brickmaking at Chtshunt. 41. Brick- 
making practised generally all round London. 

III. Cost of Maxtfacttbe. (Page 150.) 

42. Cost divided imdcr three heads. 



43. Clay. 44. atnJk. 45. Sand. 46. Brceu. 47. SoU. 48. Coalt 
and icood. 49. Water. 



Matebuls a>d Fuel. (Pages 159—161.) 

. 45. Sand. 46. Brceu. 47. Soil. 48. Coalt 

3Iachi>iby and Tools. (Page 161.) 
50. Cost of plant. 

Labour. (Page 162.) 
61. Details of cost. 



CONTENTS. xiii 

BuiCKMAKIXG AT THE COPENHAGEN TuNNEL, ON THE GrEAT 

Northern Eatlway. (Pages 162 — 164.) 
Description of rollers, drying sheds, and kilns. 

Reference to Illustrations. (Pages 164— 1G7.) 
52 to 59. Description of figures 1 to 21. 



CHAPTER VI. 

LONDON TILERIES. 

Introductory. (Pages 167 — 169.) 

1. The present chapter confined to a description of the manufacture of 
pantiles. 2. List of principal articles made at the London Tileries. 

Buildings and Plant. (Pages 170 — 183.) 

3. Pug-mill. 4. Sling. 5. The Moulding Shed. 6. The Pantile Table. 
7. The Block and Stock-hoard. 8. The Tile Mould. 9. The Poll. 
10. The Washing-off Table. 11. The Splager. 12. The Thwacking 
Frame. 13. The Tile Kiln. 

Process of Manufacture. (Pages 183 — 186.) 

14. Clay getting and weathering. 15. Tempering. 16. Slinging. 
17. Moulding. 18. Thwacking. 19. Kilning. 



Cost of Manufacture. (Pages 186 — 188.) 

;ost. 21. Selling prices. 22. Differe 
le manufacture of various articles. 

23. Description of Illustrations. (Pages 188 — 189.) 



20. Tabular view of cost. 21. Selling prices. 22. Differences in the 
processes employed in the manufacture of various articles. 



CHAPTER Yll. 

ON THE MANUFACTURE OF ENCAUSTIC TILES. 

(Pages 189—191.: 

1. Eevival of the manufacture of encaustic tiles. 2. Difficultk's 
ariaing from the unequal shrinkage of differently-coloured clays. 

Process of Manufacture. (Pages 191 — 195.) 

3. Clay. 4. Moulding. 5. Inlaying. 6. Drying, firing, and glazing. 
7. Manufactui-e of tcssercc. 8. Tessclated pavements. 



XX7 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTEE YIII. 

ON THE MANUFACTURE OF BRICKS AND DRAlN-l'U'ES HV 
MACHEN'ERi'. (Pages 195—209.) 

Object to deal with principles rather than with minute details. Various 
patents for making tricks by machinery. Description of Oates's brick- 
making machine. Crushing strength of bricks made by this machine. 
Machine can utilise materials unser^-iceable to the haind brickmaker. 
Cost of machine. Description of drain-pipe making machine. Hollow 
bricks also made by it. Various forms of hollow bricks. 



CHAPTEE IX. 

ADDITION.AL REMARKS ON THE M.^NUFACTURE OF BRICKS 
BY MACHINERY. (Pages 210-244) 

By Robert Mallet, A.M., F.E.S. 

Improvements in brickmaking since 1863. 'Wliitehead's improved clay 
cnishing and grinding roller-mill. Whitehead's pug-mill. Whitehead's 
perforated pug-mill. Portable clay-mill. Composite machines, in which 
crushing rollers and horizontal pug-nuUs are combined. Brickmaking 
machines, by Whitehead, M. Jardin, Clayton & Co. Machine for 
working with plastic clay. Brick-pressing machines, by Longley, 
Whitehead, and Bradley and Craven. Dry-clay brickmaking machines, 
by Hersiy and Walsh, Bradley and Craven, and Wilson of Campbell- 
field. Tile-making machines, by Page & Co., and Whitehead. Hoffiuann'a 
brick-kiln. 



APPENDIX I. 

By Charles Tomlinson, F.R.S. 

(Pages 245— 261. ^ 

On the plasticity and odour of clay. On diying bricks. On the use ol 
ccal-dust in making clamp bricks. Brickmaking at Great Grimsby. 
Brickmaking in Suffolk. On the making and burning of drain-tiles. 



APPENDIX II. 

By Rofert Mallet, A.M., F.R.S. 

(Pages 262—272.) 

The science of brickmaking. CJoloured bricks. Infusorial sUiceoui 
materials. Plasticity and odour of clay. Water chemically combined o< 
mechanically present. 






RUDIMENTS 



kWY OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



INTRODUCTION. 

I. It would 1)6 impossible, in a little volume like the 
present, to enter at any length upon the early history 
of the Art of Brickmaking, nor would such an investi- 
gation, however interesting in a historical point of view, 
add much to our practical knowledge of the subject. 
It is, however, desii'able that we should give a few par- 
ticulars relative to the progress of the manufacture in 
this country ; and we propose at the same time to give 
a brief sketch of the legal restrictions which have been 
imposed from time to time upon the mode of conduct- 
ing the operations of the brickmaker. 

II. The use of brick as a building material, both burnt 
and unburnt, dates from a very early period. Burnt 
brick is recorded in the Bible to have been used in the 
erection of the tower of Babel ; and we have the testi- 
mony of Herodotus for the fact, which is confirmed by 
the investigations of travellers, that burnt bricks, made 
from the clay thrown out of the trench surrounding 

B 



a INTRODUCTION. 

the cityj were used in building the walls of tlie city of 
Babylon. These very ancient bricks were of three 
kinds ; one of which was very similar to the modern 
Avhitc Sufiblk bricks^ and another to the ordinary red 
brick of the present day. 

Sun-dried bricks were extensively used in ancient 
times, especially in Egypt, where their manufacture 
was considered a degrading employment, and, as such^ 
formed the principal occupation of the Israelites during 
their bondage in Egypt after the death of Joseph. Yery 
interesting ancient representations of the processes 
employed are still in existence, and throw much light 
on various passages of Scripture. Thus, the passage 
in Psalm Ixxxi. C, '^I removed his shoulder from the 
burden; his hands were delivered from the (ivater) 
pots," is strikingly illustrated by pictures still preserved 
to us, in Avhich labourers are carrying the tempered 
clay on their shoulders to the moulders, whilst others 
are engaged in carrying vessels of water to temper the 
clay. The Egyptian sun-dried bricks were made with 
clay mixed with chopped straw, which was furnished to 
the Israelites by their Egyptian taskmasters before the 
application of Moses to Pharaoh on their behalf, after 
which the obligation was laid on them to provide their 
own straw, which appears to have been a grievous addi- 
tion to their labour. It would appear from the details 
given, that the Israelites worked in gangs, under the 
superintendence of an overseer of their own nation, 
who was provided with all necessary tools and mate- 
rials, and who was personally responsible for the labour 
of the gangs. 

Burnt bricks were, howererj also used in Egypt for 
river walls and hydraulic works, but, probably, not to 
any very great extent. 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

It is recorded in 2 Samuel xii. 31. that David put 
tlie cliildren of Ammon under saws^ and harrow s^ and 
axes of iron, and made them pass through the brick- 
kiln : without entering on the question whether the 
Ammonites were made to labour in the brickfields as 
the Israelites had themselves previously done during 
the time of their bondage in Egypt, or whether we are 
to understand that they were put to death with horrible 
tortures, as supposed by most commentators, there is 
a strong presumption that the implements here spoken 
of in connection with the brick-kiln were employed in 
the preparation of the clay ; and if this view be correct, 
the passage is interesting as evidence of the use of 
machinery in making bricks at a very early period of 
history. 

III. The Romans used bricks, both burnt and ua- 
burnt, in great profusion ; all the great existing ruins 
at Rome being of brick. At the decline of the Roman 
Empire, the art of brickraaking fell into disuse, but 
was revived in Italy after the lapse of a few centuries. 
The mediaeval ecclesiastical and palatial architecture of 
Italy exhibits many fine specimens of brickwork and 
ornamental work in terra-cotta; cornices and other 
decorations of great beauty being executed in the 
latter material. 

IV. In Holland and the Netherlands, the scarcity of 
stone led, at an early period, to the extensive use of 
brick, not only for domestic but for ecclesiastical build- 
ings, and these countries abound in fine specimens of 
brickwork, often in two colours, combined with great 
taste, and producing a very rich effect, as in the cele- 
brated examples at Leeuwarden in Friesland. ■ It is 
worthy of remark, that in the fens of Lincolnshire and 
Norfolk, where we should naturally liave expected to 

B 2 



4 INTRODrCTIOX. 

have found the same material made use of, the churches, 
many of -which are exceedingly fine specimens of archi- 
tecture, are built of small stones, said to have been 
brought from a great distance on pack-horses. 

V. Brickmaking appears to have been introduced 
into England by the Romans, who used large thin 
bricks or wall tiles as bond to their rubble construc- 
tions ; and such wall tiles continued to be used in 
England until rubble work was superseded by regular 
masonry, about the time of the Norman Conquest. 
Brick does not appear to have come into general use as 
a building material until long afterwards. 

In the reign of Henry VIIL, however, the art of 
brickmaking had arrived at great perfection, and the 
remains of many buildings erected about this time 
exhibit some of the finest known specimens of oma- 
mental brickwork. 

The following is a list of some of the principal brick 
buildings erected at the period of which we speak : — 

VXytE. WHEX BOLT. 

Horetmonceaax Castle, Sussex . Early in the reig^i of Ilcnry VL 

Gate of the Bjehouse in Hertfordshire Ditto. 

Tanershall Castle, Lincolnshire . . a.d. 1440. 

Lollards* Tower, Lambeth Palace . ad. 1454. 

Oxborongh Hall, Norfolk . . . About x.v. 1482. 

Gatc-wav, Rf-c!on-, Hadleigh, Suffolk . Close of loth centurr. 

Old part of Hampton Court . . ad. 1514. 

HengraTe Hall, Suffolk . . . Finished a. d. 1538. 

Manor House, at East Barsham, Norfolk During the reign of Henry VIL 

Thorpland Hall, Norfolk . . . Ditto. 

Parsonage Hcase,Great Snoring, Norfolk During the reign of Henrj- VIH. 

Many of these buildings have been engraved in Pugiu's 
" Examples of Gothic Architecture," to which we would 
refer the reader. The decorative details of the Manor 
House at East Barsham, and of the Parsonage House 
at Great Snoring, are particularly worthy of notice ; 



INTRODUCTION. 

the panelled friezes^ cornices, and other ornamental 
work, being constructed of terra-cotta moulded to the 
required form. The use of terra-cotta for decorative 
panels and bas-reliefs appears to have been common 
during the reign of Henry VIII. The gateway of 
York Place, Whitehall, designed by Holbein, was de- 
corated with four circular panels, which are still pre- 
served at Hatfield Peveril, Hants. 

The gateway of the Rectory in Hadleigh churchyard 
is very similar in character to that at Oxborough Hall, 
engraved in Pugin's work, above referred to. It has 
been lately restored very carefully, the terra-cotta work 
for the purpose being made at the Layham Kilns, near 
Hadleigh, in moulds of somewhat complicated con- 
struction. 

In the time of Queen Elizabeth, brick seems only to 
have been used in large mansions, rCl common build- 
ings, timber framework, filled in with lath and plaster, 
was generally used, and this construction was much 
employed, even when brickwork Avas in common use, 
the brickwork, up to a late period, being merely intro- 
duced in panels between the wooden framing. 

VI. On the rebuilding of London after the great fire 
of 1666, brick was the material universally adopted for 
the new erections, and the 19th Car. II. c. 11, regu- 
lated the number of bricks in the thickness of the walls 
of the several rates of dwelling-houses. One of the 
resolutions of the corporation of the city of London, 
passed about this time, is interesting ; it is as follows : — 
" And that they (the surveyors) do encourage and give 
directions to all builders, for ornament sake, that the 
ornaments and projections of the front buildings be of 
rubbed bricks; and that all the naked parts of the walls 
may be done of rough bricks, neatly wrought, or all 



INTRODUCTION. 

rubbed, at the direction of the builder, or that the 
builders may otherwise enrich their fronts as they 
please." 

Much of the old brickwork still remaining in London^ 
in buildings erected at the end of the 17th and be- 
ginning of the 18th century, is very admirably executed. 
The most remarkable feature of the brickwork of this 
period is the introduction of ornaments carved with the 
chisel. A fine example of this kind of work is shown 
in the Frontispiece,* which is a sketch of 'So. 43, St. 
Martin's Lane, one of a block of houses built by a 
person of the name of ^lay, who about the same time 
erected Clay's Buildings, to which the date of 1739 is 
affixed. The house in question is said to have been 
intended by Mr. jNIay for his own residence. Its deco- 
rations consist of two fluted Doric pilasters, supporting 
an entablature, the avIioIc executed in fine red brick- 
work ; the mouldings, flutings, and ornaments of the 
metopes having been carved with the chisel after the 
erection of the walls. f 

A'll. It w^as not till the close of the last century that 
bricks were subjected to taxation. The 21th Geo. III. 
c. 21', imposed a duty of 25. Gd. per thousand on bricks 
of all kinds. By the 34th Geo. III. c. 15, the duty was 
raised to 45. per thousand. By the 43rd Geo. III. c. G9, 
bricks were divided into common and dressed bricks, 
and separate rates of duty were imposed on each kind. 
These duties and those on tiles were as follows : — 

* The author is indchtcd to the kindness of Mr. Edis for tliis sketch of 
one of the most interesting sjicciincns of ornamental brickwork in the 
mctrorolis. 

T This fact was discovered some years ago, wheu the house waa 
imdcrt^oing a thorough repair, and the scaffolding afforded facilities for a 
close inspection of the ornamentation. Cast terra-cotta imitations of 
carved stone for architectural decoration were sent by Mr, Blanchard to 
the Exhibition of 1851, and were strongly recommended in the Jury 
licfort, Class XXYIII, 



liNTRODUCTlON. / 

SCHEDULE (A)— DUTIES. 

BEICKS AKD TILES. 

£ V. d. 

For cveiy tliousand bricks which shall be made in Great Bri- 
tain, not exceeding any of the following dimensions, tliat 
is to say, ten inches long, three inches thick and five inches 
wide 050 

For every thousand of bricks which shall be made in Great 
Britain exceeding any of the foregoing dimensions . . 10 

For every thousand of bricks which shall be made in Great 
Britain, and which shall be smoothed or polished on one or 
more side or sides, the same not exceeding the superficial 
dimensions of ten inches long by five inches wide . . 12 

For every hundred of such last-mentioned bricks, exceeding 7 The duiies on 
the aforesaid superficial dimensions ... J pa\iug-tilcs. 

For every thousand of plain tiles which shall be made in 

Great Britain 4 10 

For every thousand of pan or ridge tiles which shall be made 

in Great Britain 12 10 

For every hundred of paving tiles which shall be made in 

Great Britain not exceeding ten inches square . . .025 

For every hundred of paving tiles whicli shall be made in 

Great Britain exceeding ten inclics square . . . 4 10 

For every thousand tiles which shall be made in Great Bri- 
tain, other than such as are hereinbefore enumerated or 
described, by whatever name or names such tiles are or may 

be called or known 0410 

N.B. — The said duties on bricks and tiles to be paid by the maker 
or makers thereof respectively. 

Bv the 3rd William IV. c. 11 (1833), the duties on 
tiles* were wholly repealed, and two years afterwards 
the duty on bricks was again raised, making the duty 
on common bricks 55. lOd. per thousand. 

The brick duties formed the subject of the 18tli 
Report of the Commissioners of Excise Enquiry, 1836; 
and in 1839 these duties were repealed by the 2nd and 
3rd Vict. c. 24, and a uniform duty of 5^. 10^/. per thou- 

* By a curious oversight, this Act, whicli was intended to put roofiny 
tiles on the same footing as slates, also repealed the duties on paving tiles, 
whilst briclis used for paving remained sul)jcct to duty as before. Tliue 
a lump of clay put into a mould of 10 in. X 5 in. X 3 paid duty, but the 
same qiiantiiy of clay put into a mould 10 in. square was duty free, because 
it came under the denomination of a tile. The manufacturer, and nr ' 
the public, reaped the advantage thus given 



o INTRODUCTION. 

sand imposed on all bricks of -ohich the cubic content 
did not exceed 150 cubic inches^ without any distinc- 
tion as to shape or quality. 

Till. The ncTT Act Avas a great boon to the public 
as well as to the trade, as, in consequence of the removal 
of the restrictions on shape, bricks might be made to 
any required pattern ; and moulded bricks for cornices, 
plinths, string-courses, &c., could be manufactured at 
a moderate price. Under the old regulations, also, the 
brickmaker was precluded from correcting any defect 
which might arise from warping or twisting in the 
process of drying, without making himself liable to pay 
the higher rate of duty. In 1850 the duty ou bricks 
was entirely repealed. 

IX. The number of bricks annually made iu Great 
Britain is very great ; just before the duty was repealed, 
a charge was made on about 1,800,000,000 bricks 
annually. In 1854 the number manufactured was 
estimated to be over 2,000,000,000, of which about 
130,000,000 were made in the brickfields in and 
around Manchester, and about a similar number by 
the London brickmakers. The weight of this annual 
produce is upwards of 5,400,000 tons, representing 
a capital employed probably exceeding £'2,000,000. 
Comparatively few bricks are made in Scotland, on 
account of the abundance of stone in that country. 
Those who are not practically connected with engineer- 
ing works may find some difficulty in forming a clear 
conception of the immense number of bricks annually 
made for railway purposes ; and which may be roughly 
estimated at from GOO to 800 millions annually. In 
1821, before the introduction of the railway system, 
the number of bricks charged M'ith duty in England 
and Scotland amounted to 913,231,000. * In 1831 the 



INTRODUCTION, 3 

number was 1,153^048,581. In 1840 the number rose 
to 1,725,628,333. 

A common turnpike road bridge over a railway 
requires for its construction, in round numbers, 300,000 
bricks ; and the lining of a railway tunnel of ordinary 
dimensions consumes about 8,000 for every yard in 
length, or in round numbers about 14,000,000 per 
mile. 

X. The processes employed in the manufacture of 
bricks differ very greatly in various parts of the country. 
In some districts the clay is ground between rollers, 
and the pugmili is never used. In others, both rollers 
and pugmills are employed. In the neighboui'hood of 
London the clay is commonly passed through a wash- 
mill. Equal differences exist in the processes of mould- 
ing and drying. Lastly, the form of the kiln varies 
greatly. In many places the common Dutch kiln is 
the one employed. In Essex and Suffolk the kilns have 
arched furnaces beneath their floors; in Staffordshire 
bricks are fired in circular domed ovens called cupolas ; 
whilst near London kilns are not used, and bricks are 
burnt in clamps, the fuel required for their vitrifica- 
tion being mixed up with the clay in the process of 
tempering. 

XI. Bricks vary very much in their strength, a point 
to which, although of considerable importance, very little 
attention is paid. There is a striking difference in this 
respect between modern and ancient bricks ; a differ- 
ence very much in favour of those made centuries ago; 
and, perhaps, the weakest bricks made are supplied by 
London makers. In some experiments by 'Mv. Hawkes 
(a detailed account of which is given in the Builder 
for 1861) it was found that of thirty-five kinds of bricks 
which were tested, the average strength of the strongest 

B 3 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

was 2j8o5 lbs. ; of those of medium tenacity, 2,125 lbs. ; 
and of those of least strength, 1557 lbs. These bricks 
were of the ordinary form^ and varied in thickness from 
325 to 1'7 inches. It was also found that the thinner 
kinds of bricks were proportionally stronger than 
those which were thicker ; the greatest, mean, and least 
strengths of the former being respectively 4,088 lbs., 
2,054. lbs., and 2,070 lbs. 

In comparing weight with strength, it was found 
tliat the average weight of twenty-five bricks from dif- 
ferent districts, was 7*85 lbs., and that the heaviest 
bricks were usually the strongest. The results of the 
following experiments are calculated according to a 
uniform standard : — Tipton blue bricks, weighing 10 lbs., 
gave 5,555 lbs., 3,975 lbs., and 2,801 lbs., as the 
greatest, mean, and least degree of strength. Boston 
bricks, weighing 988 lbs., gave 4,133 lbs., 3,198 lbs., 
and 2,616 lbs., as the value of the same items. Roman 
hypocaust tiles from the ancient city of Uriconium, 
near 'V^'roxetcr, gave 4,670 lbs., 3,567 lbs., and 
2,630 lbs. The Leeds bricks, weighing 9- 17 lbs., 
gave 4,133 lbs., 3,198 lbs., and 2,616 lbs. Dutch 
clinkers, with a weight of only 6'56 lbs., gave the respec- 
tive strength of 4,006 lbs., 3,345 lbs., and 2,542 lbs. 
This is an exception to the general result of the heaviest 
bricks being the strongest. Lastly, the lightest London 
bricks, weighing 6*19 lbs., gave 1,496 lbs., 998 lbs., and 
366 lbs. The experiments also gave evidence of the 
fact that bricks were unable to sustain for any length 
of time a weight considerably less than that which was 
originally required to break them ; for example, a Bal- 
timore brick, which required 850 lbs. to break it, car- 
ried a weight of 735 lbs. for ten hours only, and then 
broke. It must be borne in mind that the second 



IXTRODUCTIO.V. 11 

result is represented in terms of the whole brick, for 
the sake of rendering the comparison more easy, 
although, of course, the experiment could only be made 
on the half brick. 

XII. Now that machine-made bricks are getting 
into general use, notwithstanding that some opposition 
has been made to their introduction, the following 
table may be interesting. It is a report of the results 
of some experiments on hand-made and machine-made 
bricks, with Messrs. Burton and Co.^s hydraulic press. 
All the bricks were bedded upon a thickness of felt, 
and laid upon an iron-faced plate. 

Pressure to crack. Pressure to crush, 

tons. tons. 

Good London grey Stocks . . . 1200 . . . U-00 

Best paviours to be got ... 1400 . . . 23-00 

Bed bricks, not fully bunit . . . 13-75 ... 25 05 

Ditto, ordinary quality .... 1300 . . . 26-25 

Three white bricks made by Cl&y- ) ,» „. ., n- 

ton and Co. s machineiy . j 

Ditto, second best, with four bricks 1625 . . . 41-00 

In the following pages we have described at con- 
siderable length the practice of brickmaking as carried 
on in Nottinghamshire, Staffordshire, Suffolk, and in 
the neighbourhood of London j and although the prac- 
tice of almost every county presents some local pecu- 
liarity, the reader who has carefully gone through these 
accounts will be enabled to understand the object of 
any processes not here described, and to form a toler- 
ably correct judgment as to whether the process of 
manufacture in any district is conducted in a judicious 
manner; or whether the brickmaker has merely fol- 
lowed the practices handed down bv lis predecessors 
without any consideration as to the possibility of im- 
proving upon them. Before, however, enteriuj^ npon 
the practical details of the subject, it is necessarj '.hat 



12 RUDTMEXTS OF THE 

the reader should have some knowledge of the general 
principles of brickmaking, and of the nature of the 
processes employed; and these we shall proceed to 
consider in the following chapter. 



CHAPTER I. 



V 



GE>'EK^VL PrJNCIPLES OF THE MANLTACTURE OF 
BRICKS AND TILES. 

1. BRICKS. 

1. Tl.j- whole of the operations of the brickmaker 
may be classed under five heads^ viz. : — 

\ preparation of brick earth. 
■;! Tempering. 

•^ ^Moulding. 

^ Drying. 
V- Burning. 

We propose in this chapter to describe these opera- 
tions one by one, pointing out the object to be effected 
by each, and comparing at the same time the different 
processes employed in various parts of this country for 
the same end. 

PREPARATION OF BRICK EARTH. 

2. The qualities to be aimed at in making bricks for 
building purposes may be thus enumerated : — So und- 

'^ jiesSj_thatis, freedom from cracks and flaws ; Laidaes*, 
r to enable them to withstand pressure and cross strain ; 
^ regularity of shape, that the mortar by which they are 
miited may be of uniform thickness to insure unifor- 
mity of settlement ; uniform itj:_of size, that all the 
bricks in a course may be of the same beiglit ; uni- 



^ 



ART OF MAKING BlUCKS AND TILES. 



13 



_iiw^mily of tuloui'j which is of importance only in 
ornamental work ; facili ty of cu tting, to enable the 
bricklayer to cut themTo any given shape, as required 
in executing all kinds of gauged -work; lastly, for 
furnace-work, and all situations exposed to intense 
heat, infusibility. 

3. Success in attaining the desired end depends 
chiefly on a proper selection of brick earths; their 
judicious preparation before commencing the actual 
process of brickmaking, as well as on the drying and 

jDurning of the bricks. / The other operations are 
matters of minor importance. Brickmaking may be 
viewed in two lights — as a science, and as an art. The 
former has been little studied, and is imperfectly under- 
stood ; whilst the latter has been brought to great 
perfection. 

4. The argillaceous earths suitable for brickmaking 
may be divided into three principal classes, viz. : — 

Pure clays, composed chiefly of alumina^^ndsilieii, 
but containing a small proportion of other substances — 
as iron, lime, &c.* (See Appendix II., page 263.) 

* The following analyses of various kinds of clay are given in the 
second volume of the English translation of " Knapp's Technological 
Chemistry." 





Cornish 
washed 
Kaolin. 


Stour- 
bridge fire 
clay. 


Pipeclay. 


Sandy 
clay. 


Blue clay. 


Brick 
clay. 


Silica 
Alumina 
Oxide "1 

of iron j 
Lime 
Magnesia 
Potash \ 

8c soda 
Water . 


46-32 
39-74 

0-27 

0-36 
0-44 

) 12-67 


6410 
23-15 

1-85 
0-95 

1000 


53-66 
32-00 

1-35 

0-40 
trace 

12-08 


66-68 
26-08 

1-26 

0-84 
trace 

5-14 


46-38 
38-04 

1-04 

1-20 
trace 

13-57 


49-44 
34-26 

7-74 j 

1-48 
5-14 

1-94 


99-80 


10005 


99-49 


100-00 


100-23 


100-00 



14 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

Marls, ■whicli may be described as earths coutaiiiing 
u considerable proportion of lime. 

Loams, -u-hich may be described as light sandy clays. 

l/j It very seldom happens that earths are found which 

H are suited for the purpose of brickmaking without some 

y admixture. The pure clays require the addition of 

sandj loam, or some milder earth ; whilst the loams are 

often so loose that they could not be made into bricks 

without the addition of lime to flux and bind the earth. 

Even when the clay requires no mixture^ the difference 

in the working of two adjacent strata in the same field 

is often so great that it is advisable to mix two or three 

sorts together to produce uniformity in the size and 

colour of the bricks. 

5. It appears, then, that a chemical compound of 
silica and alumina is the principal ingredient in all 
brick earth.* This silicate of alumina, or pure clay 
alone, or those clays which contain but little sand, may, 
when beaten up with water into a stiff paste, be moulded 
with great ease into any shape ; but will shrink and 
crack in drying, however carefully and slowly the ope- 
ration be conducted ; and will not stand firing, as a red 
heat causes the mass to rend and warp, although it 
becomes very hard by the action of the fire. 

The addition of any substance which will neither 
combine with water, nor is subject to contraction, greatly 
remedies these defects, whilst the plastic quality of the 
clay is not materially affected. For this reason the 
strong clays are mixed with milder earth or with sand. 
The loams and marls used for brickmaking in the 
neighbourhood of London are mixed with lime and 
sifted breeze for the same purpose, and also to effect the 
fluxing of the earth, as will be presently described. 
• Some remarks on the plajiitity of clay w ill be found iu the Afijendi* 



AUT OF MAKING BllICKS AND TILES. 15 

G. Fire clays or refractory clays are compounds of 
Bilica^ alumina^ and water, or liydrated silicates of alu- 
mina represented by tlie formula AlgO 3, 2Si03 + 2H0. 
Sucli clays owe their refractory qualities to their com- 
parative freedom from lime, magnesia, metallic oxides, 
and similar substances which act as fluxes. Pew 
clays, however, exist in nature according to this pure 
type. The composition and quality of clays in con- 
tiguous beds in the same pit, and even of clay from the 
same contiguous horizontal bed, may vary. ''If we 
compare difterent clays together in respect to elementary 
composition, we find the relation between the silica and 
alumina to be extremely variable, and accordingly, the 
formulae which have been proposed to express their 
rational constitution are very discordant. This is in 
great measure to be explained by the fact, that in many 
clays a large proportion of silica exists uncombined 
either as sand, or in a much finer state of division. 
The grittiness of a clay is due to the presence of sand.'^* 
Fire-bricks are used in those parts of furnaces where 
the heat would soon destroy ordinary bricks. They are 
made of various shapes and sizes as required, and are 
often produced, as in the iron works of South Wales, 
on the spot. The clay is ground between rolls, or under 
edge stones, and kneaded by treading. The bricks are 
made by hand in moulds ; they are carefully dried in 
stoves, and burnt at a high temperature in closed kilns. 
Burnt clay in powder is sometimes mixed with the raw 
clay. Stourbridge clay is celebrated for the manufacture 
of fine bricks, but clay from the coal-measures is also 
largely used. All these bricks have a pale brownish 
colour, but they are sometimes mottled with dark spots, 

* " irctallurgy," by John rcicy, M.D., F.R.S., Lecturer on Mctnllurgjr 
at the Goverumcnt School of Mines. London, 1861. 



16 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

whicli Dr. Percy refers to the presence of particles of 
iron pyrites. The Dinas fire-brick consists almost 
entirely of silica, the material being obtained from the 
rock of that name in the Vale of Neath. It lies on the 
limestone, and occasionally intermixes with it, and 
contains probably about 5 per cent, of calcareous matter. 
The bricks have extraordinary fire-proof qualities. The 
material had long been used as a sand, and many 
attempts ^ere made to form it into bricks, without 
success, until a method was contrived by the late Mr. 
W. TT. Young, when in 1822 a company was formed 
for the manufacture of these bricks. The mode of 
making the Dinas brick was long kept secret, but a 
number of original details concerning it are given in 
Dr. Percy's work. The material which is called clay is 
found at several places in the Vale of Xeath in the state 
of rock, and disintegrated like sand. The colour when 
dry is pale grey. The rock is crushed to coarse powder 
between iron rolls ; it softens by exposure to the air, 
but some of it is too hard to be used. '* The powder of 
the rock is mixed with about 1 per cent, of lime and 
sufficient water to make it cohere slightly by pressure. 
This mixture is pressed into iron moulds, of which two 
are fixed under one press, side by side. The mould, 
which is open at the top and bottom, like ordinary 
brick-moulds, is closed below by a moveable iron plate, 
and above by another plate of iron, -which fits in like a 
piston, and is connected with a lever. The machine 
being adjusted, the coarse mixture is put into the 
moulds by a workman, whose hands are protected by 
stout gloves, as the sharp edges of the fragments would 
otherwise \round them : the piston is then pressed 
down, after which the moveable bed of iron on which the 
brick is formed is lowered and taken away with the 



AKT OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 17 

brick upon it, as it is not sufficiently solid to admit of 
being carried in the usual manner. The bricks are 
dried on these plates upon floors warmed by flues 
passing underneath ; and ivhen dry they are piled in a 
circular closed kiln covered with a dome, similar to 
kilns in which common fire bricks are burned. About 
seven days of hard firing are required for these bricks, 
and about the same time for the cooling of the kiln. 
One kiln contains 3.2,000 bricks, and consumes 40 
tons of coal, half free-burning and half binding. The 
price (1859) is 605. the thousand/'* The fracture 
of one of these bricks shows irregular particles of quartz, 
and the lime which is added acts as a flux, causing them 
to agglutinate. These bricks expand by heat, while 
bricks made of fire clay contract. Hence they are 
useful for the roofs of reverberatory furnaces, and for 
parts where solid and compact lining is required. These 
siliceous bricks must not be exposed-^ to the actibn of 
slags rich in metallic oxides. 

7. Fire clay, being an expensive article, is frequently 
mixed with burnt clay, often as much as two parts by 
weight to one of Stourbridge clay. Broken crucibles, 
old fire bricks, and old glass-pots ground to powder are 
also mixed with fire clay. 

8. Fire clay is found throughout the coal measures, 
but that of Stourbridge is considered to be the best, as 
it will bear the most intense heat that can be produced 
without becoming fused. Next in esteem to those of 
Stourbridge are the "Welsh fire bricks, but they will not 
bear such intense heat. Excellent fire bricks arc made 
at Newcastle and Glasgow. Fire bricks are made near 
Windsor, at the village of Hedgerly, from a sandy 

• In this year bricks were much cheaper than they have been since. 



18 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

loam known by the name of Windsor loam, and much 
used in London for fire-work, and also by chemists for 
luting their furnaces, and for similar purposes. 

The relative merits of Windsor, Welsh, Stourbridge, 
and other fire bricks, are best shown by their commer- 
cial value. The following items, extracted from the 
'^ Builders' and Contractors' Price Book for 1868," 
edited by G. E. Burnell, exhibit their relative cost : — 

Per 1000. 

£ s. d. 
Windsor fire bricks . . . .54.0 

Wcljh ditto .5 4 

Stourbridge ditto 7 

Kewcastle ditto 5 5 

Alloa ditto 5 8 

Dorset ditto 4 16 

9. Bricks made of refractory clay, containing no lime 
or alkaline matter, are baked rather than burnt ; and 
their soundness and hardness depend upon the fineness 
to which the clay has been ground, and the degree of 
firing to which it has been exposed. 

10. It is very seldom that the common clays arc 
found to be free from lime and other fluxes ; and wlien 
these are present in certain proportions, the silica of 
the clay becomes fused at a moderate heat, and cements 
the mass together. Some earths are very fusible, and, 
when used for brickmaking, great care is requisite in 
firing the bricks to prevent them from running together 
in the kiln. 

11. The earths used for brickmaking near London 
arc not clays, but loams and marls. To render these 
earths fit for brickmaking, they are mixed with chalk 
ground to a pulp in a wash -mill. This eficcts a double 
purpose, for the lime not only imparts soundness to the 
bricks, acting mechanically to prevent the clay from 
shrinking and cracking, but also assists in fusing the 



ART OF MAKING BllICKS AND TILES, 19 

siliceous particles ; and Avlien present in sufficient quan- 
titjj corrects the evil effects of an overdose of sand^ as 
it takes up the excess of silica that would otherwise 
remain in an uncombined state. 

12. It -will be seen from these remarks that we may 
divide bricks generally into two classes — baked bricks 

^a^L£_ii:Qm_ the refractQiy clays^ and burnt or vitrified 
bricks made from the fusible earths. 

The fusible earths are the most difficult of treatment^ 
as there is considerable practical difficulty in obtaining 
a sufficient degree of hardness without risking the 
fusion of the bricks ; and it will be found that ordinary 
kiln-burnt bricks, made from the common clays_, are for 
the most part of inferior quality, being hard only on the 
outside, whilst the middle is imperfectly burnt, and 
remains tender. The superior quality of the London 
malm bricks, which are made from a very fusible com- 
pound, is chiefly due to the use of sifted breeze, -!= which 
is thoroughly incorporated with the brick earth in the 
pugmill, so that each brick becomes a kind of fire ball, 
and contains in itself the fuel required for its vitrifica- 
tion. In building the clamps the bricks are stacked 
close together, and not as in ordinary kiln-burning, in 
which openings are left between the bricks to allow of 
the distribution of the heat from the live holes. The 
effect of these arrangements is to produce a steady uni- 
form heat, which vitrifies the bricks without melting 
them. Those bricks which are in contact with the live 
holes or flues melt into a greenish black slag. 

13. Cutters, that is, bricks which will bear cutting 
and rubbing to any required shape, are made from 
sandy loams, cither natural or artificial. In many 

• Breeze is a casual mixture of cinders, small coal, and ashes, such as 
Is collected by the dustmen. 



20 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

districts cutters are not made, there being no suitable 
material for the purpose. Bricks made from pure clays 
containing but little silica are hard and tough, and will 
not bear cutting. 

14. We now come to the consideration of colour, 
which depends on the varying proportions of the 
hydrated oxide of iron in the clay, which change 
according to the amount of heat to which the bricks 
are subjected, and not on their natural colour before 
burning. This should be borne in mind, because brick- 
makers often speak of clays as red clay, white clay, &c., 
according to the colour of the bricks made from them, 
without any reference to their colour in the unburnt 
state. 

If iron be present in clay without lime or similar 
substances, the colour produced at a moderate red heat 
will be red, the intensity of colour depending on the 
proportion of iron. The bind or shale of the coal mea- 
sures burus to a bright clear red. If the clay be 
slightly fusible, an intense heat vitrifies the outside of 
the mass and changes its colour, as in the case of the 
Staffordshire bricks, which, when burnt in the ordinary 
way, are of a red colour, which, however, is changed to 
a greenish blue by longer firing at a greater heat. The 
addition of lime changes the red produced by the oxide 
of iron to a cream brown, whilst magnesia brings it to 
a yellow. Few clays produce a clear red, the majority 
burning of different shades of colour, varying from 
reddish brown to a dirty red, according to the propor- 
tion of lime and similar substances which they contain. 
Some clays, as the plastic clays of Suffolk, Devon- 
shire,* and Dorsetshire, burn of a clear white, as may 

* The plastic clay of Devonshire and Dorsetshire forms the basis of 
the English stone waic. It is composed of about seventy-six parts of 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 31 

be seen in the SuflFolk white bricks, which are much 
esteemed for their soundness and colour. The London 
malms have a rich brimstone tint, which is greatly 
assisted by the nature of the sand used in the process 
of moulding. 

15. By employing metallic oxides and the ochreous 
metallic earths, ornamental bricks are made of a 
variety of colours , This, however, is a branch of brick- 
making which has as yet received very little attention, 
although, with the rising taste for polychromatic deco- 
ration, it is well worthy of consideration. (See note, 
page 270.) 

Yellow clampt burnt bricks are made in the vicinity 
of the metropolis, and in other* situations where 
similar material and fuel are readily obtained. White 
bricks are made from the plastic clays of Devonshire 
and Dorsetshire, and also Cambridgeshire, Norfolk, 
Suffolk, and Essex, as well as in other counties. Red 
bricks are made in almost every part of England ; but 
the fine red or cutting brick is not generally made. 
Blue bricks are made in Staffordshire, and are much 
used in that part of England. 

Sound and well-burnt bricks are generally of a clear 
and uniform colour, and when struck together will ring 
with a metallic sound. Deficiency in either of these 
points indicates inferiority. 

16. Bricks suflficiently light to float in the water were 
known to the ancients. This invention, however, was 
completely lost until rediscovered at the close of the 

silica and twenty-four of alumina, with some other ingredients in very 
small proportions. This clay is very refractory in high heats, a property 
which, joined to its whiteness when burned, renders it peculiarly valuable 
for pottery, &c. 

* Yellow clampt burnt bricks are made at Margate, in Kent, from the 
patches of plastic clay lying in the hollows of the chalk. The older part 
of Margate is built of red bricks said to have been brought from Canter- 
bury. 



22 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

last century by !M. Fabbroni, who published an account 
of his experiments. M. Fabbroni succeeded in making 
floating bricks of an infusible earth called fossil meal^ 
which is abundant in some parts of Italy. Bricks made 
of this earth are only one-sixth of the weight of common 
clay bricks, on which account they would be of great 
service in vaulting church roofs, and for similar pur- 
poses. Ehrenberg, the eminent German microscopist, 
showed that this earth consists almost entirely of the 
frustules or siliceous skeletons of vnrious kinds of 
minute water plants. (See note, page 271.) 

Having thus briefly sketched the leading principles 
which should be our guide in the selection of brick 
earth, we will now proceed to describe the several pro- 
cesses by which it is brought into a fit state for use. 

17. Unsoilwg. — Xlie first operation is to remove the 
mould and top soil, which is wheeled away, and should 
be reserved for resoiling the exhausted workings when 
they are again brought into cultivation. In London 
the vegetable mould is called the encallow, and the 
operation of removing it, cncallowing . 

18. Clay -dig fjing and Wcatliering. — The brick earth 
is dug in the autumn, and wheeled to a level place pre- 
pared to receive it, when it is heaped up to the depth 
of^ several feet, and left jthrough the winter months to 
be mellowed by the frosts, which break up and ci'umble 
thejumps. ^SFtHe commencement of the brickmaking 
seasonTwTiich generally begins in April, the clay is 
turned over with shovels, and tempered either by spade 
labour or in the pugmill ; sufficient water being added 
to give plasticity to the mass. 

19. J)uring these oi^crations any stones which may 
be found must be carefully picked out by hand, which 
is a tedi ous and expe nsive operation, but one which 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 23 

cannot be neglected with impunity^ asjjie-^reeeace of a 
pe bble in a brick gejiprnllY rn nsps^ \% t,o pynnl^ ip ^^y^'^g:j 
anJ makes it shaky and unsound when burnt. If the 
earths to be used are much mixed with gravely the only 
remedy is to wash them in a trough filled with water, 
and provided with a grating sufficiently close to prevent 
even small stones from passing through, and by means 
of which the liquid pulp runs off into pits prepared to 
receive it, where it remains until, by evaporation, it 
becomes sufficiently firm to be used. This process is 
used in making cutting bricks, which require to be of 
perfectly uniform texture throughout their whole sub- 
stance J but it is tedious and expensive. 

In working the marls of the midland districts, much 
trouble is experienced from the veins of skerry or im- 
pure limestone with which these earths abound. If a 
small piece of limestone, no bigger than a pea, is allowed 
to remain in the clay, it will destroy any brick into 
which it finds its way. The carbonic acid is driven off 
by the heat of the kiln, and forces a vent through the 
side of tlie brick, leaving a cavity through which water 
finds its way, and the first sharp frost to which such 
a brick may be exposed generally suffices to destroy 
the face. 

20. Gi'inding. — To remedy this serious evil, cast-iron 
rollers are now generally used throughout the midland 
districts for grinding the clay and crushing the pieces 
of limestone found in it, and their introduction has 
been attended with very beneficial results. The clays 
of the coal measures contain much ironstone, which 
requires to be crushed in the same manner. 

In many yards the grinding of the clay is made to 
form part of the process of tempering, the routine being 
as follows : — clay-getting, weathering, turning over and 



^se:.- 



2i RUDIMENTS OF THE 

■wheeling to mill, grinding, tempering, and moulding. 
In Staflbrdshire the clay is not only ground, but is also 
pugged in the process of tempering, as described in 
chap, iv, art. 38 ; the routine is then as follows : — 
clay-getting, grinding, weathering, turning over, pug- 
[^ ging, moulding. 

At a well-mounted brickwork in Nottingham, belong- 
ing to Moses Wood, Esq., the clay used in making the 
best facing bricks is treated as follows : — it is first 
turned over and weathered by exposure to frost ; it is 
then again turned over, and the stones picked out by 
hand, after which it is ground between rollers set very 
close together, and then left in cellars to ripen for a 
year or more, before it is finally tempered for the use 
of the moulder. The bricks made from clay thus 
prepared are of first-rate quality, but the expense of 
the process is too great to allow of much profit to the 
manufacturer. 

21. Washing. — The preparation of brick-earth in the 
neighbourhood of London is efi'ected by processes quite 
different from those just described. For marl or malm 
bricks, the earth is ground to a pulp in a wash-mill, and 
mixed with chalk previously grouud to the consistence 
of cream ; this pulp, or, as it is technically called, 
malm, is run off through a fine grating into pits pre- 
pared to receive it, and there left, until by evaporation 
and settlement, it becomes of sufiicient consistency to 
allow a man to walk upon it. It is then soiled, i.e. 
covered with siftings from domestic ashes, and left 
through the winter to mellow. At the commencement 
of the brickmaking season the whole is turned over, 
and the ashes thoroughly incorporated with the earth 
in the pugmill. In making common bricks, the whole 
of the earth is not washed, but the unwashed clay is 



AKT OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. Si) 

heaped up on a prepared floor, and a proportion of 
liquid malm poured over it, after wliicli it is soiled iu 
the same way as for making malms. 

These processes are well calculated to produce sound, 
hard, and well-shaped bricks. The washing of the clay 
efiectually frees it from stones and hard lumps, whilst 
the mixing of the chalk and clay in a fluid state ensures 
the perfect homogeneousness of the mass, and enables 
the lime to combine with the silica of the clay, which 
would not be the case unless it were in a state of 
minute division. 

22. There are very few earths suitable in their natural 
state for making cutters. They are therefore usually 
made of washed earth mixed up with a proportion of 
sand. Without the addition of sand the brick would 
not bear rubbing, and it would be very difficult to bring 
it to a smooth face. 

23. It maybe here observed that sufficient attention 
is not generally paid to the preparation of brick-earth, 
as it too frequently happens that the clay is dug in the 
spring instead of the autumn, in which case the benefit 
to be derived from the winter frosts is quite lost. The 
use of rollers, to a certain extent, counterbalances this; 
but bricks made of clay that has been thoroughly 
weathered are sounder and less liable to warp in the 
kiln. 

TEMPERING. 

^ 24. The object of tempering is to bring the ptepared 
C brick earth into a homogeneous paste, for the use of 
^ the moulder. 

The old-fashioned way of tempering was to turn the 
clay over repeatedly with shovels, and to tread it over 
by horses or men, until it acquired the requisite plasti- 
city. This method is still practised in many country 



2G RUDIMENTS OF THE 

yards ; but where the demand for bricks is extensive, 

mnplinipry iig ^jminlly prnploypfl, the clay being eithci 

^^roMn^JbfitHeenjplIers or jugged in a pugmill. This 
latter process is also called grinding, and, therefore, in 
making inquiries respecting the practice of particular 
localities, the reader should be careful that he is not 
misled by the same name being applied to processes 
which arc essentially diflFerent. 

When rollers are used in the preliminary processes, 
the labour of tempering is much reduced. Their use is, 
however, most generally confined to the process of 
tempering, which is then effected as follows : — The clay, 
which has been left in heaps through the winter to 
mellow, is turned over with wooden shovels (water 
being added as required), and wheeled to the mill, 
where it is crushed between the rollers, and falls on a 
floor Ijclow them, where it is again turned over, and is 
then ready for use. 

When the clay is sufficiently mild and free from lime 
and ironstone as not to require crusJdng, tempering by 
spade labour and treading is generally adopted; but 
in the districts where rollers are used, the brick-earths 
are generally so indurated that a great proportion could 
not be rendered fit for use by the ordinary processes. 
The advantages and disadvantages of the use of rollers 
are considered at some length in chap. iii. art. 4. 

25. In making bricks for railway works, which has 
been done lately to an almost incredible extent, con- 
tractors are generally little anxious as to the shape or 
appearance of the article turned out of the kiln, pro- 
vided it be sufficiently sound to pass the scrutiny of the 
inspector or resident engineer. As the whole process 
of railway brickmaking often occupies but a few weeks 
from the first turning over of the clay to the laying of 



ART OF MAKING B^vV^LKS ANm TILES. 27 

the bricks in the >york, the use of rollers in such cases 
is very desirable, as a partial substitute for weathering. 
On the line of the Nottingham and Grantham Railway 
several millions of bricks have been made as follows : — 
The clay is first turned over with the spade, and watered 
and trodden by men or boys, who, at the same time, 
pick out the stones. It is then wheeled to the mill 
and ground ; after which it is turned over a second 
time, and then passed at once to the moulding table. 

26. Although in many country places, where the 
demand for bricks is very small, tempering is still per- 
formed by treading and spade labour, the pugmill is 
very extensively used near London, and in most places 
where the brick-earth is of mild quality, so as not to 
require crushing, and the demand for bricks sufficiently 
constant to make it worth while to erect machinery. 
The pugmill used near London is a wooden tub, in shape 
an inverted frustrum of a cone, with an upright revolving 
shaft passing through its centre, to which are keyed a 
number of knives, which, by their motion, cut and 
knead the clay, and force it gradually tlu'ough the mill, 
whence it issues in a thoroughly tempered state, fit for 
the use of the moulder. Some contend that the pug- 
mill is no improvement on the old system of tempering 
by manual labour; but, without entering into this ques- 
tion, there can be no doubt that it does its work very 
thoroughly, and its use prevents the chance of the tem- 
pering being imperfectly performed through the negli- 
gence of the temperers. In the London brickfields the 
process of tempering is conducted as follows : — The 
malm, or maimed brick-earth, as the case may be, ia 
turned over with the spade, and the soil* (ashes) dug 

* Soil, i.e. ashes, must not be confountlcd with soil, vegetable mould, 
which is ia some places mixed with strong clay, to render it milder. 

c 2 



28 ^uDi,y^'^;Ts of the 

into itj water being added as may be necessary. It is 
then barrowed to the pugmill, and being thrown in at 
the top, passes through the mill, and keeps continually 
issuing at a hole in the bottom. As the clay issues 
from the ejectment hole, it is cut into parallelopipedons 
by a labourer, and, if not wanted for immediate use, is 
piled up and covered with sacks to prevent it from 
becoming too dry. 

In Staffordshire steam power is used for driving both 
rollers and pugmill, and the case of the latter is usually 
a hollow cast-iron cylinder. 

MOULDING. 

27. A brick-mould is a kind of box without top or 
bottom, and the process of moulding consists in dashing 
the tempered clay into the mould with sufficient force 
to make the clot completely fill it, after which the 
superfluous clay is stricken with a strike, and the newly- 
made brick is either turned out on a drying floor to 
harden, or on a board or pallet, on which it is wheeled 
to the hack-ground. The first mode of working is 
known as slop moulding, because the mould is dipped 
in water, from time to time, to prevent the clay from 
adhering to it. The second method may be distinguished 
as jt;«//e^ moulding; and in this process the mould is 
not wetted, but sanded. These distinctions, however, 
do not universally hold good, because in some places 
slop-moulded bricks are turned out on pallets. 

28. These differences may, at first sight, appear 
trivial, but they affect the whole economy of a brick- 
work. In slop moulding the raw bricks are shifted by 
hand from the moulding table to the drying floor, from 
the drying floor to the hovel or drying shed, and from 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 29 

the hovel to the kiln. It is therefore requisite that 
the works should be laid out so as to make the distance 
to which the bricks have to be carried the shortest pos- 
sible. Accordingly,* the kiln is placed in a central 
situation in a rectangular space, bounded on two or 
more sides by the hovel, and the working floors are 
formed round the outside of the latter. 

In the process of slop moulding the newly-made brick 
is carried, mould and all, by the moulder^s boy to the 
flat, or drying floor, on which it is carefully deposited ; 
and whilst this is being done, the moulder makes a 
second brick in a second mould, the boy returning with 
the first mould by the time the second brick is being 
finished. As soon, therefore, as the floor becomes 
filled for a certain distance fi'om the moulding table, the 
latter must be removed to a vacant spot, or the distance 
to which the bricks must be carried would be too great 
to allow of the boy's returning in time with the empty 
mould. 

29. In pallet moulding but one mould is used. Each 
brick, as it is moulded, is turned out on a pallet, and 
placed by a boy on a hack-barrow, which, when loaded, 
is wheeled away to the hack-ground, where the bricks 
are built up to dry in low walls called hacks. One 
moulder will keep two wheelers constantly employed, 
two barrows being always in work, whilst a third is 
being loaded at the moulding stool. When placed on 
the barrow, it is of little consequence (comparatively) 
whether the bricks have to be wheeled 5 yards or 50 ; 
and the distance from the moulding stool to the end of 
the hacks is sometimes considerable. 

30. The moulding table is simply a rough table, made 

* There are, of course, some exceptions; but, where practicable, the 
drying floors and hovel are placed close to the kilus. 



30 RrDiMEXTs or the 

in various ways in different parts of the country, but 
the essential differences are, that for slop moulding the 
rable is furnished uith a water trough, in which the 
moulds are dipped after each time of using; whilst in 
pallet moulding, for which the mould is usually sanded 
and not wetted, the water trough is omitted, and a page 
(see account of Brickmaking as practised in London) is 
added, on which the bricks are placed preparatory to 
their being shifted to the hack-barrow. 

,31. Brick moulds are made in a variety of ways. 
Some are made of brass cast in four pieces and riveted 
together ; some are of sheet iron, cased with wood on 
the two longest sides ; and others again are made 
entirely of wood, and the edges only plated with iron. 
Drawings and detailed descriptions of each of these 
constructions are given in the subsequent chapters. lu 
using wooden moulds the slop-moulding process is 
almost necessary, as the brick would not leave the sides 
of the mould unless it were very wet. Iron moulds are 
sanded, but not wetted. Brass, or, as they are techni- 
cally called, copper moulds, require neither sanding nor 
wetting, do not rust, and are a great improvement on 
the common wooden mould formerly in general use. 
They, however, are expensive, and will not last long, as 
the edges become worn down so fast that the bricks 
made from the same mould at the beginning and end 
of a season are of a different thickness, and cannot be 
used together. This is a great defect, and a metal 
mould which will not rust nor wear is still a great desi- 
deratum. It is essential that the sides of the mould 
should be sufficiently stiff not to spring when the clay 
is dashed into it, and it is equally requisite that it 
should not be made too heavy, or the taking-off boy 
would not be able to carry it to the floor. A common 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 31 

copper mould weiglis about 4 lbs., and, with the wet 
brick in it, about 12 lbs., and this weight should not 
be exceeded. 

32. There is a great difference in the quantity of 
bricks turned out in a given time by the pallet moulding 
and by the slop moulding processes. In slop moulding 
10,000 per week is a high average, whilst a London 
moulder wiU turn out 36,000 and upwards in the same 
period. This arises in a great measure from the cir- 
cumstance that in pallet moulding the moulder is 
assisted by a clot moulder, who prepares the clot for 
dashing into the mould ; whilst in slop moulding the 
whole operation is conducted by the moulder alone. 

33. In some places the operation of moulding par- 
takes both of slop moulding and pallet moulding, the 
bricks being turned out on pallets and harrowed to the 
hack-ground, whilst the moulds are wetted as in the 
ordinary process of slop moulding. 

34. The substitution of machinery for manual labour 
in the process of moulding has long been a favourite 
subject for the exercise of mechanical talent ; but 

/ although a great number of inventions have been pa- 

■y tented, there are very few of them that can be said to 

' be thoroughly successful. The actual cost of moulding 

-7 bears so small a proportion to the total cost of brick- 

' making, that in small brickworks the employment of 

machinery would effect no ultimate saving, and, there- 

. fore, it is not to be expected that machinery will ever 

( be generally introduced for brick moulding. But in 

works situated near large towns, or in the execution of 

large engineering works, the case is very different, and 

a contractor who requires, say, 10,000,000 of bricks, to 

be made in a limited time, for the construction of a 

tunnel or a viaduct, can employ machinery with great 



32 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

advantage. A chapter on brickmaking macliines will 
be found in another part of this volume. 

35. It has been much discussed by practical men, 
f whether bricks moulded under great pressure are better 
' than those moulded in the ordinary way. They are of 

L denser texture, harder, smoother, heavier, and stronger 
than common bricks. On the other hand, it is difficult 
to dry them, because the surfaces become over-dried 
'. and scale off before the evaporation from the centre is 
( completed. Their smoothness lessens their adhesion to 
) mortar ; and their weight increases the cost of carriage, 
' and renders it impossible for a bricklayer to lay as 
many in a given time as those of the ordinary weight. 
On the whole, therefore, increased density may be con- 
sidered as a disadvantage, although, for some purposes, 
dense bricks are very valuable. 

36. !Mr. Prosser, of Birmingham, has introduced a 
method of making bricks, tiles, and other articles by 
machinery, in which no drying is requisite, the clay 
being used in the state of a nearly dry powder. The 
clay from which floor-tiles and tesserae are made is first 
dried upon a slip-kiln,* as if for making pottery, then 
ground to a fine powder, and in that state subjected to 
heavy pressure t in strong metal moulds : by this means 
the clay is reduced to one-third of its original thickness, 
and retains sufficient moisture to give it cohesion. The 
articles thus made can be handled at once, and carried 
direct to the kiln. In some experiments tried for ascer- 
taining the resistance of bricks and tiles thus made to 

• The sUp-hln is a stone trough bottomed with fire tiles, under which 
runs a furnace flue. It is used in the manufacture of potteiy for evapo- 
rating the excess of water in the slip, or liquid mixture of clay and ground 
flints, which is thus brought into the state of paste. 

t It is a common but an erroneous notion, that articles made bv Mr. 
Prosser 's process are denser than similar articles made in the common 
wav : the reverse is the fact. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 38 

a crushing force, a 9-inch brick sustained a pressure of 
90 tons without injury. 

37. Mr, Prosser's method offers great advantages for 
the making of ornamental bricks for cornices, bas- 
reliefs, floor-tiles, tesselated pavements, &c. Screw 
presses are used to a considerable extent for pressing 
bricks when partially dry, to improve their shape and 
to give them a smooth face ; but we have in many in- 
stances found pressed bricks to scale on exposure to 
frost, and much prefer dressing the raw brick with a 
beater, as described in chap. iii. art. 34. 

38. The great practical difficulty in making moulded 
bricks for ornamental work is the warping and twisting 
to which all clay ware is subject more or less in the 
process of burning. This difficulty is especially felt in 
making large articles, as wall copings, &c. In moulding 
goods of this kind it is usual to make perforations 
through the mass, to admit air to the inside, without 
which precaution it would be impossible to dry them 
thoroughly ; for, although the outside would become 
hard, the inside would remain moist, and, on being 
subjected to the heat of the kiln, the steam would crack 
and burst the whole. 

The Brighton Viaduct, on the Lewes and Hastings 
Railway, has a massive white brick * dentil cornice, the 
bricks for which were made in Suffolk after several 
unsuccessful attempts to make bricks of still larger size. 
The thickness of the bricks first proposed presenting an 
insurmountable obstacle to their being properly dried, 
their dimensions were reduced, and large perforations 
were made in each brick to reduce its weight, and to 
enable it to be more thoroughly and uniformly dried ; 

* Brick was preferred to stone on account of the expense of the lattei 
material. 

c 3 



31 RUDIMENTS OF mP. 

and by adopting this plan the design was successfully 
carried into execution. 

39. The usual form of a brick is a parallelopipedon, 
about 9 in. long, 4i in. broad, and 3 in. thick, the exact 
size varying with the contraction of the clay. The 
thickness need not bear any definite proportion to the 
length and breadth, but these last dimensions require 
nice adjustment, as the length should exceed twice the 
breadth by the thickness of a mortar joint. 

40. Bricks are made of a variety of shapes for par- 
ticular purposes, as enumerated in art. 60, chap. iii. The 
manufacture of these articles is principally carried on in 
the country, the brickfields in the vicinity of the metro- 
polis supplying nothing but the common building brick. 

41. A point of some little importance may be here 
^>dverted, to, viz., is any advantage gained by forming a 
hollow in the bed of the brick to form a key for the 
mortar ? There are various opinions on this point ; but 
we think it may be laid down as a principle, that if it is 
useful on one side it will be still better on both, so as to 
form a double key for the mortar. In London, the 
brick mould is placed on a stock board, which is made 
to fit the bottom of the mould ; and the relative positions 
of the two being kept the same, no diihculty exists in 
forming a hollow on the bottom of the brick, this being 
effected by a kick fastened on the stock board. But 
this could not be done on the i/pper side, Mhich is 
stricken level. In slop moulding, the mould is simply 
laid on the moulding stool, or on a moulding board 
much larger than the mould, and both sides of the brick 
are flush witli the edges of the mould, no hollow being 
left, unless the moulder think fit to make one by scoring 
the brick with his fingers, which is sometimes done. 
When machii\ery is used in moulding, it is equally easy 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



35 



to stamp the top aud the bottom of the brick ; and we 
have seeiij at the Butterly Ironworks, in Derbyshire, 
excellent machine-made bricks of this kind made in 
the neighbourhood. 

42. Amongst the many inventions connected with 
brickmaking which have been from time to time brought 
before the public, ventilating bricks deserve attention, 
from the facilities they afford for warming and venti- 
lating buildings. 

The annexed figures show the form of the bricks and 
the way in which they are used. 

Fig- 1- Fig. 2. 




Fig. 1 is a representation of a 9-in. wall, built witn 
the ventilating bricks, with one common brick used at 
the angle of each com'se. 

Fig. 2 is a representation of a 14-in. wall; the half 
ventilating brick, being used alternately in the courses, 
forms a perfect and effectual boud. 

Fig. 3 is an isometrical drawing showing the venti- 
lating spaces. 

DRYING. 

43. The operation of drying the green bricks requires 
great care aud attention, as much depends upon the 



36 RUUlMEXrS OF TUB 

P manner in -which thcv are got into the kiln. The great 
I point to be aimed at is to protect them against sun, 
1 wind, rain, and frost, and to allow each brick to dry 
J uniformly from the face to the heart. 

Slop-moulded bricks are usually dried on flats or 
drying floors, where they remain from one day to five or 
six, according to the state of the weather. "When spread 
out on the floor they are sprinkled with sand, which 
absorbs superfluous moisture, and renders them less 
liable to be cracked by the sun's rays. After remaining 
on the floors until suflSciently hard to handle without 
injury, they are built up into hacks under cover, where 
they remain from one to three weeks, until ready for the 
kiln. In wet weather they are spread out on the floor 
of the drying shed, and great care must then be taken 
to avoid drafts, which would cause the bricks to dry 
faster on one side than the other. To prevent this, 
boards set edgeways are placed all round the shed to 
check the currents of air. 

The quantity of ground required for drying bricks in 
this manner is comparatively small, as they remain on 
the floors but a short time, and occupy little space when 
hacked in the hovels. The produce of a single moulding 
stool by the slop-moulding process seldom exceeds 
10,000 per week, and the area occupied by each stool is, 
therefore, small in proportion. Half an acre for each 
kihi may be considered ample allowance for the working 
floor and hovel. 

44. In places where brickmaking is conducted on a 
large scale, drying sheds are dispensed with, and the 
hacks are usually built in the open air, and protected 
from wet, frost, and excessive heat, by straw, reeds, 
matting, canvas screens, or tarpaulins ; all of which we 
have seen used in difierent places. 



'C^ 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 37 

45. Bricks intended to be clamp burnt are not dried 
on flats, but are hacked at once on leaving the moulding 
stoolj and remain in the hacks much longer than bricks 
intended to be kilned. This is rendered necessary by 
the diff'erence between clamping and kilning. In the 
latter mode of burning, the heat can be regulated to 
great nicety, and if the green bricks, Avhen first placed 
in the kiln, be not thoroughly dried, a gentle heat is 
applied until this is effected. In clamping, however, 
the full heat is attained almost immediately, and, 
therefore, the bricks must be thoroughly dried, or they 
would fly to pieces. In the neighbourhood of London 
a good moulder, Avith his assistants, will turn out from 
30,000 to 40,000 bricks per week, and the clamps 
contain from 60,000 to 120,000 bricks and upwards. 

From these combined causes, the area occupied by 
each stool is greater than in making slop-moulded 
bricks. In Mr. Bennett^s brick-ground at Cowley, ten 
stools occupy twenty acres. 

46. At the risk of wearying the patience of the 
reader, we recapitulate the leading points on which 
depends the difference of area required for each mould- 
ing stool in making : — 

Slop-moulded brick?, Lacked under London pallet-moulded sand stocks, 
cover, and burnt in kilns. burnt in clamps. 



Dried one day on flats ... 1st Hacked at once. 

^, , » / J • u 1 ifv f Bricks loosely stacked in hacks. 

Closely stacked m hacks 17 g ^^^^^^^ ^j j^ ^^^^ 2 l^,;,^^ 

courses high, placed close 2nd ^^ ^.^^ - fj_ ^ be- 
together under cover . . .) [ tween the hacks. 

Remain in shed 10 to 16 days 3rd Remain in hacks 3 to 6 weeks. 

Rate of production per stool, 1 ... f A gang will turn out 30,000 to 

about 10,000 weekly . . .J \ 40,000 per week. 

Kiln holds about 30,000 bricks, I [ Clamp contains 60,000 to 

and may be fired once in 10 I 5th -^ 120,000 bricks, and bums 

days J [ from 2 to 6 weeks. 

47. It is scarcely necessary to observe that different 



3S RUDIMENTS OF THE 

clays require different treatment, according to their 
composition, some bricks bearing exposure to sun and 
rain without injury, whilst others require to be carefully 
covered up to keep them from cracking under similar 
circumstances. [See Appendix.] 
/* Superior qualities of bricks are generally dressed vriih 
a beater when half dry, to correct any twisting or 
\ warping which may have taken place during the first 
stage of drying. 

BURNING. 

48. Bricks are burnt in clamps and in kilns. The 
latter is the common method, the former being only 
employed in burning bricks made with ashes or coal- 
dust. It should be observed, however, that the name of 
clamp is applied also to a pile of bricks arranged for 
burning in the ordinary way, and covered with a 
temporary casing of burnt brick to retain the heat ; but 
this must not be confounded with close-clamping as 
practised in the neighbourhood of London. 

49. The peculiarity of clamp burning is that each 
brick contains in itself the fuel necessary for its vitrifi- 
cation ; the breeze or cinders serving only to ignite the 
lower tiers of bricks, from which the heat gradually 
spreads over the whole of the clamp. No spaces are 
left between the bricks, which are closely stacked, that 
the heat to which they are exposed may be as uniform 
as possible. It is unnecessary here to go into the 
details of clamping, as they are very fully given in 
the account of London Brickmaking. [See also Ap- 
pendix.] 

50. A kiln is a chamber in which the green briclca 
are loosely stacked, with spaces between them for the 
passage of the heat j and baked by fires placed either 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 39 

m arched furnaces under the floor of the kiln^ or in fire 
holes formed in the side walls. 

There are many ways of constructing kilns^ and 
scarcely any two are exactly alike ; but they may be 
divided into three classes : — 

1st. The common rectangular kiln with fire-holes in 
the side walls. This is formed by building four walls 
enclosing a rectangular space, with a narrow doorway 
at each end, and narrow-arched openings in the side 
walls exactly opposite to each other. The bricks are 
introduced through the doorways, and loosely stacked 
with considerable art, the courses being crossed in a 
curious manner, so as to leave continuous openings 
from top to bottom of the pile to distribute the heat. 
In the lower part of the kiln narrow flues are left, about 
8 in. wide and about 2 ft. or 3 ft. high, connecting the 
fire-holes in the side walls. The kilns having been 
filled, the doorways are bricked up and plastered with 
clay to prevent the ingress of cold air ; the top of the 
kiln is covered with old bricks, earth, or boards, to 
retain the heat, and the firing is carried on by burning 
coal in the fire-holes. A low shed is generally erected 
on each side of the kiln to protect the fuel and fireman 
from the weather, and to prevent the wind from urging 
the fires. The details of the management of a kiln are 
given in another place, and need not be here repeated. 
This kind of kiln is he simplest that can well be 
adopted, and is in use in Holland at the present day. 
It is the kiln in common use through the Midland 
districts. 

2nd. The rectangular kiln with arched furnaces. 
This consists also of a rectangular chamber ; but difiers 
from the first in having two arched furnaces running 
under the floor the whole length of the kiln, the furnace 



40 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

doors being at one end. The floor of the kihi is formed 
like lattice-work, with numerous openings from the 
furnaces below, through which the heat ascends. The 
top of the kiln is covered by a moveable wooden roof, 
to retain the heat, and to protect the burning bricks 
from wind and rain. These kilns are used in the east 
of England. 

3rd. The circular kiln or cupola. This is domed over 
at the top, whence its name is derived. The fire-holes 
are merely openings left in the thickness of the wall, 
and are protected from the wind by a wall built round 
tlic kiln at a sufficient distance to allow the fireman 
room to tend the fires. These cupolas are used in Staf- 
fordshire and the neighbourhood, and the heat employed 
in them is very great. Drawings of a cupola are given 
in chap, iv., with an account of the manner in which 
the firing is conducted, and therefore it is unnecessary 
to enter here upon any of these details. 

51. The usual method of placing bricks in the kiln is 
to cross them, leaving spaces for the passage of the heat, 
but there are objections to this, as many bricks show 
a difl'erent colour, where they have been most exposed 
to the heat. Thus in many parts of the country, the 
bricks exhibit a diagonal stripe of a lighter tint than 
the body of the brick, which shows the portion that 
has been most exposed. In burning bricks that require 
to be of even colour, this is guarded against by placing 
them exactly on each other. 

On first lighting a kiln the heat is got up gently, that 
the moisture in the bricks maybe gradually evaporated. 

AVhen the bricks are thoroughly dried, which is 
known by the steam ceasing to rise, the fires are made 
fiercer, and the top of the kiln is covered up with 
boards, turf, old bricks, or soil, to retain the heat. As 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES, 41 

the heat increases^ the mouths of the kiln are stopped 
to check the drafts and when the burning is completed, 
they are plastered over to exclude the air, and the fires 
are allowed to go out. After this the kiln is, or should 
be, allowed to cool very gradually, as the soundness of 
the bricks is much injm'ed by opening the kiln too 
soon. 

Pit coal is the fuel commonly used^ and the quantity 
required is about half a ton per 1,000 bricks ; but much 
depends on the qiiality of the coal, the construction of 
the kiln, and the skill with which the bricks are stacked. 

Wood is sometimes used as fuel in the preliminary 
stage of firing, but not to a gi'eat extent. In a letter 
received on the management of the Sufiblk kilns, the 
writer says, " The usual mode of firing bricks in Sufi'olk 
is in a kiln. The one near me, belonging to a friend of 
mine, is constructed to hold 40,000 ; it is about 20 ft. 
long and 15 ft. broad, and is built upon two arched 
furnaces that run through with openings to admit the 
heat up. The bricks are placed in the usual way for 
burning, by crossing so as to admit the heat equally 
through, when the whole mass becomes red hot : the 
first three or four days, wood is burnt in what is called 
the process of annealing ; with this they do not keep up 
a fierce fire. After this from 12 to 14 tons of coal are 
consumed in finishing the burning. Private individuals 
sometimes make and clamp 20,000 or 30,000 without a 
kiln ; then there is great waste, and the bricks are not 
so well burnt. 

52. In the preceding pages we have briefly sketched 
the operations of brickmaking, and the principles on 
which they depend. In the following chapters the 
reader will find these operations described in detail, as 
practised in different parts of the country; it need 



42 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

hardly be said that the illustrations might be greatly 
extended, as there are scarcely two counties in England 
in which the processes are exactly similar, but this 
would lead us far beyond the limits of a Rudimentary 
Treatise, and enough is given to show the student the 
interest of the subject, and to enable him to think and 
examine for himself. If he be induced to do this from 
the perusal of these pages, the aim of this little volume 
will have been completely fulfilled. 

n. TILES. 

53. The manufacture of tiles is very similar to that 
of bricks, the principal differences arising from the thin- 
ness of the ware, which requires the clay to be purer 
and stronger, and renders it necessary to conduct the 
whole of the processes more carefully than in making 
bricks. 

54. Tiles are of three classes, viz., paving tiles, roof- 
ing tiles, and drain tiles. 

Paving tiles may be considered simply as thin bricks, 
and require no especial notice. 

Roofing tiles are of tsvo kinds : pantiles, which are of 
a curved shape, and plaintiles, which are flat, the latter 
being often made of ornamental shapes so as to form 
elegant patterns when laid on a roof. 

Pantiles are moulded flat, and afterwards bent into 
their required form on a mould. Plain tiles were 
formerly made with holes in them for the reception of 
the tile-pins, by which they were hung on the laths ; 
but the common method is now to turn down a couple 
of nibs at the head of the tile, which answer the same 
purpose. 

Besides pantiles and plaintiles, hip, ridge, and 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 43 

valley tiles, come under the denomination of roofing 
tiles ; these are moulded flat, and afterwards bent on a 
mould, as in making pantiles. 

Draining tiles belong to the coarsest class of earthen- 
ware. They are of various shapes, and are made in 
various ways. Some are moulded flat, and afterwards 
bent round a wooden core to the proper shape. Others 
are made at once of a curved form, by forcing the clay 
through a mould by mechanical means. Tile-making 
machines are now almost universally superseding manual 
labour in this manufacture, and many machines of 
various degrees of merit have been patented during the 
last few years. 

55. Besides the above articles, the business of a tilery 
includes the manufacture of tiles for malting floors, 
chimney-pots, tubular drains, and other articles of 
pottery requiring the lathe for their formation. We do 
not, however, propose now to enter upon the potter's 
art, which, indeed, would require an entire volume, but 
shall confine ourselves to the description of the manu- 
facture of roofing tiles as made in Staflbrdshire, and at 
the London tileries, adding a few words on the making 
of tesserae and ornamental tiles as practised by Messrs. 
Minton, of Stoke-upon-Trent. 

56. In the country it is common to burn bricks* and 
tiles together, and as, in most places, the demand for 
bricks is not great, except in the immediate vicinity of 
large towns, -where the demand is more constant, the 
manufacturer generally only makes so many bricks as 
are required to fill up the kiln. 

Where tliere is a great and constant demand for 
bricks and tiles, their manufacture is carried on sepa- 

* In some places bricks and lime are burnt together. 



4i RUUIMENTS OF THE 

rately, and tiles are burnt in a large conical building, 
called a dome, which encloses a kiln -with arched fur- 
naces. There are many of these in the neighbourhood 
of London, and, as we have described them very fully in 
the chapter on London Tileries, we need say nothing 
further here on this subject. 

57. The manufactui-e of draining tiles is one which 
daily assumes greater importance on account of the 
attention bestowed on agriculture, and the growing 
appreciation of the importance of thorough drainage. 
Any discussion on the best forms of draining tiles, ot 
the most advantageous methods of using them, would, 
however, be out of place in this volume. Neither need 
we say much on the practical details of the manufacture, 
as it is exceedingly simple, and as regards the prepara- 
tion of the clay, and the processes of drying and burning, 
is precisely similar to the other branches of tile-making. 
With regard to the process of moulding, there is little 
doubt but that hand moulding will soon be entirely 
superseded by machinery ; and the discussion of the 
merits of the numerous excellent tile-making machines 
now offered to the public, although of great interest to 
those engaged in the manufacture, would be unsuitcd to 
the pages of a rudimentary work, even were it practi- 
cable to give the engravings which would be necessary 
to enable the reader to understand their comparative 
advantages or defects.* A few words on the principal 
features of the manufacture of drain tiles are, however, 
required to enable the reader to appreciate its peculiar 
character. 

58. Bricks, paving tiles, and roofing tiles, are little 
required, and seldom manufactured, except in the neigh- 

• A few details will be found in the chapter on Brickmaking by 
Machinery. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 45 

bourhood of towns or of large villages^ where the demand 
is likely to be sufficiently constant to warrant the 
erection of kilns, drying sheds, and other appurtenances 
of a well-mounted brickwork. If a cottage is to be 
rebuilt, a barn tiled, or it may be once in twenty or 
thirty years a new farmsteading erected in a rural dis- 
trict, it is generally cheaper to incur the expense of 
carting a few thousand bricks or tiles than to erect the 
plant necessary for making these articles on the spot. 

But with drain tiles the case is reversed. They are 
most wanted precisely in situations where a brick-yard 
would be an unprofitable speculation, viz., in the open 
country, and often in places where the cost of carriage 
from the nearest brick-yard would virtually amount to 
a prohibition in their use, if they cannot be made on 
the spot, and that at a cheap rate. What is wanted, 
therefore, is a good and cheap method of making drain 
tiles without much plant, and without erecting an expen- 
sive kiln, as the works will not be required after sufficient 
tiles have been made to supply the immediate neighbour- 
hood, and therefore it would not be worth while to incur 
the expense of permanent erections. The making drain 
tiles a home manufacture is, therefore, a subject which 
has much engaged the attention of agriculturists during 
the last few years, and it gives us great pleasure to 
be enabled to give engravings of a very simple and 
effective tile-kiln erected by Mr. Law Hodges, in his 
brick-yard, and described in the Journal of the Royal 
Agricultural Society, vol. v., part 2, from which publi- 
cation we have extracted so much as relates to the, 
description of this kiln, and the cost of making drain 
tiles in the manner recommended by him. [See Ap- 
pendix.] 

59. We have ali'cady extended this sketch of the 



46 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

general principles and practice of brick and tile making 
beyond its proper limits^ and must therefore pass on to 
the practical illustrations of our subject. 

The chapter '' On the Manufacture of Bricks and 
Tiles in Holland" is reprinted from the third volume of 
Weale's " Quarterly Papers on Engineering/' and will 
be read with interest on account of the great similarity 
of the English and Dutch processes. 

The account of brickmaking, as practised at Not- 
tingham and the Midland counties, was written from 
personal examination of brickworks in the vicinity of 
Nottingham, and in the counties of Derby, Leicester, 
and Lincoln, and has been carefully revised by a gen- 
tleman long connected with one of the principal brick- 
works near Nottingham. 

The paper " Ou Brickmaking, as practised in the 
Staffordshire Potteries/'^ was contributed to this volume 
by ;Mr. R. Prosser, of Birmingham, whose name is a 
sufficient guarantee for the value of the information 
therein contained. The details for this paper were col- 
lected by Mr. Prossei-'s assistant, Mr. John Turley, of 
Stoke ; and the valuable analyses of brick-earths were 
made for Mr. Prosser by ^Mr. F. C. Wrightson, of 
Birmingham, at a considerable expense. 

The description of brickmaking in the vicinity of 
London has been drawn up with great care, and is the 
first illustrated accoimt that has yet appeared of the 
manufacture of clamp bricks. The drawings accom- 
panying this paper, and that on the London Tileries, 
arc from the pencil of ^Mr. B. P. Stockman. 

Professional engagements preventing a personal exa- 
mination of the processes employed in brick and tile- 
making in the vicinity of the metropolis, !Mr. Stockman 
kindly undertook this task, and to his persevering 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 47 

energy and talent we are indebted for a great mass of 
practical details embodied in these two chapters. 

Lastly, in the Appendix are inserted various par- 
ticulars relative to brickmaking which could not have 
been introduced in any other part of the volume with- 
out interrupting the continuity of the text. 

It should be noted that the various prices and esti- 
mates given in the following pages, refer to the time at 
which the descriptions were given. They are^ of course; 
subject to later modifications. 



CHAPTER II. 

ON THE MANUTACTUKE OF BRICKS AND TILES IN 
HOLLAND. By Hyde Clakke, C.E. 

L — BRICKS. 
The Dutch make a most extensive use of bricks, of 
which they have several kinds. Not only are bricks 
used for ordinary building purposes, and for furnaces, 
but also in great quantities for foot pavements, towing- 
paths, streets, and high roads. It may be observed, 
that they have of late been used very effectively in this 
country for the pavement of railway stations. The 
paving bricks, or Dutch clinkers, are the hardest sort, 
and are principally manufactured at Moor, a smal vil- 
lage about two miles from Gouda, in South Holland. 
The brick-fields are on the banks of the river Yssel, 
from which the chief material is derived, being no other 
than the slime deposited by the river on its shores, and 
at the bottom. The slime of the Haarlem Meer is also 
extensively used for this purpose, as most travellers 
know. This is collected in boats, by men, with long 



48 BUDIMEXTS OF THE 

poles having a cutting circle of iron at the end, and a 
bag-net, with which they lug up the slime. The sand 
is also obtained by boatmen from the banks of the river 
Maes. It is of a fine texture, and grayish colour. The 
hard bricks are made with a mixture of this slime and 
sand, but in what proportions I am not informed. 
River sand is recognised as one of the best materials 
for bricks, and is used by the London brickmakers, who 
obtain it from the bottom of the Thames, near "Wool- 
wich, where it is raised into boats used for the purpose. 
For what are called in France, Flemish bricks, and 
which are manufactured in France, Flanders, and on 
the corresponding Belgian frontier, river sand is pre- 
ferred, and is obliged to be obtained from the Scheldt. 
At Ghent, and lower down, a considerable traffic is 
carried on in the supply of this material. The quantity 
used there is about one cubic foot of sand per cubic 
yard. 

The slime and sand, being mixed, are well kneaded 
together with the feet, and particular attention is paid 
to this part of the process. The mixture is then depo- 
sited in heaps. The mode of moulding and drying is 
similar to that used elsewhere. Paving bricks are 
generally about 6 in. long, 4 in. broad, and If in. thick. 
Dutch clinks made in England are 6 in. long, 3 in. 
broad, and 1 in. thick. 

The house bricks and the tiles are made for the most 
part at Utrecht, in the province of the same name, from 
brick earth found in the neighbourhood. House bricks 
are about 9^ in. long, 4^ in. wide, and nearly 2 in. thick. 

IL — ERICK-KILyS. 

The kilns are built of different sizes, but generally 
on the same plan. Sometimes they will take as many 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 49 

as 1,200,000 bricks. A kiln for burning 400,000 bricks 
at once is represented in the " Memoirs of the Academy 
of Sciences of France/^ It is a square of about 33 ft. or 
35 ft. long by 28 ft. or 30 ft. wide, closed in with four 
walls of brick, 6 ft. thick at the base, and which slope 
upwards outside to their extreme height, which is about 
18 ft. Some slope also slightly inwards, but in a dif- 
ferent direction. DiflFerent plans are nevertheless 
adopted with regard to the form of the external Avails, 
the great object being, however, to concentrate the heat 
as much as possible. In the walls, holes are left for 
six flue-holes, and sometimes for eight or ten or twelve. 
In one of the walls, in the breadth of the kiln, an 
arched doorway is made, about 6 ft. wide and 12 ft. 
high, by which the bricks are brought into the kiln. 
The arrangements as to the doorway are also subject to 
variation. The interior of the kiln is paved with the 
bricks, so as to present a level base. The walls are laid 
with mortar of the same earth from which the bricks 
arc made, and with which they are also plastered in- 
side ; yet, notwithstanding the strength with Avliich they 
are built, the great power of the kiln fire sometimes 
cracks them. The kilns, I would observe, are not usually 
covered in, but some of those for baking building-bricks 
have roofs made of planks, and without tiles, to shelter 
them from the wind and rain. Others are provided 
with rush mats, which are changed according to the 
side on which the wind bloAvs. The matting also serves 
for protecting the bricks against the rain, Avhilst the 
kiln is being built up. A shed, or hangar, is put up on 
each side of the kiln, in order to contain the peat turf, 
or to shelter the fire-tender, and to preserve the fires 
against the cfi'ccts of wind. Such being the practice 
with regard to roofing, when the bricks are put into the 

D 



50 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

kiloj a layer, or sometimes two layers, of burnt bricks 
is placed on the floor, laid lengthwise, about three- 
quarters of an inch from each other, and so as to slope 
a little from the parallel of the walls, that they may 
the better support the upper rows, which arc always 
laid parallel to the walls. This layer is covered with 
old rush mats, on which are arranged the dried bricks, 
which are laid without intervals between them. It is 
said that the mats serve to prevent the humidity of the 
soil from penetrating to the bricks while the kiln is 
beiug filled, which generally takes from about three 
weeks to a month. This row of burnt bricks is so 
placed as to leave channels or flues of communication 
with corresponding openings in the kiln walls. Six 
layers of dried bricks having been put down, the next 
three rows are made to jut over, so as to shut up the 
channels or flues. The layers are thus carried up to 
about forty-five in number, the last two being of burnt 
bricks, though in some kilns four layers of burnt bricks 
are used for closing in. The crevices are secured with 
brick earth or clay, on which sand is put ; the door of 
the kiln is then closed with one or two thicknesses of 
burnt brick, then an interval of about 10 in. or 12 in. 
filled in with sand, and this secured with walling, and 
by a wooden strut. The object of the sand is to prevent 
any of the heat from escaping through the crevices. 

It is to be remarked that, in laying the bricks in the 
kiln, as they are laid down, a cloth is put over them 
and under the feet of the workmen, so as to prevent any 
of the sand which might fall oft', from getting down 
and blocking up the interval or interstice which natu- 
rally remains between each brick, and so interrupting 
the passage of the flame, and causing an unequal heat 
or combustion in the kiln. 

The kiln being filled, a sufficient quantity of peat turf 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 51 

is introduced into the flues, of wliicli one end is closed 
up with burnt bricks, and the turf is set fire to. The 
turf used is from Friesland, which is reckoned better 
than Holland turf, being lighter, less compact, and less 
earthy, composed of thicker roots and plants, burning 
quicker and with plenty of flame, and leaving no ash. 
The general time in Holland during which the supply 
of turf by the flues is kept up, is for about four-and- 
twenty hours, taking care at first to obtain a gradual 
heat, and supplying fresh turf about every two hours. 
The fireman, by practice, throws the turfs in through 
the small fire openings, and as far in as he judges 
necessary. TMien one side has thus been heated, the 
flue openings are closed, and the other ends opened for 
four-and-twenty hours, and supplied with fuel; and this 
alternate process is kept up for about three or four 
weeks, the time necessary to burn large bricks. In 
some kilns, however, the fire is kept up for five or six 
weeks, depending upon their size and the state of the 
weather. A fortnight or three weeks is, however, 
sometimes enough for the clinkers. 

The burning having been concluded, about three 
weeks arc allowed for cooling. It generally happens 
that the mass of brick sinks in in some places, arising 
partly from the diminution of volume produced by 
burning, and partly from the melting of some of the 
bricks which have been exposed to too great heat. 

The quolity of the bricks depends upon the degree 
of bm-ning to which they have been subjected. Those 
from about a third from the middle of the top of the 
kiln, or near the centre, are black, very sonorous, com- 
pact and well shaped, breaking with a vitrified fracture. 
These are generally employed for cellars, rescrvc;rs, 
and cisterns, and are most esteemed. 

D 2 



52 RUDIMLMS OF THE 



III. — TILES. 

The tiles manufactured in Holland are flat, hollow, S 
shaped, or \nth a square opening in the middle to let 
in a pane of glass, being much used for lighting lofts 
and garrets all over the Low Countries. They are 
cither red, grey, or blue, or glazed on one side only. 
The flat paving tiles are about 8^ in. square by 1 iu. 
thick; they are used principally for cisterns and for 
bakers' ovens. The clay for tiles, it is to be noted, is 
in all cases more carefully prepared than that for bricks, 
being groimd up wet in a pugmill or tub, with a shaft 
carrying half a dozen blades. By this means, roots, 
grass, kc, are got rid of. The clay comes out of the 
pugmill of the consistence of potters' clay, and is kept 
under a shed, where it is kneaded by women, with their 
hands, to the rough form of a tile, on a table dusted 
with sand. These pieces are carried off to the moulders, 
who are two in number, a rough moulder and a finisher. 
The tiles are then dried under sheds, and afterwards in 
the Sim. "With regard to the flat paving tiles, they are 
at first rough-moulded about an inch larger than the 
subsequent size, and a little thicker, and then laid out 
to dry under a shed, until such time as the thumb can 
hardly make an impression on them. They are then 
taken to a finishing-mouklcr, who, on a table quite level 
and slightly dusted with sand, lays one of the tiles, and 
strikes it twice or thrice with a rammer of wood larger 
than the tile, so as to compress it. He then takes a 
mould of wood, strengthened with iron and with iron 
cutting edges, and puts it on the tile which he cuts to 
the size. The mould is of course wetted each time it is 
used. The tiles are then regularly dried. In Switzer- 
and and Alsace an iron mould is used. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



IV.— TILE-KILNS. 

The tile-kiln is generally within a building, and about 
16 ft. long (in ordinary dimension), 10 ft. wide, and 
10 ft. high. The walls are from 4| ft. to 5 ft. thick, 
secured outside with great beams, and so secured to- 
gether as to form a square frame. Some of the largest 
of them are pierced with four flue-holes, as in brick- 
kilns ; but the flues are formed by a series of brick 
arches, about 2| ft. wide by 16 in. high. The opening 
of the flue-hole is about 10 in. by 8 or 9 in. high. On 
their upper surface, these series of arches form a kind 
of grating, on which the tiles are laid. The kiln is 
covered in at top with a brick arch, pierced with holes 
of difl'erent sizes. The kilns are charged from an open- 
ing which is constructed in one of the side walls, which 
opening is, of course, during the burning, blocked up 
and well secured. The fuel used is turf, as in the brick- 
kilns, and the fire is kept up for forty hours together, 
which is considered enough for the burning. Three 
days are then allowed for cooling, and they are after- 
wards taken out of the kiln . Those tiles which arc to 
be made of a greyish colour are thus treated. It having 
been ascertained that the tiles are burnt enough, and 
while still red hot, a quantity of small fagots of green 
alder with the leaves on is introduced into each flue. 
The flue-holes arc then well secured, and the holes in 
the roof each stopped with a paving tile, and the whole 
surface is covered with 4 in. or 5 in. of sand, on which 
a quantity of water is thi'OAvn, to prevent the smoke 
from escaping anywhere. It is this smoke which 
gives the grey colour to the tiles, both internally and 
externally. The kiln is then left closed for a week, when 
the sand is taken off the top, the door and roof-holes 



51 RUDIMENTS OF TDE 

are opened^ as also the flue-holes^ aud the charcoal 
produced by the fagots taken out. Forty-eight hours 
after^ the kiln is cool enough to allow of the tiles being 
taken out, and the kiln charged again. AVhenever any 
of the tiles are to be glazed, they are varnished after 
they are baked ; the glaze being put on, the tiles are 
put in a potter's oven till the composition begins to 
run. The glaze is generally made from what are called 
lead ashes, being lead melted and stirred with a ladle 
till it is reduced to ashes or dross, which is then sifted, 
and the refuse ground on a stone and resifted. This 
is mixed with pounded calcined flints. A glaze of 
manganese is also sometimes employed, which gives a 
smoke-brown colour. Iron filings produce black ; 
copper slag, gi'een ; smalt, blue. The tile being wetted, 
the composition is laid on from a sieve. 

The manufacture of tiles, as already observed, is 
principally carried on near Utrecht, in the province of 
Holland, which, like most of the great cities of Hol- 
land, has facilities for the transportation of its produce 
by water communication all over the country. 

Gouda is a great seat of the pottery and tobacco-pipe 
manufactures, of which formerly Holland had a virtual 
monopoly, with regard to foreign trade, exporting largely 
Delft ware, Dutch porcelain, tobacco-pipes, bricks, 
Flanders' bricks, painted tiles, and paving tiles. The 
manufacture of painted tiles, for the decoration of the 
old fireplaces, was very extensive; and an infinite variety 
of designs, principally on Scripture subjects, employed 
many humble artists. This, however, is almost of the 
past. The manufacture of tobacco-pipes was another 
great business, suitable to the consumption of tobacco 
by the Netherlandcrs. Gouda alone had, at one 
time, as many as 300 establishments for the pro- 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 55 

duction of this article of trade. The manufacture of 
tobacco-pipes is still a large manufacture in England, 
much more considerable than is generally supposed ; 
while manufactures of bricks and porcelain constitute a 
staple means of employment for many thousands of 
our population 

A great part of these descriptions, it -will be seen, 
strictly apply to our own practice, and are trite enough 
and trivial enough ; but in matters of this kind, there 
is nothing lost by being too minute, and it is always 
safe. In the present case, it is worth knowing these 
things, for the sake of knowing that there is no 
difference. 



CHAPTER III 

BEICKMAKING AS PRACTISED AT NOTTINGHAM. 

1. The mode of making bricks at Nottingham and 
the neighbourhood presents several peculiarities, of which 
the principal are : — 

1st. The use of rollers for crushing the brick-earth. 

2nd. The use of copper moulds. 

3rd. The hacking of the bricks under cover. 

2. The use of copper moulds is not confined to the 
immediate neighbourhood of Nottingham, but has been 
for some years gradually extending to other districts, 
and will probably, sooner or later, become general 
throughout the country for the manufacture of superior 
qualities of bricks. 

3. It may be proper here to say a few words on the 
object of grinding the clay, so generally practised 
throughout Staffordshire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, 
and Lincolnshire, and probably in many other places. 



Ob RUDIMENTS OF THE 

1)1 mauy brickworks the earth used is not pure clay, 
but a very hard marl, which cannot be brought into a 
state of plasticity by the ordinary processes of weather- 
ing and tempering without bestowing upon it more 
time and labour than would be repaid by the value of 
the manufactured article. The expedient of grinding 
is, therefore, resorted to, which reduces the earth to any 
state of fineness required, according to the number of 
sets of rollers used, and the gauge to which they are 
worked, all hard lumps and pieces of limestone,* which 
would otheinvise have to be picked out by hand, being 
crushed to powder, so as to be comparatively harmless. 
4. The advantages and disadvantages of the use of 
rollers may be thus briefly stated, — 

1st. A great deal of valuable material is used which 
could not be made available for brickmaking by 
the ordinary processes. 
2nd. The process of grinding, if properly con- 
ducted, greatly assists the operations of the 
temperer by bringing the earth into a fine state, 
quite free from hard lumps. 
On the other hand : 

The facilities afforded by the use of rollers for working 
up everythiny that is not too hard to be crushed by 
them, induce many brickmakers to make bricks without 
proper regard to the nature of the material. A common 
practice is to work the rollers to a wide gauge, so that 
comparatively large pieces of limestone are suff'ered to 
pass through without being crushed by them. Where 
this has been the case, it need hardly be said that the 
bricks are worthless. They may appear soimd, and 

* It may be necessary to explain, that all pebbles and hard stones must 
be picked out by hand before grinding ; where the brick earth used is 
much mixed with gravel, the only resource is the use of the waeh-milL 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 57 

may have a tolerable face, but rain and frost soon destroy 
them, and, in situations where they are exposed to the 
weather, they will become completely perished in a very 
few years. 

5. The following description of the mode of making 
bricks at Nottingham will apply pretty faithfully to the 
practice of the brick-yards for many miles round. It 
will, of course, be understood that in no two yards is 
the manufacture carried on in exactly the same way ; 
there being diflFerences in the designs of the kilns, the 
arrangement of the buildings, and other points of 
detail, which may be regulated by local circumstances, 
or which, from the absence of any guiding principle, 
may be left to chance ; the general features, however, 
are the same in all cases. 

6. Brick-earth. — The brickmakers of Nottingham 
and its immediate vicinity derive their supplies of brick- 
earth from the strata of red marl overlying the red 
sandstone on which the town is built, and which in its 
turn rests on the coal-measures, which make their 
appearance at a short distance to the west of the town. 

The banks of the river Trent present many good 
sections of these strata, as at the junction of the rivers 
Trent and Soar ; where they are pierced by the Red 
Hill tunnel, on the line of the Midland Railway ; and 
at Radcliff-on-Trent, where they form picturesque cliffs 
of a red colour covered with hanging wood j and they 
are exposed to view in many places in the immediate 
vicinity of Nottingham, as in the cutting for the old 
road over Ruddington Hill, in the Colwick cutting of 
the Nottingham and Lincoln Railway, and Goose Wong 
Road, leading to Mapperly Plains. 

The marl abounds with loose and thin layers of skerry, 
or impure limestone, and in many places contains veins 

D 3 



58 UUDIMEXTS OF THE 

of gypsum, or, a-5 it is called, plaster stone, which are 
extensively worked near Newark, aud other places, for 
the raauufactm*e of plaster of Paris. 

The water from the wells dug iu these strata is 
strongly impregnated with lime. 

7. The colour of the bricks made at Nottingham and 
in the neighbourhood is very various. For making red 
bricks the clay is selected with care, and particular beds 
only are used. For common bricks the earth is taken 
as it comes, and the colour is veiy irregular and unsatis- 
factory, varying from a duU red to a dirty straw colour. 
Some of the marl burns of a creamy white tint, and 
has been lately used with much success in making 
ornamental copings aud other white ware. 

8. In the manufacture of common bricks no care is 
taken in the selection of the clay, and it is worked up 
as it comes to hand indiscriminately, the great object 

'f the manufacturer being to clear his yard ; the same 
price being paid for all clay used, whatever its quality. 

Stones and pebbles are picked out by hand, but the 
pieces of limestone are generally left to be crushed by 
the rollers, and much bad materitd is worked up iu this 
v.ay which could not be made use of if the tempering 
were effected by treading and spade labour only. 

There are, however, many beds which are sufficiently 
free from limestone not to require grinding, and when 
these arc worked the rollers are not used. 

9. For front bricks, and the superior qualities, the 
clay is selected with more or less care, receives more 
preparation previous to grinding, is gi'ound finer, and 
is sometimes left to mellow in cellars for a considerable 
time before using. 

10. For making rubbers for gauged arches, the clay 
is carefully picked, aud run through a wash-mill into 



ART or MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 59 

pits, where it remains until by evaporation and settle- 
ment it has attained a proper degree of consistency. 
The clay for this purpose is generally mixed with a cer- 
tain quantity of sand to diminish the labour of rubbing 
the bricks to gauge, the proportion varying according 
to the quality of the clay. The sand used for this 
purpose is the common rock sand, which burns of a 
red colour. 

11. The clay immediately near the town of Notting- 
ham is not well suited for making roofing tiles, the 
ware produced from it being generally very porous. 
This statement, however, is not to be taken without 
exceptions, as there is plenty of suitable clay for the 
purpose within a few miles' distance. 

12. The old houses in Nottingham are built with very 
thin bricks, much of the old brickwork gauging lOi in. 
to 4 courses in height, including mortar joints. These 
bricks are of a dark red colour, and were from works 
that have been long since abandoned. The bricks now 
made are much thicker, the walls of many new build- 
ings gauging 21 in. to 7 courses iu height, or about 
13| in. to 4 courses in height, including mortar joints. 
The common bricks ai'e of a very uneven colour, which 
arises partly from the manner iu which they are set in 
the kiln, and partly from the want of care in selecting 
the clay, and the quantity of limestone ground up with 
it. From this circumstance the fronts of many of the 
new buildings have a mottled appearance, which is 
extremely unsightly. 

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF A BRICKWORK. 

13. The brick-yards from which the town of Not- 
tingham is at present supplied are situated on the 
slopes of a small vaDey along which runs the public 



CO 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



road firom Nottingham to Southwell, aud, being situ- 
ated on the sides of the hills, great facilities exist for 
draining the workings and for bringing the ground into 
cultiration again after the clav has been exhausted. 

14. The proprietor of a brickwork usually rents the 
required land from the owner of the soil, at a price per 
acre, and in addition to the rent pars for aU clay dug, 
whatever its quality, at a set price per thousand bricks 
made and sold, exclusive of those used for the erection 
and repairs of the buildings and works. 







ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. Gl 

15. The arrangement of the several buiklings varies 
Tvith each yard more or less; but tlie prmciple on 
which they are laid out is the same in all cases, viz., to 
advance towards the kiln at each process, so as to avoid 
all unnecessary labour. This will be understood by 
inspection of fig. 1, which, it must be understood, is not 
an exact representation of a particular brickwork, but a 
diagram to explain the principle of arrangement usually 
followed. The pits from which the clay is dug are at 
the rear of the works, and at some little distance from 
them is placed the clay-mill, which, to save labour in 
wheeling the clay, is shifted from time to time as the 
workings recede from the kiln by the exhaustion of the 
clay. This is, however, not always done, as, where the 
mill has been fixed in a substantial manner, the saving 
in labour would not repay the cost of re-erection. 

The hovel or drying shed generally forms two sides 
of a rectangular yard adjoining the public road, the 
kiln being placed as close to the hovel as practicable, 
and the working floors or flats in the rear of the latter. 
By this concentration of plan, the distance to Avliich 
the bricks have to be carried between the successive 
processes of moulding, drying, hacking and burning is 
reduced to a minimum, which is an important point to 
be attended to, as the raw bricks are shifted by hand 
and not harrowed. 

As it is not always possible to obtain a supply of 
water at those parts of the works where it is wanted 
to be used, a water-cart* is kept at some yards for this 
purpose, the supply being taken from a pond into which 
the drainage of the works is conducted. 

• The water-cart is seldom used, except where the water has to be 
fetched a considerable distance — indeed rarely, bat in times of drought. 
It is usually carried, in the yard, in buckets with yokes, as in the time of 
Pharaoh. 



C2 RrDIMEXTS OF THE 

The goods for sale arc stacked in the open part of 
the yard as near the public road as practicable. 

16. Clay-Mill. — The machinery used in grinding the 
clay is very simple. The clay-mill consists of one or 
more pairs of cast-iron rollers, set very close together 
in a horizontal position, and driven by a horse who 
walks in a circular track, and, by means of the beam to 
which he is attached, puts in motion a horizontal bevelled 
dri^-ing-wheel placed at the centre of the horse track. 
A horizontal shaft connected at one end with one of 
the rollers by a universal joint, and having a bevelled 
pinion at the other end, communicates the motion of 
the driving-wheel to the rollers by spur-wheels keyed 
on their axles. The clay is tipped in a wooden hopper 
placed over the rollers, and passing slowly between the 
latter falls on a floor about 8 feet below them, where 
it is tempered for the moulder. 

17. The common clay-mill has only one set of rollers, 
but the addition of a second set is a great improvement. 
In this case the bottom rollers arc placed almost in 
contact with each other, and should be faced in the 
lathe to make them perfectly true. If only one set be 
used this is a useless expense, as the gauge to which 
thev are worked is too wide for anv advantage to be 
derived from it. 

18. Figures 2, 3, 4 represent a one-horse mill with 
a single pair of rollers 18 in. in diameter, and 30 in. 
long, manufactured by Messrs. Clayton and Shuttle- 
worth, of Lincoln, who kindly furnished the drawings 
from which the engrarings have been made. The 
detailed description of the several parts will be found 
iu art C9. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 
Fig. 2 



63 




64 



EE, 



RrDIMENTS OF THE 
Fig. 3. 




\^. 



3 

smrr' 




I 
I 



i 



[ 



/ 



y 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 65 

Fkj.4.. 




EkM'^M 


\ 






,;/'' 


-- 


--S ^ 


- 


'\^ 




'> 


o~ 


1 


lo- 


/ 


- 


.'-' 


U (M 


p**l 


!- 



This is a very good mill, of simple construction, and 
not expensive, the cost when ready for fixing (exclusive 
of foundations and brickwork) being .€35. 

It cannot be too strongly insisted upon that the 
machinery should be boxed up close, so as to prevent 
stones or clay from clogging the wheels, as where this 



66 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

is not done the macliinery will unavoidably become 
deranged in a very short time. 

19. In many yards, the horse-track is raised to the 
level of the top of the hopper, so that none of the 
machinery is exposed. A very good arrangement of 
this kind is shown in fig. o, of which a detailed descrip- 
tion is given in art. 69. 

20. The quantity of work performed will of course 
vary greatly, accordiug to the distance between the 
rollers and the consequent fineness to which the clay is 
ground. One mill will grind sufficient clay to keep six 
moulders fully employed, and therefore there are very 
few yards in which the rollers are constantly in work. 

21. The length of time during which a clay-mill will 
last in good working condition is chiefly regulated by 
the wear of the rollers. If the iron is of very imiform 
quality, and care be taken to pick out all the pebbles 
from the clay, a pair of rollers will last many years. 
The other parts of the machinery will last vriih care for 
an indefinite length of time. 

22. JVash-mUL — The wash-mill is used only in the 
manufacture of arch bricks, and does not differ from 
that used in other places. The only one visited by the 
author consists of a circular trough, lined with brick- 
work, in which the clay is cut and stirred up with 
upright knives fastened to a horse-beam. From this 
trough, the slip runs through a grating into a brick 
tank, where it remains until by evaporation and settle- 
ment it becomes sufficiently consolidated for use. 

23. The Pug-mill is not used in the Nottingham* 
brick-yards ; the tempering of the clay, after grinding, 
being effected by treading and spade labour. Instead 
of the clay being tempered directly after grinding, it is 

* It i^, however, used in the neighbourhood. 



ART OF MAKING BUICKS AND TILES. 



67 




08 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



sometimes deposited to ripen iu damp cellars for a year 
or more. This is done for the best bricks only. 

24. The Moulding Sand used is tlie common rock 
sand, which burns of a red colour. In making white 
bricks this is a great disadvantage, as it causes red 
streaks, which greatly injure their colour. The sand is 
only used to sprinkle upon the table to prevent the clay 
from adhering thereto, end therefore sand with a sharp 
grit is preferred. 

25. The Moulding Table is shown in fig. G. It is 

Fiff. 6. 




ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 69 

furnislied with a sand-box^ wliicli is sometimes fixed to 
the table, as shown in the cut, and sometimes detached, 
and with a water-box, in which the moulder dips his 
hands every time he moulds a brick. In the operation 
of moulding, the moulder stands in front of the table, 
with the Avater-box immediately in front of him, the 
tempered clay at his right hand, and the sand-box at 
his left. A sloping plank is placed at one end of the 
table to enable the boy who brings the clay from the 
temperer to deposit it more conveniently on the table. 
The boy who takes oflF the newly-made bricks^ and 
brings back the empty mould, stands on the side of the 
table opposite the moulder, to the right of the water- 
box, in which he washes his hands after each journey, 
to prevent the clay from drying on them. 

The cost of a moulding table varies according to the 
care with which it is made. Such a one as shown in 
the cut will cost about 20*., and will last, with occasional 
repairs, for several years. The part where the brick is 
moulded soon becomes worn, and has to be cased as 
shown in the cut. This casing extends over the part 
where the brick is taken off by the carrier boy ; but, as 
the wear is not uniform over this space, the casing is in 
two or more pieces, the part where the brick is moulded 
wearing much faster than the others, and requiring 
renewal sooner. 

It is of importance that the drippings from the table 
should not fall on the drying floor, as they would render 
it slippery and unfit for use ; a rim is therefore placed 
at one end, and along a part of one side of the table, 
and the opposite side is furnished with a kind of apron 
and gutter, by means of which the slush is conducted to 
a tub placed under one corner of the table, but which ia 
not shown in the cut. 



'0 



RrDIMENTS OF THE 



Fig.l. 




26. Brick Moulds. — Until lately the moulds used 
Avere made of wood, but these have been almost entirely 
superseded by brass, or, as they are technically called, 
copper, moulds. 

There are several 
diflferent ways in 
which these moulds 
are made. Some- 
times the brass work 
is merely an inside 
lining, screwed to a 
wooden mould; but 
the best construction 
appears to be that 
shown in fig. 7, in which the mould is of brass, cast in 
four pieces, and riveted together at the angles, the wood- 
work being in four distinct pieces and attached to the 
brass mould by the angle rivets. These moulds are 
costly, and formerly a pair of moulds cost .€2, but they 
may now be had for £1 5*. the pair. 

It will be seen, by reference to the engraving, that the 
brass overlaps the woodwork all round the mould on 
each side, and these portions of the mould wear away 
very rapidly, so that the bricks made at the close of the 
season are considerably thinner than those made at its 
commencement. This renders it necessary to renew the 
projecting rims from time to time as they become worn 
down with use, and this will require to be done every 
season if the mould has been in constant use. It is an 
expensive operation, as the new rim has to be brazed on 
to the old part, and this must be done with great nicety, 
and so as to make a perfectly flush joint on the inside 
of the mould, or the latter would be rendered useless. 
The cost of plating a pair of moulds is nearly the same 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 71 

as their original cost^ 20^. being charged for the opera- 
tion^ and therefore it would be preferable to use the 
moulds until they are quite worn out^ and then to replace 
them with new ones. 

27. The use of copper moulds is confined to the 
making of building bricks_, and quarries for paving 
floors^ their weight and great cost preventing their 
employment for larger articles. 

28. The mould has no bottom as in the London 
practice^ nor is it placed upon a raised moulding board 
as in Staffordshire ; but rests on the moulding table 
itself, the top and bottom beds of the brick being formed 
at two distinct operations with a little instrument called 
a plane. 

29. The Plane, fig. 8^ is usually 
made 9 in. long by 3 in. broad, //O^^"^ 
with a handle at one end. Its use 
is to compress the clay in the 
mould, and to work over the top 
and bottom beds of the brick to 
give them an even surface. 

The strike is not used at Nottingham. 

30. The Flats, or working floors, are prepared with 
care, by levelling and rolling, so as to make them hard 
and even, and are laid out with a slight fall, so that no 
water may lodge on them. They are well sanded, and 
constant care is requisite to keep them free from weeds. 
Their usual width is about 10 yards. In unfavourable 
weather a single moulder will sometimes have as many 
as 7,000 bricks on the flats at once, for which an area 
of from 300 to 400 superficial yards will be required. 
This, however, is an extreme case, and in good drying 
weather a moulder does not require more than half that 
extent of floor, or even less than this. 




72 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

31. 77ie Hovel f or drying shed, in which the bricks 
arc hacked, is generally built in the roughest and 
cheapest manner possible, with open sides and a tiled 
roof, supported by wooden posts or brick piers; the 
width of the hovel is about 18 ft., or rather more than 
the length of a hack, but the eaves are made to project 
a couple of feet or so beyond this distance, in order to 
give additional shelter from the rain, for which reason, 
as well as for the sake of economy, the eaves are carried 
down so low as to make it necessary to stoop to enter 
the shed. 

Some of the hovels have flues under the floor, the 
fire-places being placed in a pit sunk at one end of the 
hovel, and the chimney at the opposite end. These 
flues are made use of when the demand for bricks is 
so great that sufficient time cannot be allowed for dry- 
ing in the open air, and also during inclement seasons. 
The sides of the hovel are then walled up with loose 
brickwork to retain the heat. No specific rule can be 
given for the relative sizes of the hovel and the drying 
floor. The common practice appears to be to make 
them of the same length, which allows ample room, 
and enables the moulder to keep a portion of his shed 
always available as a drying floor when the weather is 
too wet to allow of the bricks being laid out on the 
flats. "When this is the ease the moulder protects the 
raw bricks from drafts, by surrounding them with a 
skirting, so to speak, of planks. This is a very neces- 
sary precaution, for the currents of air from different 
parts of the shed would cause the bricks to dry un- 
equally, and they would crack and become unsoimd. 
Matting is frequently hung up at the sides of the hovel 
for this purpose, and is also much used in some yards 
to prevent the finer clays, when tempered, from drying 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



73 




too rapidly where cellars are not provided for that 
purpose. 

32. The above description applies to the ordinary 
hovel, but the best front bricks are dried wholly under 
cover in a brick hovel inclosed by walls on all sides, 
and furnished with flues, by which the place is kept 
at a regular temperature. The expense, however, of 
conducting the whole of the drying under cover in 
this manner is too great to allow of its general adop- 
tion. 

33. The claiyper, fig. 9, Fig. 9. 
is simply a piece of board 
12 in. by 6 in. with a 
handle on one side. It 
is used to flatten the sur- 
faces of the bricks as 
they lie on the floors, 
and the bricks are also 
beaten with it during the process of hacking, to correct 
any warping which may have taken place in the first 
stage of drying. 

34. Dressing Bench. — Fig. 10. 
Fig. 10. This is simply a 
stout bench, to which is 
fitted a plate of cast-iron, 
on which the best front 
bricks are rubbed or j^o- 
lishecl, to make them per- 
fectly true and even; the 
workman, at tlie same time, 
beating them with a wedge-shaped beater, tipped with 
iron, called a dresser, fig. 11. This operation toughens 
the brick, corrects any warping which may have taken 
place, and leaves the arrises very sharp. 

£ 





74 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

^'9- 11- 35. Machinery for 

pressing Bricks. — In 
some yards screw 
presses are used for 
pressing front bricks, 
and with considerable 
success. It is, however, 
questionable whether 
they are as durable as 
those dressed by liana. In making machinery for this 
purpose the great desiderata are, 1st, to make the metal 
mould in which the brick is compressed so strong that 
it shall not spring on the application of the power; and, 
2nd, that the piston shall exactly fit the mould : when, 
from bad workmanship or long use, this is not the case, 
the clay is forced between the piston and the mould for 
a short distance, leaving a slightly-raised edge all round 
the side of the brick. 

3G. V\'e do not propose here to enter upon a com- 
parison of the respective merits of machine-pressed 
bricks and those dressed by hand. The operation of 
dressing on the bench requires an experienced work- 
man, whilst a common labourer can use a machine. 
For this reason machine-pressed bricks can be pro- 
duced much cheaper than those dressed by hand, 
and there is little inducement to employ the latter 
process. 

37. Kiln. — The kilns vaiy considerably as regards 
their dimensions and constructive details, but they are 
all built on the same principle. 

Tlie kiln shown in figs. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17, is 
a good one, though rather weak at the angles, and 
will convey an idea of the general construction. (See 
chap, ix.j page 210.1^ 



AKT OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



75 



Fig. 12. 




It consists of four npriglit walls, inclosing a rectangu- 
lar chamber. The floor is sunk about 4 ft. below the 
general surface of the ground, and is not paved. The 
doorways for setting and drawing the kiln are merely 
narrow openings at the ends of the kiln, raised a step 
above the ground, and about 5 ft. from the floor. The 
fire-holes are arched openings opposite each other on 
the sides of the kiln, lined with fire bricks, which require 
to be renewed from time to time, generally every season. 
The width of these holes is reduced to the required space 
.e2 



76 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



by temporary piers of brickwork, so as to leave a 
narrow opening about 8 in. wide and about 3 ft. hio-h. 
This will be understood by reference to fig. 12, in which 

Fig. 13. 




r^'H" 



W 



Fig. 14. 



- 1' 
.0 At 



-^-^. 



:^l^ 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILLS. 



// 



Fig. 15. 




Fig. 16. 




^3^ 



Fig. 17. 




the dark shading shows the fire-brick lining, and the 
unshaded parts the temporary piers. 

On each side of the kihi a pit is sunk to the level of 
the floor, and covered with a lean-to roof, which protects 
the fuel and the fire-man from the weather, and prevents 
the wind from setting against the fires. The avails of 
the kiln are about 3 ft. thick, and are built of old bricks, 
rubble stone, and the refuse of the yard. No mortar is 
used, as the use of lime would destroy the brickwork, 



78 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

under the intense heat to which the walls are exposed. 
The bricks are therefore set in loam or fire-clay, if it 
can be readily procured. The fire-bricks for lining the 
fire-holes are sometimes brought from Ilkeston, where 
excellent fire-clay is worked, but it is most common to 
make them at the yards with such clay as can be got 
in the neighbourhood, which answers pretty well. This 
clay is brought from the neighbouring collieries, and 
is obtained when sinking shafts ; there is no fire-clay 
at any of the Nottingham yards. 

38. Instead of being built with walls of parallel 
thickness, resting on arches, as in the example just 
described, some kilns are built with walls of great 
thickness at bottom, and diminishing by set-ofis until, 
near the top of the kiln, they are comparatively thin. 
Many kilns also are provided with massive buttresses 
at the angles, with the intention of counteracting 
the tendency which the walls have to lift themselves 
with the heat. 

Very great care is requisite in drying a newly-built 
kiln, or the walls will be cracked at the first firing, and 
the thicker the walls the greater the care necessary. 

39. So long as the brickwork is sufficiently thick to 
retain the heat, no purpose is attained by increasing 
the strength of the walls, unless they are made so 
massive that they are unaffected by the heat externally, 
and heavy enough to counteract the Vijting cause by the 
expansion of the sides exposed to the fire. In the one 
case the walls expand bodily with the heat, forming 
large and dangerous cracks ; in the other, separation 
takes place between the inside and outside of the walls, 
from the expansion of the parts most exposed to the 
heat, and the kiln soon requires relining. 

40. The kiln shown in figs. 12 to 17 is an example 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 79 

Fig. IS. 




of the mode of building with -walls of the same thick- 
ness top and bottom ; that shown in fig. 18 is one of a 
more massive construction^ and has buttresses at the 
angles. The upper part of this kiln is formed by build- 
ing, in a temporary manner, a thin parapet roimd the 
inside of the top of the walls, about a couple of feet in 
height. This expedient is often resorted to for the sake 
of increasing the capacity of a kiln at a small expense. 

41. Some of the kilns are provided with a Hight of 
steps by which access is obtained to the top, in others 
ladders are used for this purpose. Many of the kilns 
have also a kind of light fence round the top, made of 
rough poles. This serves as a protection from falling, 
and as a scaffold to which screens may be hung in 
windy Aveather to keep the wind from setting on the 
top of the kiln. This fence is shown in fig. 2. The 
outside staircase is shown in figs. 1, 13, and 16. 

42. The sizes of the kilns vary considerably. A 
kihi such as that shown in figs. 12 to 17, 20 ft. long, 
10 wide, and 12 ft. high, will, with the addition of a 
parapet^ burn 25,000 bricks at once, and wiW requii'e 
rather more than that number of bricks for its erection. 
The cost of such a kiln would be from £'30 to £50, the 
value of the materials being almost nominal. 

The capacity of a kiln may be roughly calculated on 
the assumption that ten bricks require a cubic foot of 
space in the kiln, but much, of course, will del end on 



80 RUDIMENTS OF THB 

the nature of the clay and the amount of shrinkage 
before bui*niug. 

43. A ^ell-built kiln will last for many years with 
occasional repairs. 

PROCESS or BRICKMAKING. 

44. Clay digging. — The clay or marl is^ or should be, 
dug in the autumn, and collected in large heaps at the 
bottom of the slopes, to be mellowed by the ■sriuter frosts. 
These heaps are shown in fig. 1. 

The cost of this operation varies from 1*. to \s. 9d. 
per 1,000 bricks, according to the labour of getting the 
clay, and the distance to which it has to be wheeled. 

45. Tempering. — In the spring the clay is turned over 
by spade labour, being at the same time well watered 
and trodden. The pebbles and large lumps of lime- 
stone are picked out by hand with more or less care. 
The prepared clay is then wheeled to the mill, and 
tipped into the hopper. Sometimes the clay, after 
being ground, is at once tempered for use on the floor 
beneath the rollers ; but for the best bricks, as before 
stated, it is allowed to remain in cellars to ripen for a 
year or more. 

46. The temperer is generally paid by the moulder, 
who contracts for tempering, moulding, and hacking at 
a price per 1,000. The cost of tempering for common 
bricks is about \s. Sd., exclusive of the cost of horsing 
the mill, which is borne by the proprietor of the yard. 

One temperer will keep one moulding-table constantly 
supplied, and will also assist the moulder in getting up 
his bricks from the floor. 

47. Moulding. — A sufficient quantity of clay hanng 
been prepared on the tempering floor, one of the 
moulder's boys takes up as large a lump as he can 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 81 

conveniently carry^ ancl^ placing it on his head, walks 
with it to the moulding table, and walking up the 
sloping plank, deposits it at the end of the table, to the 
right hand of the moulder at b, fig. 6. 

The moulder having sprinkled some dry sand over 
the part of the table marked D, takes from the heap of 
tempered clay a piece sufficient to make a brick, and 
kneads this clot with his hands on the sanded part of 
the table, so as to bring it approximately into shape. 
He then raises the clot in the air, and dashes it with 
some force into the mould, striking off the superfluous 
clay with his fingers. He then dips his hands into the 
water-box, and, with very wet hands, works over the 
face of the brick, so as to force the clay perfectly into 
the mould in every part. He next takes the plane and 
passes it backwards and forwards with considerable 
pressure, until the face of the brick is flush with the 
edges of the mould, and then, reversing the mould, 
planes the underside in the same way. The brick being 
moulded, the moulder slides it on the wet table to his 
left hand side, where it is taken off by a second boy, 
who carries it, mould and all, to an unoccupied part of 
the floor, where he turns it out carefully on one of its 
sides, and returns with the empty mould. Meanwhile 
the moulder has made another brick in a second mould, 
which is now ready to be taken off, and this process is 
repeated until the distance to an unoccupied part of 
the floor is too great to allow of the boys returning in 
time, and the table is then shifted to another part of 
tlic floor. 

48. Drying. — After the bricks have remained for a 
few hours in the position in which they were first placed 
on the floors, they are turned on their edges by a boy, 
who turns up two at once, one with each hand. They 

£ 3 



82 RUDIMENTS OF TUE 

remain in this position a few hours longer, and are then 
laid flat on the opposite side to that on wliieh they were 
first placed. Careful moulders sprinkle sand over the 
wet bricks as they lie on the floor, which absorbs the 
superabundant moisture, and renders them less liable 
to crack ; but this is not always done. 

Tlie new bricks sometimes also undergo a slight 
dressing with the clapper, to take off any roughness at 
the edges, and to correct any alteration of form which 
may have taken place on turning them out of the mould, 
and in some cases they are scraped with a small iron 
scraper, to remove any dirt that may adhere to them. 

After lying flat a few hours longer, they arc carried 
by the boys, three at a time, to the hovel, where the 
moulder builds them into hacks 50 bricks long and 1 !• 
courses high, each hack containing 700 bricks. As the 
bricks are hacked they are hatted with the clapper, to 
correct any warping which may have taken place whilst 
lying on the floors. The bricks remain in the hovel 
without being again shifted, until they are ready for 
burning. 

'19. The time allowed for drying varies with the 
weather, the size of the kiln, and the demand for bricks. 
Some brickmakers get the bricks out of the kiln within 
a fortnight of their leaving the moulds, but this haste 
is very prejudicial to the soundness of the bricks, and, 
as a general rule, three weeks is the least time that 
should be allowed for drying. 

The time that the raw bricks lie on the flats depends 
Bolcly on the weather. In good drying weather the 
bricks are made one day and hacked the next; but at 
other times several days may elapse before they are fit 
for liacking. 

50. It is not very easy to separate the cost of hacking 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 83 

from that of moulding, as both operations are per- 
formed by the moulder. The price for moulding, in- 
cluding tempering and hacking, is from 5^. per 1,000, 
and upwards J 5s. 3d. is a common price. Where the 
clay is ground the moulder pays for feeding the mill, 
but not for horsing it, this expense being borne by the 
proprietor of the yard. 

51. The above description refers to the ordinary 
mode of proceeding, but for facing-bricks additional 
processes are employed. Pressed bricks, as their name 
implies, are prepared by putting the raw bricks one at 
a time, when nearly dry, into a metal mould, in which 
they are forcibly compressed by the action of a powerful 
lever which forces up the piston forming the bottom of 
the mould. This gives a very beautiful face to the 
brick, and leaves the arrises very sharp, but bricks so 
prepared require longer time for drying and judicious 
management in the kiln, otherwise they will be un- 
sound, and when exposed to the weather soon become 
perished. 

52. Polished bricks, as they are called, arc rubbed 
upon a bench plated with iron, to make their surfaces 
perfectly even, and are also dressed with a dresser, as 
before described. This process is only gone through 
with the very best bricks, and its cost is such that it is 
not employed to any very great extent. 

53. The contraction of the clay in drying is very 
slight, and no perceptible diminution of size takes 
place in burning if the bricks have been previously 
thoroughly dried. 

The brick moulds are made of different sizes at dif- 
ferent yards, their proportions having been altered from 
time to time, so as to increase the depths of the moulds 
at the expense of the other dimensions. 



84 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

When the thickness of a piece of brickwork is mea- 
sui'ed by the number of bricks, as in house building, 
and not by feet and inches, as in building the piers of 
bridges and other solid works, the number of bricks 
required for the execution of a rod of brickwork is 
considerably reduced by a very trifling addition to the 
thickness of the bricks, and this is always an induce- 
ment to purchasers to prefer the yards where the 
deepest moulds are used. 

The largest common bricks now made measure, when 
burnt, 9^ in. lonjr, 4f in. wide, and 3yV ^^- thick, or 
thereabouts ; the size of the moulds being 91 in. long 
by 4^1^ in. wide, and 3 ^ in. deep. These bricks weigh 
about 7 lbs. 15 oz. when burnt. 

The best red facing-bricks made at Mr. Wood's yard, 
in the Carlton Road, measure, when burnt, 9^ in. long, 
4| in. wide, and 2|^ in. thick. The moulds for these 
bricks are 10 in. long, 4^ in. wide, and 3^ in. deep. 

54. A good moulder, if solely occupied in moulding, 
will turn out 2,000 bricks in a day, between G a.m. and 
G P.M. ; but as nearly one-third of the moulder's time is 
taken up with hacking, the average day's work is not 
more than about 1,300 per day, or between 7,000 and 
8,000 weekly. 

55. Burning. — The setting of the kiln is an opera- 
tion on which much depends, and requires to be done 
by an experienced hand, as there is a great deal of art 
in arranging the bricks in a proper maimer, so as to 
allow the heat to be diffused equally through the kiln, 
and to afford a proper draught, so as to obtain the 
greatest amount of steady heat Midi the smallest ex- 
penditure of fuel. 

The lower part of the kiln is filled with common 
bricks, narrow openings being left, as shown by the 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 85 

dotted lines in fig. 12^ forming flues connecting the 
opposite fire-holes^ the tops of these flues heiug formed 
by oversetting the bricks on each side till they meet. 
These flues are of the same height as the fire-holes. 

The best bricks* are placed in the middle of the kiln, 
and above these again are placed common bricks up to 
the top. The bricks are not placed close together, but 
a space is left all round each brick to allow of the pas- 
sage of the heat round it ; the bricks in the successive 
courses being crossed either slantwise, or at right angles 
to each other. When a brick rests partly on others, 
and is partly exposed to the fire, the exposed part will 
commonly be found of a lighter red than those to which 
the fire has had no access, and this is one great cause 
of the mottled colour of the Nottingham bricks. When, 
therefore, it is wished to produce bricks of a uniform 
red tint, great care is taken to keep the faces and ends 
of the bricks in close contact, crossing them every few 
courses only. 

The kiln being topped, the doorways are built up Avith 
refuse brick and plastered over with clay, to prevent 
the admission of currents of cold air, and the fires being 
lighted, the heat is got up gradually, care being taken 
not to urge the fires, until all the steam is driven ofi" 
from the bricks, and the actual bui'ning begins. "When 
the fire has attained its full heat, the fire-holes arc 
partially stopped with clay, and the top of the kiln is 
covered over with earth, turfs, or boards, to check the 
draught, and a steady uniform heat is kept up until 
the completion of the burning, which generally occupies 
three days and three nights from the first lighting of 

• If tiles be burnt at the same time, which is frequently the case, as 
they cannot be burnt alone without great waste, they take the sain« 
position in the kila as dresied bricks. 



86 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

tlic fires ; at the expiration of which time the fire-holes 
are completely stopped, and the fires put out ; after the 
fires have been extinguished, the kiln should be allowed 
to cool very gradually, as the soundness of the bricks is 
much deteriorated by the kiln being opened too soon j 
this, however, is a point not sufficiently attended to. 

56. The fuel employed is coal,* the quantity! used 
being about half a ton per 1,000 bricks, the exact 
amount depending on the quality of the fuel and the 
judicious setting of the kiln. The town of Nottingham 
being situated on the very edge of the Nottinghamshire 
coal-field, the cost of firing is very low, and excellent 
coal can be laid down at the yards at from 8s. Gd. per 
ton upwards. The small coal or slack frequently used 
in the early stage of burning does not cost more than 
5s. to 6s. per ton. 

57. The colour and soundness of the bricks vary 
according to their position in the kiln and the intensity 
of the heat to which they have been exposed. Those 
nearest the fire become partially vitrified, and of a 
blackish tint. Those w^hich have been more favourably 
placed burn of various tints according to the nature of 
the clay, from red to straw colour and white, and when 
struck together riugw^ith a clear metallic sound. Those 
which are underburnt are tender, of a pale red colour, 
and give a dull sound when struck together. 

58. The cost of setting and drawing the kiln is gene- 
rally reckoned at I*. 6d. per 1,000, this including 
stacking the bricks in the yard, or placing them in 
the carts of the purchasers. If, however, they are 



* Soft coal is preferred. 

t In some great yards a deal of coal is wasted on the top of the kiln. 
As the heat has always an upward tendency, this lias very little effect on 
tlie bricks, and a great deal of fuel is wasted in smoke and flame. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 87 

not for immediate sale, an additional 6d. is charged for 
loading the carts. 

59. The labour in firing is reckoned at Is. per 
1;000. 

60. At "Nottingham, and at the yards in the neigh- 
bourhood, many varieties of brick are manufactured; 
as cant, or splayed bricks, for plinths ; Tveathered and 
throated copings of several sizes ; round copings ; 
bricks with quarter-round ends ; wedge-shaped bricks 
for culverts ; compass, or curved bricks for lining shafts 
and wells, and also paving, roofing, and draining tiles 
of all descriptions. It is unnecessary to enter into any 
details on the manufacture of these articles, as they 
offer no particular points of interest. It may, however, 
be worth while to mention that the use of copper 
moulds is confined to the manufacture of those articles 
which are of a convenient size, and for which there is 
a large demand ; the moulds for cant bricks, compass 
bricks, and other fancy articles for which there is only 
a limited demand, being made of wood. 



COST OF MANUFACTURE. 

61. Land, and Brick-earth. — The proprietor of a 
brickwork usually rents the necessary land at a price 
per acre, and in addition pays for all clay removed at a 
set price, whatever its quality. 

As the brick-earth is exhausted, or the workings 
reach an inconvenient depth, the ground is levelled and 
again thrown into cultivation. This is of course done 
at the earliest period possible ; and in some cases the 
rental of the land is nearly made up by the profit dc' 
rived from cultivating the site of the exhausted work 
iiigs, so that it is impossible to give an accurate estimate 



88 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

of the proportion which the rental of the land bears to 
the total cost of manufacture^ as it must vary widely in 
each particular case. This remark does not hold good 
with regard to the brick-earthy which is paid for at the 
rate of 8^. per cubic yard, or 2s. per 1,000 bricks, a 
thousand bricks requiring about 3 cubic yards of clay. 

It must be remembered that, as above stated, this 
price is paid for all clay removed, whether suitable or 
not for brickmaking. For common bricks the earth is 
taken as it comes, good and bad being ground up to- 
gether ; the cost of grinding being less than the loss 
wliich would result from the rejection of the inferior 
earths, which are often so hard, and contain so much 
skerry in pieces of all sizes from that of a walnut to that 
of a man's head, that they could not be worked up by 
the ordinary process of tempering by treading and spade 
labour only. For front bricks and the best qualities, 
the clay is carefully picked, and the cost is propor- 
tionately increased thereby. 

Ko estimate can be given for the amount of land 
required for making a given number of bricks, as it 
depends on the situation of the yard and the depth to 
which the workings can be carried. 

62, Buildings and Maclthieiy. — From the circum- 
stance that in existing yards the buildings have been 
erected at different times without any very systematic 
plan, it is not very easy to ascertain what are the best 
relative sizes of Avorking floors, hovels and kilns, or 
what extent of building and plant are required for 
working a yard to the greatest advantage. Unless the 
manufacture be conducted on a very large scale, the 
griuding-mill will, in most cases, be often unemployed ; 
aud the wash-mill being used only in the manufacture 
of arch brii^ks, it is only in the immediate neighbour- 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 89 

hood of a large town that a retui'ii for the cost of its 
erection can be hoped for. It -will always be found an 
advantage to have an excess of shed-room rather than 
the contrary. 

G3. The following rough estimate will give an idea of 
the buildings and machinery required for mounting 
a new yard^ to produce from -iOjOOO to 50^000 per 
week : — 

1 clay -mill. 

120 yards lineal of hovel^ 6 yards wide. 

1^200 yards superficial of working floor. 

This extent of hovel and floor will be sufiicient for the 
operations of six moulders ; and^ taking the work of 
each moulder to average throughout the season 1^300 
per diem^ the week's work of the six moulders would 
produce 46; 800 per week^ or in round numbers 140^000 
every three weeks. 

This rate of production would render necessary two 
kilnSj each to burn Bo^OOO^ and these kilns would be 
kept in constant activity, each kiln bemg fired twice 
every three weeks. 

64. For a yard in which it is proposed to make all 
kinds of brick ware additional buildings will be required, 
as: — 

Cellars for ripening the ground clay ; 
A tempering shed, for tempering under cover ; 
One or more drying-houses, provided with furnaces 
and flues ; 

A wash-mill for running the clay for making rubbers. 

Besides the above erections, there will be required in 
all yards stabling to a greater or less extent ; a cottage 
for the under-taker of the yard ; and sheds and out- 
buildings for keeping tools, carts, and implements. 



90 RUi)IMEXTS OF THE 

65. Tools. — The tools required by each moulder 
are : — 

A pair of brass moulds ; 

A moulding table, and appurtenances complete ; 

A plane ; 

A clapper. 

In addition to these implements a variety of other 
articles are required, as shovels, picks, barrows, planks, 
sand baskets, sieves, &c., which are kept in store by 
the proprietor of the yard, and supplied to the men as 
required. 

G6. Labour. — The proprietor of the yard finds all 
tools and implements, sand, and coals, and horses the 
mills. The general management of the yard is con- 
ducted by an under-taker, who superintends the yard 
and contracts with the proprietor for all the labour 
required in the actual manufacture, at a price per 
1,000 on the tale of bricks delivered from the kiln, 
the imder-taker bearing all loss from frost, wet, or 
other causes. 

The under-taker sublets the moulding to a moulder, 
who contracts with him at a price per 1,000 to mould 
and hack the bricks ready for setting in the kiln ; the 
moulder employing two boys to assist him in moulding 
and hacking, and also a tcmperer, who tempers the 
ciay for him, and assists in getting up the bricks from 
the floor. The first turning over of the clay is per- 
formed by labourers, under the direction of the under- 
taker, who, with the assistance of a few boys and 
labourers, sets and draws the kilns himself, and attends 
to the burning. 

67. The actual selling price of bricks is regulated 
more by the demand and the amount of competition 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 91 

than by the cost of their production. Good building 
bricks^ made in copper moulds, may be had in Notting- 
ham at 2os. per 1,000 ; but a fair selling price may 
be considered as 28^. per 1,000, which may be thus 
subdivided : — 



Clay digging per 1,000 

Turning over and watering clay and feeding mill „ 

Grinding „ 

Tempering for moulder „ 

Moulding, drying and hacking ... „ 

Setting and drawing kiln .... „ 

Burning ,, 

Total cost of labour ... „ 

Coal, half a ton, at 8s „ 

Dutv, OS. lOd. per 1,000, with 5 per cent, added „ 

Clay 

Rent, tools, machinery, and profit ... „ 

Selling price at yard . . . ,, 

This may be considered as the lowest price which 
^Till afford any profit to the proprietor of the yard, 
when proper allowance is made for depreciation in 
buildings and machinery, tools, repairs, and other 
contingencies. 

68. The relative value of the different qualities of 

brick may be thus stated : — 

£ s. d. 
Common bricks (the clay not picked) . . per 1,000 18 
Front bricks (made in copper moulds, the clay 

picked) „ 1 13 

Polished bricks (made in copper moulds, the 

earth selected with care, and the bricks 

dicssed on a bcnrh) ,, 3 



£ 


s. 


d. 





1 


6 








8 








6 








4 





4 








1 


6 





1 








9 


6 





4 








6 


H 





2 








6 


4i 


1 


8 






92 RUDIMENTS OF THE 



69. Repere.vce to the Illustrations accompanying 

THE FOREGOING ACCOUNT OF BrICKMAKING AS PRAC- 
TISED IN Nottingham. 

Fig. I. General view of a brickwork, showing the arrangement of the 
works. 

A. The face of the workings. 

B B. Heaps of brick-earth, dug in the autumn, to be worked up the 

following season, after being mellowed by the winter frosts. 
c. The clay-mill. 
D D. The working floors, generally made about 9 or 10 yards wide. 

E. The hovel. This hovel is flued, — the door at the end of the hovel 
next the road is the entrance to the furnace pit ; the chimney into 
which the flues are conducted is shown at the opposite end. In 
some drying houses the flues arc made to return nearly to the 
furnaces before they are led into the chimney, so that the latter is 
close to the former. 

F. The kiln. This form of kiln is a weak one, and is liable to be 
split from top to bottom by the expansion of the walls, from the 
intense heat to which they are exposed. The reader will observe 
the steps and the wooden fence roimd the top of the walls, men- 
tioned in article 41. 

G. Goods for sale. 

This 'illustration is not an exact representation of any particular brick- 
work, but has been made up from the details of several yards, to show the 
principle on which they are laid out ; which is, to save all unnecessary 
carriage of either brick-earth or bricks, from the time of first turning 
over the clay to the stacking of the finished bricks in the sale yard. 

Figs. 2, 3, and 4. Clay-mill, with a single pair of rollers 18 in. 
in diameter, and 32 in. long, as manufactured by Messrs. Clayton and 
Shuttleworth, of Lincoln. The letters of reference are the same in each 
figure. 

a. Horse beam, 12 feet long, from centre of horse track to centre of 
driving wheel. 

b. Bevelled driving wheel. 

c. Pinion. 

d. Driving shaft, 1^ in. diameter. 

e. Universal joint. 
ff. Spur wheels. 

g g". Cast-iron rollers 18 in. diameter and 32 in. long. The roller 
marked ^ is longer than the other, hanng a flange round each 
end by which the roller g is kept in its proper position. The 
roller marked (f is coimected by the universal joint e with the 
driving shaft d. 

h. Wooden hopper. 

J I. Cast-iron standards to support the hopper. 

k h. Axles of rollers. 



ART OP MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 93 

/ L Bearings for the axles k h. These bearings are made to slide 
on the bottom plate m, in order that the gauge of the rollers may 
be adjusted at pleasure. 
m. Bottom plate, on which the bearings rest. 
n. Strengthening bar. 

0. Adjusting screws, by which the rollers can be set to any gauge, 
according to the degree of fineness to which the clay is required 
to be ground. 
p. End beam of fiaming. 
q q. Sides of framing. 
7-, Balance weight to horse beam. 
The rollers in this mill are not faced in the lathe, but they are cast 
upright in loam moulds, which insures great accuracy in casting, and 
renders turning imnecessary, where only one set of rollers is employed. 
The aiTangement of the rollers, when two or more sets are employed, is 
shown in chap, iv., figs. 1, 2, and 3, which shows the construction of the 
clay-mills used in Stafibrdsihire, 

The temporary floor on which the clay falls after passing between the 
rollers is formed about 8 feet below them, and is inclosed on three 
sides with brick walls which support the wooden framework of the 
machinery. The clay is prevented from adhering to the surfaces of the 
rollers by strong knives fixed on their under sides. 

Fig. 5 is a diagram showing an improved arrangement of the ordinaiy 
clay-mill, in which the horse track is raised to the level of the top of the 
hopper, the whole of the machinery under the hopper being completely 
boxed up, so that no dirt or stones can lodge on the wheels. The driving 
wheel is placed in a circular pit lined with brickwork to keep up the 
horse track to the required height. 
Fig. 6. Isometrical view of a moulding table. 

A. Sloping plank, placed at one end of the table to enable the 
moulder's boy to deposit the clay on the table. 

B. End of the table where the tempered clay is deposited. 

c. Sand box. This is not always fixed to the table. In many 
cases it is a detached box, on three legs, placed close to the 
moulding table. 

D. The part of the table on which the clot is moulded. 

E. The place where the clot is put into the mould. 

F. The water-box, in which the moulder dips his hands each time 
he moulds a brick. 

0. A slip of wood on which the plane rests in order to raise it from 
the table, that the moulder may take it up the more readily. 

H. The part of the table at which the brick is taken off. This part 
of the table is alw.iys very wet, and the slush runs off into 

1. Gutter, to cany off the drippings from the table into a tub placed 
beneath it, but which is not shown in the drawing. If the water 
were allowed to run down on the working floor, the latter would 
soon become wet and sUpperr, and unfit for receiving the bricks. 

Fig. 7. Copper brick mould. 

This kind of mould is cast in four pieces and riveted together, the 
sides projecting half an inch beyond the ends. Each casting haa 
a flange at top and bottom, forming a rim half an inch wide all 
round the top and bottom of Cbe mould. These rims become 



04) RUDIMENTS OF THE 

gradually worn down by the friction of the plane and the action of 
the moulding sand, and require replating from time to time. The 
expense of replating with brass has induced a trial of iron rims, 
but they have not been found to answer. The outside of the mould 
is cased with wood, secured to the brass by the rivets. To give a 
hold to the latter, each pair is passed through a piece of sheet 
copper, as shown in the cut. 

The moulds for making quarries are somewhat different, two of tho 
sides only being cased with wood, whilst the others arc stiffened 
by strengthening ribs cast on the sides of the mould. 
Fig. 8. The plane. 
Fig. 9. The clapper. 

Fig. 10. Bench on which the best bricks are polished and dressed with 
a dresser, as described in art. 34. 
Fig. 11. The dresser. 

Figs. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17. Plans, sections and elevations of a 
kiln. 

Fig. 12. Plan at level of floor, showing the firing sheds and fire-holes. 
The latter, in this example, are arched over, and are built of con- 
siderable width, which is afterwards reduced by temporary piers of 
brickwork. In many kilns, however, the fire-holes are made at 
once of the requisite width, and finished at top by oversetting the 
bricks on each side till they meet, instead of being arched over. 
The fire-brick lining to the fire-holes is indicated in the plan by a 
tint darker than that of the rest of the walls. The temporary piers 
of brickwork are shown in outline only. These are pulled do^m 
whenever the fire-brick lining requires to be renewed. The floor 
of the kiln is not paved. 

Fig. 13. Plan, showing the roofs of the firing sheds (b b), and the 
stejjs (a) leading to the top of the kiln. 

Fig. 14. Cross section of kiln, taken through the firing sheds, and 
showing the construction of the fire-holes. 

Fig. 15. Longitudinal section, taken through the doorways at the 
ends of the kiln, and showing the appearance of the fire-holes in 
the inside. 

Fig. 16. End elevation of kiln, showing the doorway and the ends of 
the firing sheds, as well as the steps leading to the top of the kiln. 

Fig. 1 7. Side elevation, with the firing shed removed, in order to 
show the fire-holes. 
Fig. 18. Perspective view of a kiln. This kiln is built very differently 
from that shown in the previous figures, the walls being very massive 
at the bottom, and diminishing in thickness as they ascend. Tho 
angles are strengthened by buttresses. The doorways do not reach 
to the top of the walls, and are arched over, so that the latter form 
a continuous terrace all round the top of the kiln, on which a thin 
parapet is built up in a temporary manner, to increase its capacity. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 90 



CHAPTER IV. 

BRICIvMAKING AS PRACTISED IN THE STAFFORD- 
SHIRE POTTERIES. By R. Prosseb, C.E. 

1. Bricks. — There are made in this neighbourhood 
the following sorts of bricks for building, viz., red, blue, 
and drabj and also a blue brick used as a paviour for 
footways, which brick is called a dust brick, from the 
circumstance of coal dust being used when it is moulded. 
When fired it has a smooth and somewhat glossy sur- 
face, and being very durable is extensively used as a 
paviour. 

2. The drab brick is used to a limited extent for 
building, but more generally as a fire-brick by potters 
and iron-masters ; it is, however, inferior to the Stour- 
bridge brick, the latter being used where intense heat is 
generated. 

3. Tiles. — There is a variety of other articles made 
in the brick-yards of this locality, as, roofing tiles in 
several varieties, tubular drain tiles from 3 in. to 16 in. 
meter, and generally 18 in. long; also floor tiles or 
t ^uarries both red and blue, the latter resembling the 
blue brick. 

4. Clay. — The blue colour is obtained from the same 
clay that fires red by additional heat being generated 
when blue is required, at a cost of half a ton more coal, 
and two hours more time allowed per oven. The clays 
or marls are selected for the purposes to which they are 
best adapted, and an extensive supply of the best quality 
for red is procured at Cobshurst, about two miles south 
of Longton (which marl is used to make the red orna- 



96 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

mental and encaustic tiles, now so much admired, and 
which are extensively made by Messrs. !Minton and Co., 
of Stoke-upon-Trent). Marls and clays suitable for 
brickmaking are plentiful, and of several varieties, in this 
neighbourhood, but the most extensive bed of red marl 
runs in an almost unbroken line through this country 
from south to north, and generally west of the great 
coal-field, and is worked with the same results at 
Stooi-bridge, Tipton, Hanford, Basford, Tunstall, and 
other places. A reference to a map of the country 
will show the peculiarity of this long bed of stratified 
marls. 

5. In the pottery district there are about ten distinct 
sorts or strata. The following names are given to the 
seven sorts most used ; and their position with relation 
to the earth's surface is shown by the order of their 
names here given. 

Top red marl, dun coloured, top yellow (rotten red, 
not used), mingled, bottom yellow, brown, and bottom 

grey. 

Seven of these marls vary but slightly in their 
chemical composition, and, when used, three sorts at 
least are generally mixed together. (For an Analysis 
of the above-named marls, sec Table 1, art. 37.) 

In this locality there is a very favourable combination 
of circumstances for the manufacture of ornamental 
bricks for architectural decorations; and Mcre archi- 
tects to give the subject their attention, and such 
bricks free from duty, much might be done. 

6. The following description of the process and cost 
of brick and tile-making will apply, first, to the make 
of bricks, &c., upon the property of the manufacturer ; 
and, secondly, to the make of tiles^ &c., at a yard which 
is rented. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 97 



PIRST EXAMPLE. — BRICKMAKINQ. 

7. Buildings and Plant. — This yard, "with the ground 
opened for work, has an area of about 6 acres, and has 
the following buildings and machinery upon it, viz. : — 

A 5-horse power steam engine ; A pug-mill ; 

A set of horizontal rollers ; Six drying-houses ; 

(Three pairs to the set, placed over And nine ovens, 
each other). 

The drying-houses measure 40 yards in length, by 8^ 
yards in width, and have two flues under the floor 
through their entire length. 

At times they fire these nine ovens in one week ; 
and if used exclusively for bricks, each oven sould 
be fired five times in a fortnight. Besides bricks, the 
following goods are made at this yard : — pipe tiles from 
3 in. to 16 in. diameter, roof and ridge tiles, quarries, 
dust bricks, &c. 

8. Rate of Production. — Provided the make were 
confined to bricks, with these conveniences they would 
make 100,000 weekly during the usual brick season, 
which at the present selling price, £1 8s. per 1,000, 
gives a weekly produce value ^6140, which quantity 
would pay in duty £27 lis. 3^., the duty being 6s. l^d. 
per 1,000, with 10 per cent, off": this leaves for cost of 
production and profit £112 85. 9d. 

9. Tempering. — The marls used at this yard answer 
to the description previously given, 'i'heir average con- 
traction when mixed is 1 in 10 ; that is, a 10-iu. mould 
gives a 9-in. brick when fired, although some of the 
varieties used separately contract 1 in G. The marls 
are dug and wheeled two runs for Aid. to 7d. per cube 
yard, the price depending upon the difficulty of digging. 
The marl is then placed in a hopper over the topmost 

f 



98 RUDIMENTS OP THE 

rollers, and passing successively through the three pairs, 
is deposited on a floor about 8 ft. below the hopper. 
The marl is then wheeled away, and some three or more 
sorts mixed together with a proper quantity of water, 
by spade labour (for the quantity of water in the marl 
when dug, see Analysis, Table 1, art. 37). The mixed 
marls, if wanted for tiles or dust bricks, are now passed 
through the pug-mill ; but if required for ordinary 
bricks, the ground marls are mixed with marls that 
have been weathered but not ground. Lastly, the marl 
is tempered by spade labour until the proper degree of 
plasticity is obtained. 

10. Moulding. — The bricks are moulded by what is 
called the slop -moulding process at the rate of 3,000 
per day.* The price paid for tempering and moulding 
is. -is. 6d. per 1,000. The process is as follows : the 
temperer wheels the prepared marl in a barrow up a 
plank, and empties it upon the moulding table. The 
moulder having sprinkled sand upon the moulding 
board, and upon that part of the table where the clot 
is moulded, takes as much clay as will fill the mould, 
and by a quick roll and a tap gives the clot an approxi- 
mate form Xa) the movdd ; he then lifts up this lump of 
clay about 12 in. high, and with force throws it into 
the mould, pressing it down with both hands to fill all 
the cavities, and strikes oflF the surplus with a wooden 
striker, which he throws into a small water-box in front 
of him after each time of using. f An attendant boy, 
who has previously dipped a moidd in a water-trough 
by the side of the table, places it on the table ready for 
the moulder, and carrying away the moulded brick 

•In the neighbourhood of Noltingham.uhere the bricks are not Etrkken, 
but planed, the rate of production is only 2,000 per r5aj. — tc» 
t See chap, iii., art. 47. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 99 

in the mouldy carefully empties it on its flat side on 
the floor ; these operations are repeated until the floor 
is filled, when the moulding-table is removed to a 
second floor. 

11. Drying. — The floors are of difierent sizes ; a con- 
venient size is 25 yards in length by 6 yards in breadth, 
upon which they will lay 3,000 bricks. Here they are 
allowed to dry until sufficiently hard to handle and place 
in hacks, the length of time depending upon the weather. 
In quick drying weather they vrill remain half a day as 
deposited from the mould, and half a day tui'ned upon 
edge, and afterward they are placed up in hacks, where 
they remain until placed in the oven. 

12. An ordinary blue brick weighs, wet from the 
mould, 12 lbs. 4oz. ; when fired it weighs 8 lbs, 1 oz., 
having lost by evaporation in drying and burning 4 lbs. 
3 oz., or 3i per cent, of its original weight. 

The specific gravity of an ordinary blue brick 
in the wet state from the mould is . , . 2,171 
In the dry state, ready for the kiln . . 2,075 
And when burned, the specific gravity is . 1,861 
The Table on the next page shows the amount of 
evaporation during the process of drying. 

The total loss of weight in drying and burning is as 
follows : — 

196 ounces, the weight of a brick wet from the mould. 
46 „ „ lost by drying, or 23^ per cent. 



150 „ „ dry ready for the kiln. 

21 „ ,, lost in burning, or 14 per cent. 



129 „ „ of an ordinary blue brick. 

13. Burning. — The oven is of a circular form, with a 
F 2 



100 



BUDIMEXTS OF THE 






x 




1 


z 


— ? X 






« • 


•- «- .1. 






e ^ 


O S oi C 










c « 




c "^ 










(N •= 5 — 


••■ 




g = 


>-_« — « 


£ <~ 




Si 


o " « "" 


c => 




c a 


s -- - 2 

f tC >^ "ttD 


II 




— " 


>, .S" jj .^ 






•• o 


a B •c s 






U-* 


"H o o o 








o ^ ^ ^ 






^1 


c .5 .= .= 


■|^ 




M 


^ -«• ra» -*» 


"^ ei 






t~ o o e« 


c 




o 


74 ^> 


o 




•^ 


*->-'— N . >- 






•Sm^fUk 




"i s 




Tpwnaa^taq 


'?'*-f?»'^-?-*rj 


c = 




tnoqai i«ua;ni 
















o 




'gitJuiio 


>-»r>- -^-i-* -<>--*-. *■ »i -■ i-» ^ 


5 >._. 




nj^ilSrajijOBWi 










_ o — 

S 2 

5 "" 
o 2 






-<:«— ^ -o-3-»-o— 


Is 


6 ^ r i3 2 S S i? o S 






^ 


f5 


•«T 




:& 


o 


.5 — 




e 
o 

s 








a 


<;:•<;.< 


Cm ""■ 


t; 










H 


j t^ — rtt^t^ — r:t-t^ 


^ "^ 


.Hf 




I ^~ ^" 


5 g 


'3 




~* 
















"3 — ^ 


o 








.= t£ 






eo - - : ^ - - - o 


ti. = 


'u 


OB 


«> 








B 






H 


& -. r : : ; : : r 


' 


^^ 




-5 







spherical top, and will contain 8,000 bricks, which are 
PD placed as to allow a space between the sides of each 
for the action of heat, and an equal diffusion thereof, 
^hen the oven is full, the clamm'ms or doorway is made 
up, and the fires kindled and kept burning 3G hours for 
red, and 38 hours for blue bricks, consuming 3^ tons of 
coak for the former, and 4 tons for the latter. The 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



101 



firing, and drawing 
follows : labour 12s. 



an oven ol 
, and coals 



expense of setting, 
8,000 bricks is as 
£1 13*. M. 

14. Cost of Manufacture. — The details of tlie cost of 
manufacture are as follows : — 



Clay getting . . _ . . . .per 1,000 

Tempering and moulding .... 

Setting oven, firing and drawing 

Coals, 4 tons at 8s. Ad., divided amongst 8,000 

Duty, 05. 10(/., with 5 per cent, added 

Eent, machinery, clay, contingencies, and profit 

Present seUing price for ordinary blue bricks 



d. 
6 
9 
6 
2 

114 



1 8 



15. Rental. — Brick-yards with mines of marls are set 
with the following appendages, viz. : 1 oven, moulding 
or drying-house, and pug-mill, with a breadth of brick 
floor and marl bank sufficient to work one oven for £30 
per annum ; if two ovens are worked in the take, they 
are set at £2o each. 



102 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

IG. Fi(js. Ij 2, 3, Machine, with three pairs of Rollers, 

for grinding Marl. 

Fig. 1. Side elevation. 

Fig. 2. Front elevation, with the gearing removed. 

Fig. 3. Elevation of gearing, No. 1 being the drivicg wheel. 









'or 



^ 






^v\\mr'^A\\\^m\: iTii iiJiiii'ii^ piiB 



r 




ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 103 

17. Fig. 4. Isometrical View of a Moulding Table. 




A. Sand basket. b. Detached water-box. c. Moulding board 
D. Water-box. e. Clay knife. 

In the process of moulding the moulder takes in his hand, from the 
basket, a portion of sand, and dusts upon that part of the table where he 
rolls the clay into the form necessary to mould ; also upon the moulding 
board. The water-box or trough, b, is used by the boy to wash the mould 
in, and is lower than the table, so as to be convenient for that purpose. 
The water-box, d, is level with the table, and is used to throw the strike 
in after each time of using. 



18. Fig, 5. Isometrical View of a Brick Mould. 




N.B. The mould is made of oak, the edges plated with iron. 



104 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



19. Bgs. 6, 7, 8, and 9. The Oven or Cupola 

Fig. 6. Plan taken at top of fire-holes at level a b, Fig. 9. 




'mA. 



3 i' 1 O 



Fig. 7. Plan, looking down on top of oven. 




ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 105 

Fig. 8. Elevation. 




Fig. 9. Section, on line c d, Fig. 6. 




SECOND EXAMPLE. — TILE MAKING. 

20. At Basford there is an extensive hill of good marls 
from which eight brick-yards are supplied (working four- 
teen ovens), some of which have been in work for forty 
years. The makers are subject to the rental stated in 
art. 15. The leading article made at these yards is roofing 

F 3 



106 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

tiles ; besides which are also made some quarries, dust- 
bricks; drain tiles, and just so many common bricks as are 
necessary for the manufacture of tiles, it being necessary, 
in order to set the oven properly, to burn 2,000 bricks 
with every oven of roof tiles, as will be hereafter ex- 
plained. The process of tile making here is as follows : — 

21. Weathering a7id Tempering. — The marl is dug 
and spread upon slopes of this hill (which has a south- 
east aspect) to weather; the length of time depends 
upon the quality of the air : a hot dry summer's day will 
do good service, and three or four such days would 
enable the makers to collect a thin surface in a work- 
able condition. Frosty weather, provided it be dry, is 
preferred ; wet, and alternations of wet and dry, retard 
the process of what is termed weathering. During ? 
hot dry season marl can be dug, weathered, and mad& 
in one month, and this is frequently done. At the yards 
here referred to, the workers collect their marls, so 
weathered, at the foot of these slopes, and mix them 
with a quantity of water. That to be used for tiles is 
placed in the pug-mill, and about 1 cube yard per hour 
is ground by one horse ; and that used for common 
bricks is not ground, but simply mixed and tempered. 

The pug-mill consists of a wooden tub slightly 
tapered, the largest end being uppermost ; it is circular 
and about G ft. high and 3 ft. diameter at the top or 
largest end, in which a cast-iron spindle revolves, 
carrying a series of flat steel arms, arranged so as to 
form by rotation a spiral or worm-like motion upon the 
clay, which is thereby pressed from a larger to a less 
diameter of the tub in which the clay is confined, and 
ultimately comes oozing out of an aperture at the 
bottom : this operation kneads the clay, and more com- 
pletely mixes it, giving it great cohesive power. This 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 107 

clay or prepared marl is now ready to make roof tiles, 
dust bricks^ quarries, &c., and is wheeled away to the 
stock kept under cover for that purpose. The tiles, and 
all articles in the making of which coal-dust is used, 
are made in a building called by brickmakers the hovel 
or drying house : but they prefer placing their tiles 
when first moulded in the open air, weather permitting. 
The moulding of roofing tiles varies from that of bricks 
before described, principally in the clay being stiffer, 
and coal dust being thrown in the mould each time it 
is filled. 

22. Moulding. — The mould is 12 in. by 7| in. and 
^ in. thick, made of oak plated with iron. The moulder 
at his bench takes up a lump of clay, and works it by 
hand into an oblong square, somewhat less than the 
mould, say 11 in. by 7 in. or thereabout ; the mould is 
placed upon the bench, and fine coal-dust thrown into 
it ; the man then takes up the lump of clay in the right 
position for the mould, and throws it into it with con- 
siderable force ; then, with a brass wire strained upon a 
wooden bow, cuts off the surplus clay level with the 
mould, removes the lump, and finishes moulding the 
clay left in the mould by adding a little clay if it be 
wanted, and smooths it over with a wooden tool. By 
his side upon the bench he has two thin boards about 
the size of the moulded tile, their surfaces are dusted 
over with coal-dust ; upon one of these he places the 
moulded tile, without the mould, the half circular pro- 
jections extending beyond the board; and so he repeats 
the process of moulding at the rate of from 1,300 to 
1,500 per day, adding more clay to his lump about every 
six tiles moulded, and in quantity about as much as the 
six tiles moulded. 

23. Drying, — The attendant boy carries away two 



108 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

tiles at each time to the floor ; he takes up one on the 
boards and by the thick part of the hand presses up the 
two projections at right angles with the face of the tile, 
and then places board and tile on his head, and takes 
up a second and operates upon this in like manner, as 
he walks to the floor, where he lays the two tiles, 
carrying the boards back to the moulding bench ; and 
so he repeats his operations. 

The tiles remain on this floor, out of doors in fine 
weather, about four hours ; they are then collected and 
placed close together, the nib end changed alternately 
to allow of their resting close and square ; in this state 
they are walled up in a dry but not hot situation, and 
so remain for a day or two : this is said to toughen 
them. 

24. The Set. — The next process is to give them a 
curved form, sometimes termed the set, which is done 
on a three-legged stool, called a horse, the top of Avhich 
is a little larger than the tile, and is curved one way to 
about a 10 feet radius. With the horse is used a 
wooden block, curved to correspond with the surface of 
the horse. These implements are used as follows : six 
tiles are taken as last placed and put on this horse ; the 
man lifts up the wooden block and gives them three 
sharp blows with it ; they are then carried away and 
placed in an ingeniously built wall to complete the 
drying process (the wall built with the tiles to be dried), 
after which they are carried to the oven, twelve at each 
time, in a peculiar manner, with the edges of the tiles 
against the breast of the carrier. 

25. Quarries and dust bricks are moulded in like 
manner from stiff" clay, coal-dust being used to facilitate 
the articles leaving the mould. 

26. Drain Tiles. — Pipe drain tiles are made as fol. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 109 

lows : tlie clay is first moulded to the lengtli^ width, 
and thickness required, and then wrapped round a 
drum, the edges closed together by hand, the drum or 
mandril turned round, and the pipe tile shaped by the 
operator's hand, assisted in some cases by a wooden 
tool : this is the mode of making pipe tiles from 3 in. 
to 16 in. in diameter, whether cylindrical, tapered, or 
egg-shaped. 

The usual length is 18 in., and the diameter from 
3 in. to 9 in. They are sold at Id. per in. bore ; that is, 
a pipe 3 in. in diameter and 18 in. long, would cost at 
the yard 3d. ; and a pipe 9 in. in diameter and 18 in. 
long, 9d. This price applies to cylindrical pipes without 
sockets. 

27. Tile Machines. — One of Ainslie's machines has 
been introduced into this neighbourhood^ upon the 
estate of the Duke of Sutherland, for making small 
tubular drain tiles, which makes two pipes 1^ in. in 
diameter at the same time. The prepared clay is forced 
through two dods to form the tubes, which are cut into 
lengths by wires affixed to the machine, and when 
partially dry are rolled straight by hand upon a flat 
surface, and then set up in racks to finish the drying 
process. 

28. Firing. — Firing the articles enumerated in the 
previous description requires much more care than 
firing bricks, and as roof tiles are the thinnest and 
require most care, the largest sized pipe tiles excepted, 
we shall describe firing an oven of such tiles. 

On the bottom of the oven are first placed 2,000 
bricks, as shown in fig. 13, and upon these are placed 
7,000 tiles, forming a square, the spaces between the 
tiles and the curved side of the oven being filled up 
with bricks, as shown in fig. 14. The tiler are placed 



110 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

edgewisGj in parcels of twelve, changing their direction 
each parcel of twelve. The nibs on the tiles space them 
off from each other, and support them in the vertical 
position ; from this description, and a reference to the 
illustrations, it will appear, that the goods placed in the 
oven are in each case so placed as to allow the diffusion 
of heat between them ; and as the uniformity of heat is 
the desideratum in firing blue bricks and tiles, the 
circular oven is found to answer better than any other 
at present in use. 

It is necessary to have a wall round the outside of 
the oven, about 6 ft. high, and at a distance therefrom 
to allow the fireman space to attend his fires conve- 
niently ; this wall is dry built generally with imperfect 
bricks, and its use is to avoid one fire being urged more 
than another by the set of the wind, which duty it 
performs tolerably well. 

The oven being set, the clammins (doorway) is made 
up with bricks daubed over with street sweepings as a 
loam ; then the fires are kindled, and are kept slowly 
bui'ning for the first 5 hours, after which they are pro- 
gressively increased for the next 33, making 38 hours 
for hard fired blue tiles or bricks; four tons of coal 
being consumed in the firing. The heat is determined 
by the sight of the fireman directed to the mouths and 
top outlet of the oven. When the heat is obtained, and 
before the fires bum hollow, the mouths arc stopped up 
with ashes to prevent the currents of cold air passing 
through the oven, which is then suffered to cool gradu- 
ally. An oven is usually fired once a week, but may be 
fired three times in a fortnight. After firing, twenty- 
four hours should be allowed for cooling before an oven 
is opened to take out the tiles. 

29. The following table shows the selling price per 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



Ill 



IjOOOj and cost per superficial yard^ of quarries^ dust 
bricks, and roof tiles : — 



Site. 


i.ooo- 1 000 i . y*"^"^ 

' ' 1 m pence. 


Thickness. Description. 


6 in. sq. 

7 „ 
9 » 
9X4i 

10 8X7 „ 


35s. 27-89 yards. 
46s. 37-80 „ 
80s. 62-50 „ 
40s. ' 31-25 „ 
25s. 1 58-33 „ 
1 


15-00 
14-59 
15-36 
14-33 
5-14 


I 1 inch Quarries. 

2 „ Dust bricks. 
1 „ Roof tUes. 



DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

30. Fiy. 10. Isometrkal Vieiv of a Bench for moulding 
Tiles, 




A. Coal-dust box, 14 in. by 8 in. 

B. Moulding board, 14 in. by 10 in. 
c. The bow. 

31. Fiy. 11. Elevation, showing the Manner in which 
the Tiles are placed during the last Drying. 




d d, laths, two to each course. 



112 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



32. Fig. 12. Tile Block and Horse. 




a. The block. b. The horse. 



Tiles, 



33. Fig, 13. Plan of Oven, as seen when eight courses 
of Bricks are placed edgewise. 




The eight rows of twelve bricks in each, as seen in plan, cover a space 
left in continuation of flues from the eight fire-holes. The bricks in the 
fust seven courses are so placed as to leave a flue of an average width of 
4 inches. The dotted lines show the position of the fire-holes. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



113 



Si. Fiq. 1^- Plan of Oven, as seen when the first course 
of Tiles are placed upon the Bricks, as seen in 
Bg. 13. 




The tiles are placed in bungs of twelve, and laid alternately cross and 
lengthwise, the nib spaces them off, and supports them in a vertical 
position. Each side of the square is made up with bricks, as shown on 
the plan. 

35. The manufacture of bricks^ &c., for building and 
paving purposes^ in a systematic mannerj in suitable 
premises with improved conveniences^ so that the opera- 
tives may be employed the whole of the year instead of 
a portion of it as noAV, is a subject deserving the atten- 
tion of the capitalist and inventor. Improvements in 
the quality and conveniences of this manufacture are 
intimately connected -with the moral, intellectual, and 
physical condition of society, as may be seen by a visit 
to any ordinary brickyard, and a reference to the 
evidence before the Sanitary Commission. "Where ex- 
tensive supplies of marls or clay are found, suitable 
works might be erected for such manufacture, could a 



114 nUDIMENTS OF THE 

cheap and ready mode of transportation be commanded, 
so as to carry bricks, See, a distance of 60 to 100 miles 
without materially increasing their price. 

36. Assuming the -sveight of bricks to be 3^ tons per 
1,000, the present railway charges for the carriage of 
bricks, viz. 2(1. per ton per mile, if under 40 miles, and 
l|rf. per mile if more than 40 miles, would add to their 
cost as follows : — 

£ s. d. 

If carried under 40 miles . . .00 7 per 1,000 per mile. 

Or for a distance of 39 miles . .12 9 

And if carried above 40 miles . .00 6 per 1,000 per mile. 

Or for a distance of 60 miles . .110 7 

Therefore a carriage of 60 miles at the lowest railway 
rate more than doubles the value of a common brick 
compared with the price at the yard. The high rate of 
charge for carriage, and the duty, which amounts to 
nearly 22 per cent, of the selling price at the yard, 
constitute obstacles to the improvement of the brick 
manufacture, and the bettering of tlie coudition of the 
operatives employed therein. The recent improvements 
in connection with domestic comfort and health, and 
the encouragement offered to architectural improve- 
ments in the houses for artisans, may probably awaken 
an interest in this department of industry, and place 
even brickmaking in the position its importance 
deserves, if not demands. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



115 



6 



S'3 



-■3 33 



;S» 



-wg B— jgnq iqSn 


oc la 00 •* CO 

«0 Tt -o 1 W 1 rt 1 1 ^ 




•aniq oiiiq 

jou iipi pa« 'paj 

sujnq -^uaox-uodn 

-a^ojS oioJJ -^810 


1 


60-02 

24-26 

9-14 

1-60 

Trace. 
1-40 
3-89 


CO 


•aniq poo3 sujnq 

,'» POB '£ 's 'i -sojj 

•s.iBlo JO 3aTi;xiH 


1 


ic r< — 5^ 


PI 
ci 




■<* — r» o — O ■'I" 

00 O Ca 1 CO tS <JI 1 O 


CO 

o 

o 


•qsippaa anjq stunq 
'[aBoi paiSmji 


i^ L2 — r-. o 

— ?) -i" 1 Tl , , ,00 


00 


•aniq qsrppw suJnq 


00 -o n I- t^ 

'^ lb lb 00 1 -^ 1 1 I o 




•aniq pooS samq 
't-WoipajnoioDnna 


(N 


64-32 
20-33 
10-8(3 

Trace. 
6-60 


T-l 

O 


•aniq snjnq 
qoiqii 'ia«ni paa 


- 


69-87 
16-79 

8-88 

Trace. 
4-26 


o 

00 




'3 
>. 

"3 

a 

< 

o 

u 
o 

E 

3 


a 
\Z 
'•X. 


1 

< 


1 'eroxide of iron, with a little protoxide 
Trofoxide of iron, with a little peroxide 
Linio 


"1 '. 
• 5c'5 • 

1 i^ • 
3lJI 


1 

! 



116 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 






o 





t^ 








X 








s 1 


oc 




•>* 


5 


« 


o 








H 






















CO 
















t^ 




w 




•>* 








o 




ac 








t» 








o 


t- 


c^ 


— 


|5) 


o 


o 




* 


■<» 


f; 




~ 




o 




'" 




2 




M 




X 








■* 




Eh 




ts 


vc 




- 


• 


l-H 




B 


n 










to 

c 








i 




IN 








'5 








5 








c^ 




a 




00 








n 


^ 


n 


^ 


•a 


^ 


00 






0* 


n 




-r 




u 




00 








t^ 




CS 




J5 








i 




M 








s 
o 














^^ 








o 




B 




•ft 




^^ 




"o 




Tf 




5 

c 
o 




O 


■^ 


c 


^-. 


o 


n 


00 




00 


n 








^ 






OD 


u 






rt 


-9 


cs 


a 
o 

o 


f 


00 


s 

Xi 

i 

3 


OD 
O 

s 

Cm 

o 

CO 


«e 


n 

n 














s 


c 

o 








X 




•a 




r~ 


3 






00 


Ci 




K 


o 

O 


o 


S4 


•« 
o 


1 


»^ 


lb 




*" 










e 












♦* 






^^ 


o. 








X 


O 


1 

c 


00 


3 

o 

■i 


• 


B 

e 

i 

o 


•ft 


6 
•o 








, 




. 


. 








^« 




















o 


. 






K« 




B 
















c 




U 








"2 








■fc 


^ 


"3 






•■^ 


Eh 








O 


u 


^•^ 






a 




o 






f 




3 






I 


c 

CO 

e 








02 
1 




CO 

CI 

J 






.2 




.2 






•J 


.2 






< 


1 

C5 


< 


s 

Cm 






B 
< 


O 

a 




^ 


o 


•■-■^ 


o 


o 






O 


eS 




"u 








o 








t) 




C3 




n 


u 

^ 








e 

a 

;2; 


a 

_3 




'3 


"c 


< 


E 


o 






c 


X 


2 


E-i 


a 
525 








< 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 117 

No. 5, Table 1, contains 42"84 per cent, silicic acid; 
this requires^ theoretically, 47*60 of alumina, or its 
chemical equivalent in other bases, to form a fusible 
compound ; it therefore contains only 3'31 per cent, 
excess of base. This is insufficient to prevent its fusion 
— a much larger excess would. No. 1 contains 2259 
of base, which requires 25 "1 of silicic acid, therefore 
69'87 — 25*10 = 44*77 the excess of silicic acid, or 
uncombined silica in the clay, rendering it infusible. 

Analysis of Coal, called Norton Coal, used in the 
potteries for burning pottery and bricks : — 

Carbon 81 08 

Hydrogen 5'04 

Oxygen 10'55 

Sulphur 0-36 

Nitrogen Trace. 

Ash 2-97 



10000 



A.NALYSIS of a porous substance which floats in water. 
It is a piece of a vitrified fort from Connel Ferry, near 
Dunstaffnage Castle, Scotland : — 



Alumina and peroxide of iron 28"45'\ 

Silica 67-85 

Lime 0-32 

Manganese .... Trace. 
Water . . , . 1-88 



98-50 ; 



This specimen has the appear- 
ance of pumice-stone. It is 
only very slightly fusible even 
in the very highest temperature 
of the blow-pipe. 



BRICKMAKING ON THE SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE RAILWAY. 

38. The following additional particulars respecting 
brickmaking in Staffordshire were sent to the author 
of this volume by Mr. J. L. Brown, of Farewell, near 
Lichfield, and arc given in his own words : — 



118 RUDIMENTS OP THE 

*' The brickyard I visited is on the highway from 
Lichfield to Walsall^ at a place called Walsall Wood ; 
it is -worked by ^Ir. George Brown, of the Sand Hills, 
near that place. Mr. B. has another brickyard in the 
neighbourhood, more extensive than the one I visited, 
and from these brickyards have been supplied all the 
bricks used for building the bridges, -viaducts, cattle- 
arches, culverts, &c., &c., on the South Staftbrdshire 
Junction Railway. 

^' The brickyard I visited has six kilns or cupolas, and 
three large moulding and drying-sheds for use in the 
winter season, each 40 yards long by 8 yards wide, 
having fire-places at one end, and traversed by flues, 
longitudinally, to a chimney at the other end. 

" The material used is not a clay, but a friable kind 
of marl. The first stratum under the surface soil is 
about 4 ft, thick, very compact in body, and requires 
the pick to get it ; it is of a purplish hue. This is suc- 
ceeded by a stratum, 3 ft. thick, of bright yellow -looking 
marl, equally intermixed with marl, of a bright scarlet 
colour, and afterwards, down to the depth of 20 ft., the 
purple-coloured marl comes in again. 

" The earth in its raw state is dra-vni up an inclined 
plane on a common railway truck, by a steam-engine 
of 20-horse power, and at the top of the incline it tips 
itself into a hopper placed over the cast-iron rollers, 
between which the marl passes and comes down an 
inclined board, after being ground quite small. It is 
afterwards wheeled into heaps and tempered, and is 
then wheeled up an inclined plane of earth to the engine- 
house, where it is passed through vertical cylinders of 
cast iron, in the centres of -which are revolving pistons 
armed with flanges, like the screw propeller of a steam 
vessel, which grind the tempered clay and force it 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 119 

tlirougli holes in the bottoms of the cylinders to 
chambers beneath them, whence it is -wheeled to the 
moulders. 

" They make red and blue bricks of the same marl, 
prepared in each case by rolliog and grinding. To 
make the blue bricks, they keep the fires very much 
sharper and hotter, which changes their colour, and 
seems to run or fuse the material more, giving them at 
the same time a shining appearance. They make very 
Pew red bricks. 

" The price of the best bricks at the kiln is 30^. per 
1,000; common bricks, 2os. per 1,000. Plain-tiles 
for roofing, 285. to 32*. per 1,000. They also make 
chimney-pots, pipes for the conveyance of water, splayed 
bricks, coping bricks, and bricks to any model." 



CHAPTER V. 

BEICOIAKING IN THE VICINITY OF LONDON. 

1. For facility of reference, we propose to divide the 
subject under three heads, as follows : — 

1st. Materials and Plant. 
2nd. Process of Manufacture. 
3rd. Cost of Manufacture. 

1. MATERIALS AND PLANT. 

2. Brick-earth. — The brickmakers in the vicinity of 
London at present derive their principal supplies of 
brick-earth from the alluvial deposits lying above the 
London clay, the blue clay not being used for brick- 
making at the present day. The general character of 



120 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

the brick-earth may be described as being a gravelly 
loam, passing by fine gradations into either a strong 
clay or into marl, or, as it is technically called, malm, an 
earth containing a considerable quantity of chalk in fine 
particles. "We may, therefore, for the purpose of descrip- 
tion, class the several qualities of brick-earth under three 
heads, as follows :* strong clay, loam, and malm. 

3. 1st. Stronff Clay. — This is generally sufficiently 
free from stones to be used without washing, and the 
bricks made from it are hard and sound, but are liable 
to crack and contract very considerably in drying, and 
become warped and misshapen in burning. These de- 
fects are in a great measure removed by mixing the 
earth with chalk, reduced to the consistency of cream, 
as will be presently described, which greatly diminishes 
the contraction of the clay, and improves the colour of 
the brick. 

4. 2nd. Loam. — The loams are often so full of gravel 
that it is impossible to free them from stones, except by 
passing the earth through the wash-mill. The quantity 
of sand present in these earths renders them less liable 
to shrink and warp than the strong clays ; but, on the 
other hand, the texture of tlie earth is so loose and in. 
coherent, that a mixture of chalk is necessary to bind 
the mass together, and to take up the excess of fusing 
silica in the process of burning. 

5. 3rd. Malm. — This is an earth suitable for making 
bricks, without any addition, but there is very little now 
to be had, and for making the best qualities of bricks 
(or, as they are called, malms) an artificial malm is made, 

* It may be obscn-cd that this classification is such as wouKl be best 
understood by the generality of readers, but would not be comprehended 
by most brickmakers, who class these three qualities of brick-earths as 
strong clay, mild clay, and malm. When the clays are strong, they are 
said, in brickmakers' language, to hc/vul. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 121 

by mixing together chalk and clay, previously reduced 
to pulp in wash-mills. This pulp is run off into shallow 
pits, where it remains until, by evaporation and settle- 
ment, it has become of sufficient consistency for subse- 
quent operations. This process is adopted for the best 
qualities of bricks only, as the expense of it is very con- 
siderable ; and, for the commoner sorts, all that is done 
is, to mix with the loam or clay a sufficient quantity of 
malm to make it suitable for brickmaking : the quan- 
tity of malm required for this purpose varies, of course, 
according to the quality of the earth. 

6. It -will be readily understood, from the above 
remarks, that the mode of preparing the clay differs 
greatly in different yards. The brick-earth (according 
to its quality) being used — 

1st. Without either washing or maiming. 

2nd. It may be maimed, i.e., covered with artificial 
malm. 

3rd, and lastly. The bricks may be made entirely of 
malm. 

The second process is the most common, and we pro- 
pose, therefore, in the following pages, to describe the 
successive operations of brickmaking as practised at 
those works where the loamy character of the earth 
renders the maiming indispensable. This will enable 
the reader to understand the first and third methods of 
treating the brick-earth without any farther description. 

7. The object of adding chalk to the clay is twofold. 
In the first place it acts mechanically, in diminishing 
the contraction of the raw brick before burning ; and 
in the second place it acts chemically, as a flux during 
the burning, combining with the silica of the clay, so 
that a well-burnt London brick may be described as 
a silicate of lime and alumina, and, therefore, differs 

o 



122 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

greatly from an ordinary red kiln-burnt brick made of 
pure clay, ■without lime or alkaline matter, the silica 
and alumina of the brick-earth being, in the latter case, 
merely in mechanical and not chemical combination. 

8. Soil. — The process of maiming is not the only 
peculiarity of London brickmaking. Instead of the 
bricks being burnt in close kilns, as is the practice in 
most country yards, " clamping" is universally resorted 
to ; and to render this effective, it is considered neces- 
sary that the fuel should be mLxed up with the brick- 
earth, so that each brick forms, as it were, a fire ball, 
and becomes thoroughly burnt throughout, instead of 
being merely baked, as is the case in kiln burning. The 
fuel used in clamp burning is domestic ashes, or, as they 
are technically called, breeze. The ashes are collected 
in large heaps, and sifted ; the siftiugs, which are called 
soil, being mixed with the brick-earth, and thoroughly 
incorporated with it in the processes of soiling and 
"tempering," whilst the cinders, or " breeze," are used 
as fuel. A small quantity of coal and wood is also 
made use of in lighting the clamp. 

The soil, or sifted ashes, materially assists in pre- 
venting the contraction of the raw bricks whilst drying, 
and the sulphur contained therein appears to assist in 
colouring the bricks when burnt. 

9. Sa7id. — The moulding sand is brought, at a con- 
siderable expense, from the bed of the river Thames, 
near Woolwich. It is spread out to dry in the sun in 
thin layers, which are repeatedly raked over, so as to 
expose every particle in succession to the sun's rays, 
that the whole may be perfectly dry when brought to 
the moulding stool. The moulding sand serves many 
useful purposes. It assists in preventing the contrac- 
tion of the clay, and gives a more durable surface to the 
bricks. It is indispensable to the moulder for pre- 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 123 

venting the bricks from sticking to his mould. It also 
prevents the bricks from sticking together on the hacks, 
and from breaking up into cracks and flaws when cool- 
ing, after being burnt. Lastly, the salt in the river 
sand becomes decomposed in the burning, and assists 
in fluxing the brick-earth, and in giving the bricks their 
grey colour. Common sand burns of a red tint, and 
would injure the colour of the London bricks. 

10. General Arrangement of a Brickwork. — This will 
be readily understood by reference to fig. 1. The brick- 
earth is turned over to receive the malm as near as 
possible to the clay pits. The clay and chalk mills are 
placed close together in some convenient position, so 
as to interfere with the works as little as can be helped, 
and the malm is conveyed from them to the heap of 
brick- earth, by means of troughs or shoots supported 
on tressels. 

Close to the brick-earth, and immediately behind the 
moulding stool is placed the pug-mill, and in front of 
the moulding stool is the hack ground, which should, if 
possible, be laid out with a gentle fall towards the 
clamps, which is placed at its furthest extremity. 
These arrangements are of course much modified by the 
circumstances of the locality. 

11. The Chalk and Clay Mills. — These washing- 
mills are placed close together on a large double mound, 
sufiiciently elevated to allow the malm to run down 
freely to the brick-earth. The chalk-mill is a circular 
trough lined with brickwork, in which the chalk is 
ground by the action of two heavy wheels with spiked 
tires, made to revolve by either one or two horses. The 
trough is supplied with water by a pump, the lever of 
which is worked by the machinery of the clay-mill, and 
as the chalk becomes ground into pulp it passes, by 

G 2 



124 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



Fig.l. 






K 




ART OP MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 125 

means of a shoot, into the clay-mill. The clay-mill is 
also a circular trough, lined with brickwork, but much 
larger than that of the chalk-mill ; and in this trough 
the clay is mixed with the pulp from the chalk-mill, and 
is cut and stirred by knives and harrows put in motion 
by two horses, until the whole mass is reduced to the 
consistency of cream, when it passes off through a brass 
grating into the troughs or shoots, and is conducted to 
the brick earth which has been heaped up to receive it. 
The machinery of the washing-mills is very fully de- 
lineated in figs. 2 to 10, and is described in detail in 
arts. 53 and 54. 

12. The Pug-mill. — The pug-mill used in brick- 
raaking is a conical tub, with its larger end uppermost, 
in the centre of which is a revolving vertical shaft of 
iron, to which are attached horizontal knives, inclined 
so that the clay is slowly forced downwards by their 
motion. The top and bottom knives are called force 
knives, and their use is merely to force the earth 
through the mill, and out at the ejectment hole ; all the 
other knives are furnished with cross knives, which 
assist in cutting the clay, and breaking up any hard 
lamps that may not have been broken up by the pre%4ous 
wintering and turning over. In order to feed the mill, 
an inclined barrow-run is laid up to it, to enable the 
wheeler to tip the clay in at the top. 

The construction of the pug-mill is shown in figs. 1 1 
and 12. 

13. TJie Cuckhold, fig. 13, is an instrument for 
cutting off lumps of the tempered clay for the use of 
the moulder, as it is ejected from the pug-mill, and 
requires no particular description. 

14. The Moulding Stool. — The moulding stool is 
quite different from that used in most parts of the 



126 



RUDIMENTS OF THK 



J^i^. 2 and 3. 




country. It has a rim at each cncl^ to keep the moulding 
sand from falling off, and is provided with a stock-board, 
which forms the bottom of the brick mould, and with a 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AXD TILES. 127 



J^js. i and 5. 





y/rr 



page, which is formed with two rods of f iron, nailed 
down at each end to the wooden rails on which they 
rest. The use of the page is to slide the raw bricks 
more readily from the moulder to the place from whence 
thev are taken and put upon the hack barrow by the 
" taking-off " boy. The moulder, when at work, stands 



J 28 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



I'lg. 6. 



J. 




near the middle of the stool, with the page on his left 
hand, and his assistant, the clot-moulder, on his right. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



129 



Fig. 6. 







The moulding sand for the nse of the moulder and clot- 
raoulder is placed in separate heaps at the opposite ends 

G 3 



130 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



Fig. 7. 




^ 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 13] 

Fig. 8. 



^iiH 



hi 



!e 



10 



Figs. 9 and 10. 




of the stool, and the tempered clay nearly opposite to 
the moulder. There is no water-box, but a tub is placed 



132 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



jpig. 11. 




on the stool, into which the strike is thrown when not 
in use. The pallets are placed at one end of the page, 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



133 



Fig. 12. 




134 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



Fig, 13. 




and close to the moulder's left hand. These particulars 
will be fully understood by reference to fig. 13, and to 
the detailed description in art. 56. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES 



135 



15. The Brick Mould is made of sheet iroUj iu four 
pieces, riveted together at the angles, aud strengthened 
with wood at the sides only. The bottom of the mould 
is detached, and forms what is called the Stock-board. 
See fig. 14. 

Fig. 14. 




f2 



IN^ 



16. The Stock-board is a piece of wood plated with 
iron round the upper edge, and made to fit the mould 



loG RUDIMENTS OF THE 

accurately, but easily. At each corner an iron pin is 
driven into the moulding stool, and on these pins the 
bottom of the mould rests, the thickness of the brick 
being regulated by the distance to ^vhich the pins are 
driven below the top of the stock -board. The hollow 
in the bed of the brick is produced by a rectangular 
piece of wood, called a kick, of the size and shape of the 
hollow required, which is fastened on the upper side of 
the stock-board. 

17. The Strike is a smooth piece of wood, about 
10 in. long by 1^ in. wide and \ in. thick, and is used 
to remove the superfluous clay in the process of 
moulding. 

The Pallets are pieces of board § in. thick, and of 
the exact width of the mould, but about f in. longer. 
Three sets of pallets, twenty-six in each set, arc re- 
quired for each moulder at work. 

18. The Hack Barrow, figs. 15 and 16, is of a pecu- 
liar construction. It consists of a light frame, sup- 
porting a flat top of lattice work, on which the bricks 
are placed in two parallel rows, thirteen in each row. 
Three barrows are required for each moulder. 

19. The Hack Ground occupies the space between 
the moulding stool and the clamp. It should be well 
drained, and it is desirable that it should be on a slight 
fall towards the clamp, as this lessens the labour of 
wheeling. The foundations of the hacks are slightly 
raised. It is of importance that the barrow-runs be- 
tween the hacks should be perfectly even, as any jolting 
of the hack barrow would injure the shape of the raw 
bricks, which, when first turned out of the mould, are 
very soft. The hacks are placed 11 ft. apart, measured 
from centre to centre, their length varying according to 
the shape of the ground. It is very difiicult to say 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



137 



£ig. 15. 




T- ' 



what extent of hack ground should be allotted to each 
moulding stool, as this varies greatly in diflFerent yards. 
In round numbers, the quantity of land required for a 
brickwork may be stated at from 1 ^ to 2 acres for each 



138 



RUDIMENTS OV THE 

Fig. 16. 




moulding stool, but tins includes tlic whole of the land 
required for the several purposes. 

II.— PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE. 

20. Clay Digging. — The first turning over of the 
hrick-earth should take place in the autumn, in order 
that it mav have the benefit of the winter firosts before 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TiLES. 139 

being used. The vegetable mould and top soil having 
been wheeled to spoils the brick-earth is turned up three 
or four spits deep, and laid on a level floor, prepared for 
the purpose, and banked round to prevent the escape of 
the malm in the process of maiming. 

21. The quantity of clay required per 1,000 bricks is 
variable, of strong clay more being required than of 
milder qualities. 

It is generally calculated that an acre 1 ft. deep, or 
about 1,600 cubic yards of clay, will make 1,000,000 
bricks, but strong clays will require from 182 to 200 
cubic yards per 100,000 bricks. For practical purposes 
the quantity may be thus approximately stated : — 

Strong clay 2 cubic yards per 1,000 bricks. 
Mild clay If cubic yard per 1,000 bricks. 

22. Maiming. — It has been before explained that the 
best bricks only are made entirely of malm, but that the 
process of maiming is resorted to for other descriptions 
of bricks, where the quality of the clay renders it unfit 
for brickmaking without this addition. It Avill, therefore, 
be readily understood that the quantity of malm mixed 
with the clay in the ordinary process of brickmaking 
varies very considerably, so that it is impossible to 
say, a priori, what quantity of malm should be used, as 
this must be left to the judgment of the brickmaker in 
each particular case, according to the quality of the 
earth. 

To keep the washing-mills in full work are required — 

To the chalk-mill, 2 diggers and 1 wheeler. 
To the clay-mill, 4 diggers and 2 wheelers. 

The chalk-mill is worked sometimes with one, and 
sometimes with two horses. The clay-mill always re- 
quires two horses. No drivers are required. 



140 nUDIMENTS OF THE 

The average work of the washing-mills, working 10 
hours a day, may be taken at about 12 cubic yards of 
malm,* or sufficient for making 6,000 malm bricks. 

The process of maiming scarcely requires description. 
Water having been pumped into the troughs, chalk is 
■wheeled to the chalk-mill, and clay to the clay-mill, 
and the horses being driven round, the chalk is crushed 
and ground by the wheels, and runs through the outlet 
into the clay-mill, where both chalk and clay get well 
mixed by the harrows, the liquid malm flowing out 
through the brass grating to the shoots, by which it is 
conducted to the brick-earth. As the heap becomes 
covered the shoots are shifted, so that the malm shall 
be equally distributed over every part of the heap. 

When a sufficient quantity of malm has been run oflp, 
it. is left to settle for a month or more, until it has 
become sufficiently consolidated to bear a man walking 
over it. As the solid portion of the malm settles, the 
water is drained off from time to time, and when the 
mass is sufficiently firm, the soiling is proceeded 
with. 

23. Soiling. — The proportion of ashes depends very 
much on the quality of the earth, but may be stated 
approximately at about 35 chaldrons for every 100,000 
bricks. The soil is laid on the top of the maimed earth, 
the thickness of the layer depending on that of the 
heap, about 3 in. of ashes being allowed for every spit 
of earth. 

The soiling concludes the preparation of the brick- 
earth, which is allowed to remain undisturbed until the 

* At a manufactory of artificial hydraulic lime at Meudon, near Paris, 
the clialk and clay arc ground together in a washing-mill, of the same, 
construction as those used in England, and worked by two horses. The 
quantity of malm produced is about Ij cubic ^ard per hour. — See Vicat 
on Cements. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES, ] dl 

moulding season, -whicli generally commences in April, 
The first process of the actual manufacture is — 

'14.'. Tempering. — The heap, prepared as above, is 
turned over by spade labour, and the ashes thoroughly 
incorporated with it, wate?' being added to bring the 
mass to a proper consistency. The tempered clay is 
then wheeled to the pug-mill, which, as before stated, is 
placed close to the clay heap, and immediately behind 
the moulding-stool. 

25. Pugying. — The tempered clay being thrown in 
at the top of the mill, gradually passes through it, and 
in so doing becomes so thoroughly kneaded as to be of 
a uniform colour, the ashes being equally distributed 
through the mass. The quantity of clay ground is 
about 1^ cubic yard per hour, so that a horse working 
10 hours per diem will grind 12^ cubic yards of clay, 
or sufficient to make 6,250 bricks. 

If the moulding process does not proceed as fast as 
the pugging, so that the clay will not be immediately 
used, the clay, as it comes out at the bottom of the 
mill, is removed with the cuckhold, and covered with 
sacks, to keep it from becoming too dry for use, 

26, Moulding. — Before commencing moulding, the 
moulding-stool is provided with two heaps of dry sand, 
a tub of water, in whicli to place the strike, a stock- 
board and brick-mould, and three sets of pallets. 
Everything being in readiness, and a supply of tern- 
pered clay having been placed on the stool by the feeder, 
whose business it is to carry the tempered clay from the 
pug-mill to the moulding-stool, the clot-moulder, who 
is generally a woman, sprinkles the stool with dry sand, 
and taking a clod, or clot, from the heap of tempered 
clay, dexterously kneads and moulds it roughly into tlie 
shjxpe of a brick, and passes it to the moulder on her 



142 BUUIMENIS Of Tirz 

left hand. The moulder, having sprinkled sand on the 
stock-board, and dashed the mould into the sand-heap 
on his left hand, places the mould on the stock-board, 
and dashes the clot into it with force, pressing it with 
his fingers, so as to force the clay into the angles of 
the mould. He then, with the strike, which has been 
well wetted in the water-tub, removes the superfluous 
clay, which he throws back to the clot-moulder to be 
remoulded. The mould is then lifted oflf the stock- 
board, and placed by the moulder against one of the 
pallets, which he catches dexterously with his fingers, 
and, turning out the raw brick upon it, slides it along 
the page to the taking-oflf boy, and, lifting up the 
empty mould, dashes it into the sand, and replaces it 
on the stock-board, preparatory to moulding a second 
brick ; when he has moulded one set of bricks, he 
scrapes away the sand which has adhered to the mould 
during the operation with the strike, and then proceeds 
with the next set. A moulder and clot-moulder, with 
the assistance of a feeder, a taking-off boy, and two 
men to wheel and hack the bricks, will make about 
5,000 bricks between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. ; but this 
quantity is often exceeded.* 

27. Hacking. — The raw brick is removed from the 
page by the taking-off boy and placed on the hack 
barrow, and when the latter is loaded, dry sand is 
sprinkled over the bricks, and they are carefully 
wheeled away to the hack ground. Having arrived at 
that part of the ground where the hack is to be com- 
menced, the man takes a spare pallet and pkccs it on 



* Sec the following : — " Brickmaking. On Wednesday last. Job. Bash, 
at Peterskre, Cumberland, performed the feat of making 1 ,000 bricks in 
•n boar ; 100 in fire minutes ; and 26 in one minate." — Carlisle JoumdU 
(This is not a solitary instance.) 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES 143 

one of the bricks, which he carries between the two 
pallets to the ground, and sets it up carefully edgeways, 
taking care in removing the pallets not to injure the 
shape of the soft brick. One of the pallets is replaced 
on the barrow, and with the other another brick is 
removed ; and the process is repeated till the twenty-six 
bricks have been placed on the ground, when the empty 
barrow is wheeled back to the moulding stool. In the 
meantime another barrow has been loaded, and is ready 
for wheeling to the hack ground. Three hack barrows 
are required, so that one of them is constantly being 
unloaded upon the hack ground, another loading at the 
moulding stool, and the third being wheeled to or from 
the hack ground. Thus two men are necessarily em- 
ployed in the operations of wheeling and hacking. The 
hacks are set up two bricks in width, the bricks being 
placed slantwise, and not at right angles, to the length 
of the hack. After the bottom row of one hack is com- 
pleted, a second hack is commenced, to give the bricks 
time to harden before a second course is laid on them ; 
and when the second course is commenced, the bricks 
must be placed fairly on each other, or they will be 
marked, which injures their appearance. The hacks 
are carried up in this way until they are 8 bricks 
high, when they are left for a few days to harden. To 
protect the new bricks from frost, wet, or intense heat, 
straw or reeds are provided and laid alongside the hack; 
and with these the bricks are carefully covered up at 
night, and at such other times as the weather may 
render necessary. When half dry, they are scintled,'^- 
that is, set farther apart, to allow the wind to pass 
freely between them, and they receive no further atten- 
tion until sufficiently dry for burning. The time 

• Literally, scattered. 



144 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

required for drying varies from tlii'ce to six weeks, 
according to the weather. =»= 

28. C/o/«;;i»^.— Figures 17, 18, 19, 20, and 21. The 
process of clamping requires great skill, and its prac- 
tical details are little understood, except by the ■work- 
men engaged in this part of the manufacture. Scarcely 
any two clamps are built exactly alike, the differences 
in the methods employed arising from the greater skill 
or carelessness of the workmen, and local circumstances, 
such as the situation of the clamp, and the abundance 
or scarcity of burnt bricks in the yard with which to 
form the foundation and the outside casing. We pro- 
pose, therefore, first to describe the method of building 
a clamp, according to the most approved system, and 
then to explain the principal variations practised in 
different yards. 

29. A clamp consists of a number of walls or necks, 
3 bricks thick, about 60 bricks long, and 24 to 30 bricks 
high, in an inclined position on each side of an upright 
or double battering waU in the centre of the clamp, the 
upright being of the same length and height as the 
necks, but diminishing from 6 bricks thick at bottom 
to 3 bricks thick at top. The sides and top of the 



• Mr. n. Chamberlain, in a paper read before the Society of Arts, IV. 
515, speaks of the great importance of drj-ing bricks : — " The dning of 
bricks ready for burning is a matter of great importance, and requires 
more attention than it generally receives. From hand-made bricks we 
have to evaporate some 25 per cent, of water before it is safe to burn 
Ihem. In a work requiring the make of 20,000 bricks per day, we have 
to evaporate more than 20 tons of water every 24 houi-s. Hand-made 
bricks 1092 in drying about one-fourth of their weight, and in drying and 
burning aboui ur.e-tliird. The average of machine bricks — those made 
of the stiff plastic ciay-do not lose more than half the above amount 
from evaporation, and arc, therefore, of mutit ^;:rcatcr specific gravity 
than hand-made ones." The artificial drying of bricks over flues can of 
course only be carried on where coal is cheap. Mr. Beart has contrived 
a steam chamber, where steam made to circilate in pipes is the source of 
heat for drying tl)e bricks. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



115 



Fq. ll 




146 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



Fig. la 




ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



147 



Fig. 20. 



rn 



7/ / // // >///// r-n-rn-T 



3 



I I I I I r 



r 
I I I I rfn I i\i I I 



T-r)-n-T^ 



i 



^ 



TT^T^^ 



TTT I I 1) ) I I I I I 



THE l/y£-//OL£ (cj 




148 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



Fig. 21. 




I 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 149 

clamp arc cased with burnt brick. The fuel used in 
burning the laid bricks consists of cinders (breeze, as 
before described), which are distributed in layers between 
the courses of bricks, the strata of breeze being thickest 
at the bottom. To light the clami^, live holes or flues, 
7 in. wide and 9 in, high, are left in the centre of the 
upright, and at every 7th or neck. These live holes 
extend through the whole thickness of the clamp, and 
are filled with faggots, which, being lighted from the 
outside, soon ignite the adjacent breeze. As soon a^ 
the clamp is fairly lighted, the mouths of the live holes 
are stopped, and the clamp burns until the whole of the 
breeze is consumed, which takes from three to six 
weeks. This description will give the reader a general 
idea of the arrangement of a clamp ; and we will now 
describe in detail the manner of building one, premising 
that the term close bolting signifies stacking bricks so 
that they shall be perfectly close to each other ; and 
that scintling means stacking bricks with spaces be- 
tween them. 

30. Foundation. — The ground is first carefully drained 
and levelled, and made perfectly firm and hard. The 
exact position of the clamp having been fixed, the 
ground is formed with a flat invert whose chord is 
equal to the width of the intended clamp. The object 
of this is to give a lift to each side of the clamp, which 
prevents the bricks from falling outwards as the breeze 
becomes consumed. The ground being prepared, the 
upright is commenced. But, previous to building, the 
clamp barrow-roads or tramways of sheet-iron are laid 
down between the hacks, and extended to the clamp 
ground, to give an easy motioi. to the barrows ; as, from 
the kind of barrows used in clamping, tlie bricks being 
piled on each other several courses high, and the 



]30 KUDIMENTS OF TIIi: 

wheeling carried on with considerable vclocitr, they are 
apt to upset. 

31 . Upright. — The upright is commenced by building 
two 9 inch battering walls about 45 ft. apart, of burnt 
bricks laid on edge, which are termed close bolts, the 
length of each wall being equal to the thickness of the 
upright, which at the bottom is 6 bricks thick, or about 
4 ft. 6 in. (their height is IG courses, or about 6 ft.). 
Between these bolts a line is stretched, by which the 
upright is built true. The ground between the bolts is 
paved with burnt bricks laid on edge, to exclude the 
moisture of the ground. Upon this paving are laid 
two courses of burnt bricks with spaces between them, 
termed scintles. In the bottom course of scintUs the 
bricks are laid diagonally about 2 in. apart. The 
second course consists of bm-nt bricks on edge, laid 
across the lower one, in lines parallel to the ends of the 
clamp, and also 2 in. apart. In laying these two courses 
of scintles, a live hole is left about 7 in. wide, the whole 
length of the upright ; and, on the completion of the 
second course, the live hole is fiUed up with faggots, and 
the whole surface covered over with breeze, which is 
swept or scraped into the spaces left between the bricks. 
On this surface is placed the first couree of raw bricks, 
laid on edge and quite close, beginning over the live- 
hole. Over this first course of raw bricks is laid a 
stratum of breeze 7 in. thick, the depth being increased, 
at the ends of the uprights, to 9 or 10 inches, by inserting 
three or four bricks on edge among the breeze. The 
object of this is to give an extra lift to the ends. The 
first course of bricks, it should be observed, is laid all 
headers. Over the first layer of breeze is laid a second 
course of raw bricks on edge, all stretchers. This is 
covered with 4 in. of breeze, and at each end arc inserted 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 15 1 

two or three bricks to increase the lift still more ; huL this 
time they are laid flat^ not edgeways. Upon the 4 in. 
layer of breeze is laid a heading course of raw bricks laid 
close, and on this 2 in. of breeze, without any extra lift at 
the end. To this succeed stretching and heading courses 
of raw bricks on edge, laid, close up to the top of the 
clamp, a layer of breeze, not more than | in. thick, being 
placed on the top of each course, except on the top 
course, which has 3 in. of breeze. The top of the up- 
right is finished by a close bolt of burnt bricks. The 
upright is built with an equal batter on each side, its 
width diminishing from six bricks lengthways at the 
base to three bricks lengthways at the top. In order 
that the upright should be perfectly firm, it is necessary 
that the bricks should be well tied in at the angles j 
and, in order to obtain the proper width, the bricks 
are placed in a variety of positions, so that no very 
regular bond is preserved, as it is of more consequence 
to keep the batter uniform. 

The close bolts first commenced, and which form the 
outer casing of the clamp, are not built close to the raw 
bricks, there being a small space left between the clamp 
and the close bolting, which is filhd up with breeze. 
The close bolts, however, are built with a greater batter 
than the ends of the upright, so that they just touch the 
latter at the 16th course, above which the clamp is built 
without any external casing. "When, however, the up- 
right is topped, and whilst the top close bolting is going 
on, the casing is continued up to the top of the clamp. 
This upper casing is called the bestowing, and consists 
of five or six courses of burnt brick laid flat, forming a 
casing 4| in. or half a brick thick ; and above the 6th 
course the bricks are laid on edge, forming a still 
thinner casing only 3 in. thick. When the weather is 



152 KUDIMENTS OF THE 

bad, and during the latter part of the brickmaking 
season, a little extra bestowing is given beyond what is 
here described. The great art in clamping consists in 
the proper construction of the upright, as the stability 
of the clamp depends entirely upon it. 

32. Necks. — The remainder of the clamp consists of 
a number of neck? or "svaUs leaning against the upright. 
They are built in p'"ecisely the same way as the upright, 
as regards invert, close bolts, paving, scintling, breeze, 
and end lifts. But there is this essential difference, viz., 
that they sive parallel walls, built in alternate courses of 
headers and stretchers laid on edge, each heading course 
in one neck being opposite to a stretching course in the 
next neck, and vice versa. The thickness of each neck 
is made up of three bricks lengthways in the heading 
courses, and ten bricks edgeways in the stretching 
courses. The necks are close bolted at top, and be- 
stowed in the same manner as the upright. When the 
last necks have been built, the ends of the clamp are 
close bolted, and bestowed in the same way as the sides, 
and this operation completes the clamp. 

33. Firing. — The number of necks on each side of 
the upright may be extended to eight or nine, without 
an additional live hole; but if this limit be exceeded, 
additional live holes are required, according to the 
judgment of the brickmaker or the demand for bricks; 
the live holes are placed seven, eight, or nine necks 
apart. It is not necessary that the additional live holes 
should pass under the centres of the necks, and it is 
more convenient to form each live hole so that the face 
of the last-built neck shall form one of its sides. 

In the close bolting surrounding the clamp, two bricks 
are left out opposite the end of each live hole, and to 
each of these openings a fire is applied made of coals, 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 153 

and wood heaped up in a brick fire-place built round 
the opening, and known by the name of a devil-stove. 
The fire is kept up for about a day, until the faggots in 
the live hole are thoroughly ignited, and as soon as this 
is found to be the case, the fire is removed, and the 
mouth of the live hole stopped with bricks, and plastered 
over with clay. In firing a large clamp with many live 
holes, it should be begun at one end only, the live holes 
being fired in succession, one after the other. 

The bricks at the outside of the clamp are under- 
burnt ; they are called burnovers, and are laid aside 
for reburning in the next clamp that may be built. 
The bricks near the live holes are generally partially 
melted and run together in masses called clinkers or 
burrs. The bricks which are not fully burnt are called 
place bricks, and are sold at a low price, being unfit for 
outside work, or situations where they will be subjected 
to much pressure. The clinkers are sold by the cart- 
load, for rockwork in gardens and similar purposes. 

34. The quantity of breeze required varies much with 
c'Ae quality of the earth. The usual proportions for 
every 100,000 bricks are about 35 chaldrons of the sifted 
ashes, mixed with the brick-earth, and about 12 chal- 
drons of the cinders or breeze to light the clamp. 

The quantity of fuel to the live holes it is difiicult to 
calculate; about lOs. may be taken as the average cost 
of coals and wood for every 100,000 bricks. 

35. If the proportion of breeze be too small, the 
bricks will be undcrburned, and will be tender and of 
a pale colour. If too much fuel be used, there is danger 
of the bricks fusing and running into a blackish slag. 
No rules can be laid down for avoiding these errors, 
as the management of the breeze must depend upon the 
quality of the earth, and can only be learnt from 

II <J 



154 BUDIMEXTS OF THE 

experience, some brick-earths being much mere fusible 
than others. 

36. The time of burning varies considerably. If ex- 
pedition is requisite, the flues are placed near together, 
and the burning may be completed in a fortnight or 
three •weeks; but, if time is no object, the flues are 
further apart, and the clamp is allowed to bum off" more 
slowly. 

37. Another system of clamping is to begin at one 
end and to follow with the necks iu one direction only. 
This is done when the clamp ground is partly occupied 
by the hacks, so as to render it impossible to commence 
at the centre. AVhen this system is adopted, the clamp- 
ing begins with the erection of an end-wall, termed the 
upright and outside, which is made to batter very con- 
siderably on the outside, but of which the inside face is 
vertical. As regards dimensions and modes of building, 
the outside and upright is built in the same way as the 
ordinary upright, but it has, of course, no live hole under 
it, the first live hole being provided in the centre of the 
2nd or 3rd neck. In the style of clamping the necks 
are all upright. The live holes are placed at every 8th 
or 9th neck, as in the usual system. 

38. We now proceed to describe the principal varia- 
tions in the methods of clamping practised in different 
brick-yards. 

Paving. — The practice with regard to the paving of 
burnt bricks is very variable. Some clampers omit it 
altogether; others pave only where clamping for the first 
time on a new clamp ground. 

Scintks. — "U'hen burnt bricks run short, as in build- 
ing the first clamp on a new ground, the second course 
is laid with raw bricks. This, however, is a very objeC' 
tionable pr?ctice. 



AllT OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 155 

Live Holes. — The live holes are sometimes close- 
bolted at the sides^ to prevent the breeze from the 
scintles falling into them. This^ howe\^er, is not often 
done, and its utility is questionable. 

Breeze. — Some clampers put the 7 in. stratum of 
breeze on the top of the scintles^ instead of placing it 
over the 1st course of raw bricks; very frequently the 
breeze is dispensed ■with after the 2 in. stratum, with 
the exception of the top layer. All clampers, however, 
agree as to the necessity of having the 7 in., 4 in., and 
2 in. layers. 

39. The several descriptions of bricks made for the 
Londoujgjoarket, and their relative prices, as given in 
the Builders' and Contractors' Price Book, for 1868 are 
as under, viz. : — 

Price per 1,000. 

.£ s. d. 

Malm cutters 5 5 

„ seconds . . . . . 3 12 

„ paviours . , . . . . 3 2 

„ pickings 3 2 

„ stocks 2 7 

„ roughs 1 18 

„ place 1 10 

Comraon stocks 2 2 

„ roughs 1 16 

„ place 18 

Red stocks 2 5 

„ rubbers 3 4 

Paving bricks 2 10 

Dutch clinkers 2 5 

The prices of the various kinds of fire-bricks will be found at page 18. 

The bricks commonly sold are known by the follow- 
ing terms : — 

Cutters. — These are the softest, and are used for 
gauged arches and other rubbed work. 

Malms. — These are the best building bricks, and are 
only used in the best descriptions of brickwork j coloui 
yellow. 



156 RUDIMENTS OF THE ^ 

Seconds. — These are sorted from the best qualities, 
and are much used for the fronts of buildings of a 
superior class. 

Paviours. — These are excellent building bricks, being 
sound, hard, well shaped, and of good colour. They 
must not be confounded with paving bricks, ha^-ing 
nothing in common with them but their name. 

Pickings. — These are good bricks, but soft, and 
inferior to the best paviours. 

Rough Paviours. — These are the roughest pickings 
from the panours. 

Washed Stocks. — These are the bricks commonly used 
for ordinary brickwork, and are the worst description of 
malms. 

Grey Stocks. — These are good bricks, but of irregidar 
colour, and are not suited for face work. 

Rough Stocks. — These are, as their name implies, very 
rough as regards shape and colour, and not suited for 
good work, although hard and sound. 

Grizzles. — These arc somewhat tender, and only fit 
for inside work. 

Place Bricks. — These are only fit for common purposes, 
and should not be used for permanent erections. 

Shuffs. — These are unsound and shuffy — that is, full 
of shakes. 

Burrs or Clinkers. — These arc only used for making 
artificial rockwork for cascades or gardens, &c. 

Bats. — These are merely refuse. 

It may be here observed, that at the brickworks 
round Loudon the bricks made are usually in the form 
of regular parallelopipcdons, 9 in. long, 4^ in. wide, and 
3 in. thick. If in the execution of apiece of brickwork, 
bricks of other shapes are required, it was formerly the 
practice, and still sometimes is, for the bricklayer to cut 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 157 

the ordinary bricks to the required shape. This practice^ 
so destructive to sound bond and good work, cannot be 
too strongly reprehended;* especially now that the 
manufacture is free from the trammels of the excise 
there can be no excuse for not making bricks of a great 
variety of shapes for various purposes. 

40. Brickmaking'".t Cheshunt. — In the " Illustrations 
of Arts and Manufactures," by Mr. Arthur Aikin, is a 
valuable paper on pottery and brickmaking, the perusal 
of which is strongly recommended to the reader. The 
following notice is there given of the Cheshunt bricks : — 
'' At Cheshunt, in Hertfordshire, is a bed of malm earth 
of the finest quality, no less than 35 ft. in depth ; from 
this are made the best smUl kiln-burnt bricks, called 
paviers." Not having an opportunity of personally 
examining the Cheshunt works, the author requested 
Mr. B. P. Stockman to do so, and, in reply, received 
the foUoAving communication, from which it appears that 
kiln burning has been now disused for some time at 
Cheshunt ; clamping being now generally adopted : — 

" There are no bricks now made near London of 
natural malm ; the once well-known bed at Grays in 
Essex has been exhausted some years. No one can 
inform me of any bed of natural malm except that at 
Cheshunt, and I was told, previous to my going there, 
that I should not find the works conducted as I had 
been led to expect from your letter. 

" There are only two brickmakers at Cheshunt, and, 
from going over their works, I am able to vouch for 
the accuracy of the following particulars. 

* The brick columns, wliosc failure caused the frightful accident which 
OCCun-ed in January, a.d. 1848, during the erection of the new buildings 
at the Euston Station of the North Western Eaihvay, were built in thia 
way. The additional cost of bricks made expressly lor the work, of such 
forms as would have bonded properly together without any cutting, would 
have been very trifling. 



158 nUDIMENTS OF THE 

" There is a bed of natural malm, and a bed close to 
it of ordinary brick-earth, which also contains malm. 
When they make malms, -which they ■\vere not doing at 
the time of my visit, they do not use the natural malm 
earth by itself, but wash and mix chalk with it, and I 
am told that they never have made malms without 
adding chalk to the natural earth, although the propor- 
tion is small compared to that required for the other 
bed from which they also make malms. The earth is 
soiled with ashes precisely in the same way as in the 
London works, and turned over and pugged in the 
same kind of pug-mill. The bricks are hacked and 
clamped, as in London, and there are none burnt in 
kilns, nor have been for many years. There are no 
kilns on the ground, and no kiln burning of any 
description, though in former years there used to be 
kilns for bricks and tiles, and also for glazed ware. 

" The bricks made at Cheshunt are very superior to 
the London bricks ; in fact, the stock made there is 
really a kind of malm brick, and the malms themselves, 
as you may suppose, are perfection. I examined the 
brick-earth from both pits, and saw the several processes 
of moulding, hacking, scintiing, and clamping going 
on. The names of the different qualities are the same 
as in London ; but, as regards quality, some of the 
common descriptions are equal to the London malms, 
and I believe the shuffs would be sold for malms in 
London." 

41. Brickmaking is carried on to a great extent all 
round the metropolis, but the principal brick-fields are 
situated north of the Thames. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS A\D TILES. 159 

III. COST OF MANUFACTURE.* 

42. We propose to consider the cost of manufacture 
under three heads^ viz.: — 

1. Materials and fuel. 

2. Machinery and tools. 

3. Labour. 

I. MATERIALS A^D FUEL. 

43. Clay. — The cost of brick-earth must depend ver/ 
much on the circumstances of the locality^ but it ii> 
usually considered to be worth 2^. 6d. per 1,000 bricks, 
exclusive of getting. 

41. Chalk. — The cost of chalk is trifling where the 
works have the advantage of water carriage, as it can 
be brought to the canal wharfs round London at 2s. lOd. 
per ton. To this must be added the cartage, which, in 
some cases, must be a serious expense. 

45. Sa7id. — The above remarks apply to the mould- 
ing sand ; which is brought from the bed of the Thames, 
near Woolwich, in barges to the canal wharfs at 2s. 
per ton, a ton being about 1;^ cubic yard. To this must 
be added cartage, and labour in drying the sand to 
make it fit for use. 

It is difiicult to say what quantity of sand is used per 
1,000 bricks, but the cost may be taken approximately 
at from 6d. to 8^. per 1,000 bricks. 

46. Breeze. — The quantity of breeze required varies 
according to circumstances ; the proportion may be 
taken to range from 12 to 20 chaldrons per 100,000 
bricks. The cost of breeze may be taken at about 10^. 

* The estimates under this head must be considered as belonging to 
the date of the first edition of this work (1850), but later prices will be 
found at page 162. 



160 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

per chaldron. It may here be mcntioued, that in 
London stringent regulations are in force to prevent 
householders from making use of their domestic ashes^ 
which are collected by parties who contract with the 
parish authorities for this privilege. 

In the Midland Counties the domestic ashes are 
generally used for manure^ the ashes being thrown into 
the cesspoolsj an aiTangement which would not be per- 
mitted in the metropolis. This mode of disposing of 
the domestic ashes completely prevents the use of breeze 
in the manufacture of bricks in the district where it is 
practised. 

47. Soil. — The cost of soiling cannot be very accu- 
rately ascertained. The quantity of soil required de- 
pends much on the quality of the brick-earth; 35 
chaldrons per 100.000 bricks may be considered a fair 
average. The cost per chaldron may be taken at 85. to 
9s. To this must be added the cost of harrowing to the 
clay heap, say 10s. to 125. per 100^000 bricks. 

48. Coals and Wood. — The quantity of faggots re- 
quired will depend on the number of live holes. This 
item of expense is very trifling, say \0s. per 100,000 for 
faggots and coals to light the clamp. 

49. Water. — The water required for the washing- 
mills is pumped into the troughs as before described, 
and as shown in the drawings of the washing-mills, 
fig. 7. That which is used in tempering the clay is 
brought in buckets from the nearest pond on the works. 
In some yards the supply is drawn from wells by the 
contrivance known in the East as a shadoof, and in use 
at the present day in Germany, and throughout Russia. 
This simple contrivance is described at page 3 of Mr. 
Glynn's " Rudimentary Treatise on the Construction 
of Cranes and Machinerv," and the reader is there- 



ART OF RIAKINO BRICKS AND TILES. 161 

fore referred to the description and "svood-cut there 
given. 

It may, however, be worth while to remark, that there 
is scarcely any difference between the ancient shadoof 
used in Egypt in the time of the Israelitish bondage 
and that in common use at Stoke Newington, and other 
places near London, in our own time. 

It is impossible to make any calculation as to the 
proportionate cost of the necessary supply of water 
to a brickfield, as it forms a portion of the cost of 
tempering, and cannot be separated from it. 

II. MACHINERY AND TOOLS. 

50. The average cost of the machinery and tools re- 
quired in a London brickfield is about as follows : — 

Chalk and clay mills, together . 
Pug-mill ....... 

Cuckhold ....... 

For each moulder arc required — 

1 moulding stool, complete, at 

1 mould „ 

3 sets of pallets, 26 in each set 

3 bearing-ofF barrows . 

In addition to the above are required, a few plauks, 
shovels, barrows, buckets, sieves, and other articles, the 
aggregate cost of which it is impossible to estimate. 

No buildings are required for the actual manufacture. 

It is, however, usual for the foreman, or '''moulder,^' 
to live at the field. Stabling may be required or not; 
according to circumstances and locality. 





£ 


«. 


d. 


£00 to 


70 










10 








5s. to 





6 










14 










10 


6 


at 3s. 





9 





at 12s. 


1 


16 






iG2 



KUDIMEXTS OF TllK 



III. LABOUR. 



51. The cost of labour, &c., may be taken as follows : — 



rer 



1,000 bricks. 
£ s. d. 



Rent of field 

Ashes .... 

Removing top moulJ 

Dijrging earth 

Soiling and turning cartli 

Clialk and expense of washii 

Moulding 

Horse grinding earth 

Sand 

Straw and hurdles 

Setting 

Bolting, sorting, fee. 

Loading 

Implements, &c. . 

Superintendence . 

Interest on capital 

. Royalty 

Bad debts 

Preparing hacks, obtuining water, making 
coals and wood in burning, materials 
building sand-houses .... 



1 8 
6 



for 



6 



1 



This is the actual cost for every thousand bricks be- 
fore they leave the field ; and in order to secure a fail 
profit, I. e., about 20 per cent., the stock bricks must be 
sold at £1 85. per 1,000; while the place bricks -will 
sell at from 15*. to £1, the grizzles and rough bricks 
at from 19*. to £1 Zs., and the shuff's at from 85. to 
10«. per 1,000. 



BRICKMAKTN'G AT THE COPENOAGEN TUN^^:L, ON THE 
GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY. 

After the above description of the ordinary practice 
of London brickmakers was written, ^lessrs. Pearce 
and Smith, the contractors for the Copenhagen Tunnel, 



ART OF MAKING UUICKS AND TILES. 163 

ou tlie line of the Great Northern Railway, commenced 
brickmaking on a large scale at the tunnel-works ; and 
as the mode of manufacture practised by them was new 
at the time in London, a short notice of it may Le 
interesting: — 

The clay is neither Aveathered nor tempered, but as 
soon as dug is wheeled up an incline to the grinding- 
mill, which consists of a single pair of cast-iron rollers, 
driven by a steam-engine. The clay is mixed with a 
certain proportion of sifted ashes, and, passing between 
the rollers, falls into a shed, whence it is, without further 
preparation, wheeled to the moulders. 

The moulds are of wood, and the process employed is 
that known as slop-moulding. 

The moulding and drying processes are both carried 
ou in drying houses, with flues under the floors. 

The bricks, as soon as moulded, are carried one by 
one to the floors, where they remain until dry, when, 
without being hacked, they are wheeled to the kilns. 

The kilns are of the construction commonly used in 
the Midland Counties, but have no sheds at the sides to 
shelter the fires. The fuel used is coal. 

The bricks thus mode are of an irregular reddish 
brown colour, and of fair average quality. 

On first commencing operations, Messrs. Pearce and 
Smith made a large quantity of bricks without any 
admixture of ashes, sand only being added to diminish 
the contraction of the clay. These bricks burnt of a 
clear red colour, and were mostly very hard, but proved 
brittle, and were apt to become cracked in burning. 

Amongst other novelties adopted, may be mentioned 
the use of saw-dust in lieu of sand,* the latter material 

♦ It may be necessary, perhaps, to remind the reader that sand is used 
lov many purposes besides that of sanding the brick-mould. 



164 KUDIMEXTS OF THE 

being very costly, ^Thilst the former is supplied on the 
works from a saw-mill worked by a steam-engine, which 
at the same time drives the mortar-mill, and works the 
lifts at two of the tunnel shafts. 



RErEBENCE TO ILLUSTRATIONS ACCOMPANYING THE FORE- 
GOING Account of BRiciMAKixo ix the vicinity of 
London. 

52. — Fig. 1. General Plan of a Brickworl:. 
(Scale 40 ft. to an inch.) 

A. The chalk-mill. 

B. The clav washing-mill. 
c The pump. 

D. The shoot to the brick-earth. 

i;. The brick-earth turned over in readiness to receive the malm. 
r. The pug-mill. 
G. The moulding RtooL 
H. The hack ground. 
K.K.. Clamps. 

53. The Chalh-miU. 

Figs. 2 and 3. Section and Plan. (Scale 10 ft. to an inch.) 
a.a. Grinding-whccls. 
b. Inlet from pump.' 
e. Outlet to clav washing-mill. 
Details. (Scale 5 ft. to an inch.) 
Fig. 4. Grinding-wheel. 

Fig. 5. Mode of connecting the axle-tree of the grinding-wheels will: 
the centre shaft. 

The mill consists of a circular trough lined with brick- 
work, and furnished with a pair of heavy wheels with 
spiked tires, which, being drawn round by horses, crush 
and grind the chalk until it is reduced to a pulp. The 
wheels arc shown in detail in fig. 4. It is necessar}' 
that they should accommodate themselves to the level 
of the chalk in the trough, and to effect this, the framing 



ART or MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 165 

of which the axle-tree forms a part is secured to the 
centre shaft by a staple^ as shown in fig. 5, which 
allows the whole of the timbering to rise or fall, as may 
be requisite. The centre shaft is a bar of iron, steadied 
by being built up in a mass of brickwork. The yoke 
beams are kept at the proper height, and their weight 
supported by common light chaise wheels, about 2 ft. 6 in. 
diameter, which run on the outside of the horse track. 
The mill represented in these engravings is mounted for 
two horses ; many mills, however, have but one. 

5-1. The Clay-washing Mill. 

Figs. 6 and 7. Plan and elevation. (Scale 10 ft. to an inch.) 

a. The inlet from the chalk-mill. 

b. The outlet to the shoot. 
ex. The harrows. 

d.d. The cutters. 
e. The pump. 

Details, (Scale \\ in. to 5 ft.) 
Fig. 8. The cutters. 

Fig. 9. The outlet to the shoot, and the strainer. 
Fig. 10. The strainer. 

The mill consists of a circular trough of larger dimen- 
sions than that of the chalk-mill, also lined with brick- 
work, and furnished with a two-horse gin, to which are 
attached knives and harrGws, which, in their passage 
round the trough, cut up the clay and incorporate it 
with the pulp from the chalk-mill. The framing of the 
gin is very simple, and requires no description. The 
knives, or cutters, are placed in two sets, four in each. 
They are fixed in an upright position, and steadied to 
their work by chains, and by being bolted together with 
bolts passing through tubular distance pieces, as shown 
ki fig. 8. The knives cut the clay and clear the way 
for the harrows, which are similar to those ujsed for 
agricultural purposes, and arc merely suspended by 



166 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

chains from the timber framing. The piimp is worked 
by the horizontal wheel f, fig. 7, which is provided 
with friction rollers on its rim, for the purpose of lifting 
the lever g, which raises the lever of the pump by means 
of the spindle h. The outlet to the shoots is simply a 
square trunk made of 2 in. plank. It is furnished with 
a brass grating, or strainer, shown in fig. 10. The bars 
are | in. wide, and ^ in. apart, so that even small stones 
will not pass through. This grating is fixed in grooves, 
so that it can be lifted out of its place by the handles, 
when required. 

55. The Pug-mill. 

Fig. 1 1 . Elevation. (Scale 4 ft. to an inch.) 

a. The yoke arm. 

b. The opening for the ejectment of the earth when ground. 

c. The brick-earth surrounding the mill, on whitJi is an 

inclined barrow road to the top of the mill. 
Fig. 12, Section. (Scale 2 ft. to an inch.) 

a.a. Force knives. These are not provided with cfuss knives, 
their purpose being merely to force the ei»rth downwards 
and out at the ejectment hole. 

56. — Fig. 13. Isometrical View of the Moulding Stool. 
(Scale 4 ft. to an inch.) 

a. The lump of ground earth from the pug-mill. 

b. The moulder's sand. 

e. The clot-moulder's gand. 

d. The bottom of the mould, termed the ttock-loard. 

e. The water-tub. 

/. The pape, which is formed of two rods of gths of an inch round 
or square iron, nailed down at each end to the wooden 
rails or sleepers on which they rest. The use of the page 
is to slide the new bricks, with their pallets, away from the 
moulder with facility. 

p. The pallets in their proper position for use. 

k. A newly-made brick just slidden from the moalder, and rcadjr 
for the taking-off boy, 

k. The moulder's place. 

m. The clot-moulder's place. 

«. The taking-off boy's place. 

g. The cuckhold, a concave shovel used for catting off the ground- 
earth as it is ejected from the pug-mill. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 167 

7o. — Fig. 14. Isometrical View of the Brick Mould, 
with its detached bottom or Stock-board. (Scale 2 in, 
to a foot.) 

a.a,a. The iron pegs on which the mould rests daring the opera- 
tion of moulding. They are driven into the stool in the 
positions shown in the drawing ; their height from the stool 
regulates the thickness of the brick. The mould is lined 
throughout with sheet-iron, which is turned over the edges 
of the mould at the top and bottom. 

58.— Fig. 15. The Hack ^arroz^;— loaded. (Scale 2 ft. 
to an inch.) 
Fig. 16. The hack Harrow— unloaded. (Scale 2 ft. to an inch.) 

59. The Clamp. 

Fig. 17. Transverse section (parallel to necks). (Scale 10 ft. to an 
inch.) 

Fig. 18. Longitudinal ditto ditto ditto. 

a. The upright. 
b.h. Close bolts. 

c. Live hole. 

d. Bestowing. 

Details. (Scale 2 ft. to an inch.) 
Fig. 19. Plan of the lower course of scintles. 
Fig. 20. Plan of the upper course of scintles. 
. The live hole. 

It should be understood that the directions of the scintles, 

as well as that of the paving below it, are changed for every 

neck, so as to conrespond with the upper work, as shown in 

the figures. 

Fig. 21. Detail of the end of the upright, showing the paving, the 

ecintling, the live hole, and the 7 in., 4 in., and 2 in. courses of breeze. 



CHAPTER VI. 

LONDON TILEKIES. 



1. The general term^ " Tile Manufacture," is so com- 
prehensive, that it would be impossible, within the limits 
of a little volume like the present, to give anything like 
a complete account of the manufacture of the different 



J 68 RUDIMENTS OF TUE 

articles made at a large tilery ; we only pro^jose, there- 
fore^ in the present chapter, to give a succinct account 
of the manufacture of pantiles, as carried on at the 
London tileries, which will serve to give the reader a 
general idea of the nature of the processes employed in 
tile-making. It must, however, be borne in mind, that 
although the principle of proceeding is the same in each 
case, there are no two articles made exactly in the same 
way, the moulding and subsequent processes being 
carried on in a different manner, and with different 
tools and implements, for every description of article. 

The manufacture of plain tiles and drain tiles has 
already been described in Chap. IV., to which the 
reader is referred, as also to the supplementary chapter 
at page 220. 

2. The following is a list of the principal articles 
made at the London tileries : — 

Oven tiles. Kiln bricks. 

10-in. paving tiles. Fire bricks. 

Foot ditto. Paving bricks. 

Plain tiles. Circulars (for setting coppers.&c.) 

Pantiles. Ck)lumn bricks (for forming co- 

Ridge tiles. lumns). 

Hip tiles. Chimney-pots. 

Drain tiles. Garden-pots. 

Drain pipes. 
And anytbing required To order. 

For all these articles (excepting fire bricks) the same 
clay is employed (mixed, for the making of paving tiles, 
oven tiles,* kiln bricks, paving bricks, circular bricks, 
and column bricks, with a certain quantity of loam), 
and they are all burnt in the same kiln, the fire bricks 
included ; but each different article presents some pecu- 
liarity in the processes intervening between the tem- 
pering and the burning, having its separate moulding. 
♦ For oven tiles the stufT must be of superior quality. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES, 



169 



Fig. 1. 




st©ol, frames^ strike, &c., and being stacked and dried 
differently. The details of these differences, however 
(even would our limits allow us to describe them), would 
scarcely be suited to the pages of a rudimentary work 
intended for popular reading. 



170 



BUDIMENT3 OF THE 



Figs. 2 and 3. 





^rr 



BUILDINGS AND PLANT. 



3. Pugmill. — The pug-mill used in tile making for 
pugging, or, as it is termed, grinding the elay, differs 
considerably from that used in brick-making. The tub, 
instead of being conical, is made to taper at both endsj 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 171 



Fig. 5. 




^^^^^^^^^^^p=^^r5lj^^^^^^5^ 



1 



15 



itT 



and the ejectment hole is at the bottom instead of in 
the front, as in the brick pug-mill. 

The knives, also, are made in a superior manner. 
1 3 



172 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 




Fig. 9. 



iff 



The mill is provided vith foree knives -without cross 
knives at top and bottom. See figures 1, 2, and 3. 

The pug-mill is placed under cover in a shed called 
the grinding shed. 



ART OF MAKING UUICKS AND TILES. 173 



Fig. 6. 




4. The Sling, fig. 4, is simply a piece of thin wire 
Tvitli two liandles, used for cutting the clay. 

5. Moulding Shed. — Tiles are made uuder cover in 
sheds about 7 yards wide, the length of the shed de- 
pending on the number of moulding tables, the area 
allotted to each table being about 7 yards in length by 
4 yards in breadth. 

The moulding tables are placed against one side of 



174 



RUDIMENTS OF TKJ 

Fiy. 10. 




the shed, and the remainder of the area is oecupied by 
the blocks or drying-shelves ; every shelf being formed 
with three 1 in. planks placed edge to edge, and sepa- 
rated from each other by bricks placed edgewise at the 
end of the planks, as well as at intermediate points, 
each block containing about 1-i shelves, and thus 
measuring 12 ft. long by 2 ft. 8 in. wide, and about 7 ft. 
high. A passage way, 3 ft. wide, is left round the 
blocks, to give free access to every part of them. 

These details will be understood by reference to fig. 5. 

6. The Pantile Table, or moulding table, is shown in 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



175 



Fig. 11. 



Fig. 12. 



Fig. 13. 




Fig. 15. 



fig. 6. It is furnished with a trug or trough, in which 
the moulder dips his hands when moulding, and with 
a block and stock-board, on which the tile mould is 
placed in the operation of moulding. 

7. The Block and Stock-board is shown in fig. 7. 
The two form one piece, which rests on the moulding 
table, and is firmly keyed to it by means of a tenon on 



176 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 
Fig. 13. 




^FT 



thte under side of the block passing through a mortice in 
the table. Four pegs, driven into the table at the corners 
of the block and stock-board, serve as a support for the 
mould and regulate the thickness of the tile, f in. being 
the thickness of a pantile. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 177 



Fig. 14. 




?fr 



8. The Tile Mould is sliown in fig. 8, and requires no 
particular description. 

9. The Foil, fig. 9, is merely a round roller of a 
particular size, as sliown by the scale, and is used for 
striking a smooth surface to the tile. 

10. The Washincj-off Table, fig. 10, is a stand with 

I 3 



178 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 

t'ig'<. 17 and 18. 



\ 



p y -^ ^^^^^ . V 



fP in 

-36 7- ^v-> 










J—L 




bof: 



a water trougli and a frame ealled the JVashing-oif 
Frame, see fig. 11, on wbicli, when moulded, the tile 'is 



AUT OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



]7& 



Fig. 19. 




10 



20 



30 



40 



M '1 I 1 I I I 1 1- 



^fi 



washed into a curved form. The washing-off table is 
placed at the left hand end of the pantile table, and 
near the block. 



BUDIMENTS Of THE 




2:) 



40 



SO. 



11. TTie SpJayer, fig. 12, is an instrument on which 
the tile is removed from the washing-off frame to the 
block. 

12. The Thicacking Frame, fig. 13; is a frame on 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



181 



Fig. 21. 




182 



RUDIMENTS OV THE 



Fiff.22. 




^i^M^M %^ - MM^^.;^^^^^.^c^:.^i^ 



ART or MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 183 

wliicli the tilcj when half dry, is thwacked or beaten 
with a ihwacker (lig. 15), to correet any warping which 
may have taken place whilst drying in the block. 

When thwacking those tiles taken from the bottom 
of the block, the thwacking frame is placed upon the 
Thwacking Stool, fig. 13 ; but when the tiles to be 
thwacked are at the top of the block, the thwacking 
frame is placed upon the Thwacking Horse, fig. 14, 
which brings it conveniently to their level. 

The Thvjacking Knife, fig. 16, is used for trimming 
the wing of the pantile immediately after thwacking. 

13. The Tile Kiln, figs. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22, 
consists of a kiln Avith arched furnaces, enclosed in a 
conical building called a dome. The arrangement of 
die whole building Avill be clearly understood by refer- 
ence to the figures, and to the detailed description at 
the end of this chapter. 



PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE. 

14. Clay-getting and Weathering. — The clay used for 
making tiles is purer and stronger than that used for 
making bricks, and consequently requires more care in 
its treatment. 

When the clay is too strong, it is mixed with sand 
before passing it through the pug-mill, but this is not 
often required. 

The weaMicring of the clay is performed by spreading 
it out in thin layers, about 2 in. thick, during the winter, 
and each layer is allowed to receive the benefit of at 
least one night's frost before the succeeding layer is 
placed over it. Sometimes the clay is spread out in 
the summer to be scorched by the sun, which effects 
the flreathcriug equally well. The greater the heat, or 



184; RUDIMENTS OF THE 

the sharper the frost, the thicker may be the layers, but 
4 in. is the maximum thickness. 

The object of the process of weathering is, to open 
the pores of the clay, and to separate the particles, that 
it may absorb water more readily in the subsequent 
process of mellowing. 

The clay thus weathered is thrown into pits, where it 
is covered with water, and left for a considerable time 
to mellow, or ripen. 

15. Tempering. — The process of tempering is per- 
formed simply by passing the clay through the pug-mill. 
If the clay be very foul, that is, full of stones, it is sluny 
before using, and passed a second time through the mill. 
For chimney-pots and similar articles, the clay is slung 
either once or twice, and pugged, or, as it is called, 
ground, twice or thrice, according to the nature of the 
clay, and the purpose to which it is to be applied. 

16. Slinging. — The operation of slinging is as fol- 
lows : as the clay issues from the ejectment hole of the 
pug-mill, it is cut into lengths of about 2 ft., with a 
sling. These lumps are taken by the slingers and cut 
up into slices, not exceeding j in. in thickness, during 
which operation most of the stones fall out, and those 
which remain are picked out by hand. The clay thus 
freed from stones is once more ground, and is then 
ready for the moulder. 

(N.B. In some parts of England the clay is freed 
from stones by sifting, and the tempering is performed 
by treading ; this part of the work being done by boys, 
who tread in a spiral track, so as to subject each portion 
of the mass to a uniform amount of kneading.) 

17. Moulding. — The clay, as it issues from the mill, 
is cut into lumps, called pieces, which arc stacked on a 
rough bench in the grisding shed. A labourer cuts 



ART OF MAKING BKICKS AND TILES. 185 

these lumps in half, each half being called a half-piece, 
and wheels these half-pieces one by one to the pantile 
table. 

A rough-moulder, generally a boy, takes the half- 
piece and squares it up, that is, beats it up into a slab 
near the shape of the mould, and about 4 in. thick, from 
which he cuts off a thin slice, the size of a tile, and 
passes it to the moulder. 

The moulder, having sanded his stock-board, and 
placed his mould on the four pegs which regulate the 
thickness of the tile, takes the slice of clay from the 
rough-moulder, and puts it into the mould. He then, 
with very wet hands, smooths the surface, cutting off 
the superfluous clay with his hands, in long pieces, called 
strippings, which are thrown to a corner of the table. 
This done, he strikes the surface level with the roll; and 
turning the tile out of the mould on the washing-off 
frame, with very wet hands washes it into a curved 
shape. He then strikes it smartly with the splayer, and 
turns it over on that implement, on which he conveys it 
to the block, where he deposits the tile with the convex 
side uppermost, and, the splayer being withdrawn, the 
tile is left to dry. The button end of the tile is placed 
inside the block. 

18. Thwacking. — The tiles remain in the block until 
they are half dry, when they are taken out one by one, 
placed on the thwacking frams, and beaten with the 
thwacker to perfect their shape. 

The wing of each tile is then trimmed with the 
thwacking knife, and the tiles replaced in the block, still 
with the convex side uppermost; but this time the button 
end is placed outside. The tiles then remain in the 
block until ready for kilning. 

It should be observed that the tiles flatten slightly 



18G RUDIMENTS OF THE 

whilst ill the block, aud for this reason the washing-off 
frame is made a little more convex than the thwacking 
frame, which corresponds to the permanent form of the 
tile. 

19. Kilning. — In setting the kiln, a course of vitrified 
bricks is laid at the bottom, herring-bone fashion, the 
bricks being placed \h in. apart. On this foundation 
the tiles are stacked as closely as they will lie, in an 
upright position, one course above another. As the 
body of the kiln is filled, the hatchways are bricked up 
with old bricl:s, and when the kiln is topped, the)' are 
plastered over with loam or clay. The top is then 
covered with one course of unburnt tiles, placed flat, and 
lastlv, upon these a course of old pantiles is loosely 
laid.* 

The fires are lighted on Monday morning, and are 
not put out until Satiu'day evening, whatever the articles 
in the kiln. 

The fuel used is coal, and the quantity consumed at 
each burning about eight tons. This, however, varies 
with the kind of articles to be burnt, — hollow goods, as 
chimney-pots, garden-pots, kc, requiring less than more 
solid articles. Foot tiles, oven ditto, and 10-in. ditto, 
are stacked in the kiln the same way as paving bricks. 
The covering on the top of the kiln varies in thickness, 
according to the sort of goods to be fired. 

COST OF MANUFACTURE.* 

20. From the manufacture of tiles being carried on 
under cover, the establishment of a large tile-work 
involves a considerable amount of capital. The kiln 

• The estimates here given refer to the First Edition, except where 
otherwise stated. 



ART OF MAKIXG BRICKS AND TILES. 187 

used in London is very costly^ such a one as we have 
shown in figs. 17 to 22 costing in its erection no less 
than £2,000. 

The cost of making pantiles is about as follows, per 

1,000 :— 

£ s. d. 

Clay — this is usnally included in the rent, but, if pur- 
cliased separately, may be taken at 2^. 6rf. per yard 
cube — 2^ yards cube make 1,000 pantiles . 

Weathering clay 

Mellowing ditto, and grinding once _ • • • • 

Add for horsing the pug-mill . ■ . . . 

If slung and ground a second time, add .... 

Moulding, including all labour in fetching clay from mill, 
moulding, washing, blocking, thwacking, and blocking 
second time 

Setting and drawing kiln 

Burning 

Cost of making .... 

Rent, repairs, breakage, contingencies, and profit . 

Selling price per 1,000 . . .3100 

21. The following are the ordinary prices, in 1862, 
for a variety of articles, which will give an idea of the 
comparative amount of labour bestowed upon them : — 






5 


n 





5 








2 








1 


6 





2 








10 








3 


Q- 





15 





2 


4 


U 


1 


5 


104 



Plain tiles 

Patent tiles 

Pan, hip, or ridge tiles 

Ornamental plain tiles 

Paving tiles, 9 in. 

10 „ 

12 „ 
Mathematical tiles, red . 
„ white 

Oven tiles 



per 1,000 



each 



£ 


s. 


d. 


2 


4 





3 


6 





3 


5 





3 


4 





9 








12 








14 


10 





3 








3 


10 











9 



22. The above sketch of the manufacture of pantiles 
will g've the reader a general idea of the processes used 
in tile-makiug, but every article presents some pecu- 
liarity of manufacture. Plain tiles are dried on flats, 
called Flace Grounds. Hip and ridge tiles are washed 



188 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

and thwacked in a similar manner to pantiles. Drain 
tiles are only washed. Pa\'ing tiles and oven tiles are 
stricken with a flat strike instead of the roll, and are 
not washed, but they are thwacked and dressed with a 
knife. 

23. Description of Illustrations. 

Figs. 1, 2, and 3. The pug-mill. 
The png mill used in tilc-making is different from that used in brick- 
makinr], as will readily be seen from the figures. 
Fig. 1. Eleration of pug-milL (Scale \ in. to the foot.) 
Fig. 2. Details of the knives. (Scale ^ in. to the foot.) 

These knives are made in a superior manner to those of the brick 
pug-mills, both as regards strength and fitting. The mill is provided 
with force knives at top and bottom, which have no cross knives 
attached to them. 
Fig. 3. Cross section of the tub. (Scale \ in. to the foot.) 
a. The ejectment hole, which is at the bottom of the tub, and not 
at the side, as in the brick pug-mill. 
Fig. 4. The sling, or wire knife, used for cutting the clay into lengths 
as it issues from the pug-mill, and also for freeing the clay from stones 
(slinging). 

Fig. 5. The tile shed, shown in plan and section. (Scale 10 ft. to the 
inch.) 

a.a.a. The blocks, which consist of a series of shelves, on which the 
tiles are placed to dry. Each shelf is formed of three 11-inch 
planks. The shelves arc 4J in. apart, and are spaced off from each 
other by bricks laid edgewise, at the end of the block, and also 
midway between these points. 
b.h.b. The moulding tables. 
Fig. 6. The pantile table, used for moulding pantiles. (Scale | in. to 
the foot.) 

a. The half-piece squared up. 

b. The block and stock-board. 
e. The trug or trough. 

d. The moulder's sand. 

e. The stripping?. 

/. A hole in the table for sweepings to drop through. 
g.g.ff. The pegs on which the mould is placed. There are four of 
these pegs ; viz., one at each comer of the block and stock-board ; 
and the distance to which they are driven below the top of the 
Etock-boiird, determines the thickness of the tile.' 
Fig. 7. The block and stock-board. (Scale 1 in. to the f(X)t.) 

c. A tenon, which drops into a mortice in the table. 

d. A mortice in r, by which the block and stock-board is keyed 
tightly to the table. 

Fig. 8. The pantile mould. (Scale 1 in. to the foot) 
Fig. 9. The roll. (Scale 1 in. to the foot.) 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 189 

Fig. 10. The washing-off table. (Scale ^ in. to the foot.) 
a. The washing-off trug. 
}. The washing-off frame. 
Fig. 11. The washing-off frame. (Scale 1 in. to the foot.) 
Fig. 12. The splayer. (Scale 1 in. to the foot.) 
Fig. 13. The thwacking frame placed on the thwacking stool. (Scale 
1 in. to the foot.) 

Fig. 14. The thwacking horse, on which the thwacking frame Is placed 
for thwacking those tiles at the top of the blocks. (Scale ^ in. to the foot.) 
a. Tiie table on which the thwacking frame is placed. 
d. The place where the thwacker stands to thwack. 
c.c. Two wheels to facilitate the moving of the horse from place to 
place when required. 
Fig. 15. The thwacker. (Scale 1 in. to the foot.) 
Fig. 16. The thwacking knife. (Scale 1 in. to the foot.) This is 
simply an iron blade, with a piece cut out exactly to the intended profile 
of the wing of the pantile, which is trimmed with it immediately after 
thwacking. 

Figs. 17 to 22. The tile kiln. 
(N.B. The whole of the furnace and body of the kiln is constructed 
of fire brick.) 
Fig. 17. Plan of the kiln, taken through the body. (Scale 20 feet to 
the inch.) 
k.h. The hatchways. 
Fig. 18. Plan of the basement, to the same scale, showing the entrance 
to the vaults. 

Fig. 19.* Section through the centre of the kiln, in the direction of 
the line a b, fig. 18. (Same scale.) 

Fig. 20. Section through the centre of the kiln, in the direction of the 
line c d. (Same scale.) 

Fig. 21. Transverse section of the furnaces. (Scale \ in. to the foot.) 
The section marked a is taken through the throat of the furnace, on the 
line marked x ij, in fig. 22. 

Fig. 22. Longitudinal section of the furnaces. (Same scale.) The 
arrows ia each of the above figures show the direction of the flues. 



CHAPTER VII. 

ON THE MANUFACTUKE OF ENCAUSTIC TILES. 

1. The highly-decorative pavements of the mediaeval 
ages, principally to be found in our old ecclesiastical 
structures, which often shared the fate of many beautiful 

* This cut and the following are not quite accurate, the sides of the 
dome not being straight, as shown in the engraving, but slightly convex. 



190 BUDIMEXTS OP THE 

details of architectural ornament, by being made to give 
way to -what rustic cliurcbwardens, and others of equal 
taste and discemmentj deemed improvements — after 
attracting the attention of the antiquary for centuries, 
have at length excited some interest amongst the prac- 
tical minds of these our stirring business times. About 
thirty years since a patent was obtained by Mr. S. 
"Wright, of the Staffordshire Potteries, for the revival of 
this interesting branch of art, for such it may be truly 
called. As might have been expected, many difficulties 
beset the patentee, and for some years nothing was pro- 
duced equal to the old specimens. But still a beginning 
was made that promised success when skill and capital, 
and a determination to succeed, should be brought to 
bear upon the subject. And these were not long want- 
ing, as the patent ultimately passed into the hands of a 
gentleman undeterred by difficulties or previous failures, 
and who expressed his intention to make encaustic tiles, 
such as would secure the public approbation, even if 
each one cost him a guinea! This is the spirit that has 
achieved such surprising results in our manufactures 
generally, within a comparatively brief period ; and no 
wonder that in this, as in most other instances, success 
has been the satisfactory result. TVe need scarcely say 
that the gentleman referred to is !Mr. Herbert Minton, 
who, with untiring industry, collected the best speci- 
mens of old tiles that could be found in this country, and 
by a succession of experiments overcame the obstacles 
that had retarded the success of the undertaking. 

2. The chief of these obstacles was, to discover clays 
of different colours that could be made to amalgamate 
in such a way as to contract or shrink equally during the 
processes of drying and firing; and until this was effected, 
a perfect tile of several colours could not be produced, 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS ANP TILES. 191 

sundry unsightly cracks appearing on the inlaid parts 
of the surface. It will be unnecessary to speak of the 
present state of perfection to which these beautiful tiles 
have been brought^ further than to observe that they 
are yearly becoming more appreciated^ both on the score 
of durability and ornament; and there can scarcely be a 
doubt thatj very soon^ no ecclesiastical building, having 
any pretensions to architectui'al superiority, will be con- 
sidered to be complete in its decorations without them. 
By way of information, we may add, that not only 
copies of old tiles are manufactured, but every variety 
of design suitable for the character of the building they 
are intended for are supplied. Indeed, almost any 
pattern can be produced with facility; and we have seen 
some of the arms of our nobility and gentry so finely 
executed, that the uninitiated might be pardoned for 
mistaking these inlaid clays for the highly-finished and 
elaborate work of the pencil. In many instances they 
have been adopted as a substitute for oil- cloth in the 
halls and passages of the mansions of our nobility, 
being considered far more beautiful, and, from their 
durability, more economical also, in the long run. 

3. We will now take a peep into the interior of Messrs. 
Minton and Co.^s manufactory.* We must first notice, 
that the clays of which the tiles are composed are ob- 
tained in the immediate neighbourhood — the ordinary 
marl producing a good buff colour when fired j another 
kind a warm red ; black is produced by staining with 
manganese; blue with cobalt, &c. W'th the native 
clays there is a slight admixtui'e of Cornwall stone and 
clay, and flint from Kent, &c. The whole are subjected 
to a variety of washings and purifications — the clay in- 

• Further details will be fouud ia " Tomlinsoa's Cjclopjedia "— 
article, Pottery and Porcelain. 



193 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

tended for tlie surface^ especially — and passed througli 
fine lawn sieves in a liquid, or ''slip'' state, as it is 
technically termed. In this state it is conveyed to the 
slip-kiln, or rather pumped on it, and boiled, until it is 
in a plastic state, and fit for use. 

4. After the modeller has done his part, the pattern 
is cast in plaster in relief, and is then placed in a metal 
frame of the size required ; but it should be stated that 
to produce the ordinary 6-in. square tile, it is modelled 
6f in., to allow for shrinkage or contraction, which takes 
place during drying and firing. The maker then com- 
mences his operations. A piece of the fine clay for the 
surface is flattened out to about a quarter of an inch 
thick, somewhat after the manner of preparing a pie 
crust, and this is thrown upon, and pressed upon, the 
plaster pattern, and receives, of course, a correct indenta- 
tion, or outline of the design. The metal frame containing 
the plaster mould is divided horizontally, and after the 
surface is put in, the upper part of the frame is screwed 
on, and the maker fills up with clay of a somewhat 
coarser description, to form the tile of the requisite 
thickness. The tile is then put under a screw-press to 
impart the proper degree of solidity. 

5. As far as we have gone, the tile is but of one 
colour; next comes the task of giving the difi'erent 
colours required. Suppose a tile be required of three 
colours — red, blue, and buff. "SVe will say the surface 
piece already put in is of abuff colour. The maker provides 
himself with vessels of a suitable kind, containing — the 
one the blue, the other the red colour, in a " slip" state, 
and these he pours into those parts of the indented surface 
that the drawing or finished tile before him tells him to 
be correct. These slips cover the surface entirely, and 
\hexe is now not the slightest appearance of any pattern 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 193 

or design. After remaining in this state for three days, 
until the water has evaporated for the most part^ the 
process of scraping or planing the surface commences, 
which is an operation requiring care, though easily 
effected by experienced hands. The pattern then makes 
its appearance, but the colours are scarcely distinguish- 
able the one from the other. 

6. The tile is then finished as far as the maker is 
concerned ; and, after remaining in the drying house 
from 14 to 21 days, according to circumstances, is con- 
veyed to the oven, where it is exposed to an intense 
degree of heat for about 60 hours. After being drawn 
from the oven, the tile is finished, except it be that the 
parties ordering wish the surface glazed, a rapid and 
easy process, the dipper merely placing tbe surface in a 
tub of glaze. 

7. Plain self-coloured tiles, such as black, red, choco- 
late, buff, &c., and also tesserae, are made of the same 
material as the encaustic, only that it is dried longer in 
the kiln, passed through rollers to reduce it to a powder, 
and is then finely sifted. Presses of great power, made 
under Prosser's patent, make these tiles. The powdered 
clay is swept into a recess of the proper size, the screw 
descends, and, by its immense power, presses the powder 
into a solid tile, ready for drying and firing. One man 
can, with ease, make about 500 per day. 

8. Tessera. — The tesserae made by Messrs. Minton, 
under Mr. Prosser's patent, are now extensively used 
for mosaic pavements, for which they are admirably 
adapted. A few words will suffice to explain the nature 
of the improvements effected in this branch of art by 
the introduction ot the new material. 

The mosaic pavements made by the Romans were 
formed of small pieces of stone or marble of various 

K 



194 RUDIMENTS OF THB 

colours, bedded one by one in a layer of cement, each 
(if the pieces being levelled with the others as the work 
l>roceeded, and on the completion of the work the un- 
avoidable inequalities of surface were corrected by 
rubbing the whole to a plciue surface. 

This mode of proceeding was attended with many 
defects. The irregular shapes of the tesserae caused 
the cement joints to be of a thickness that greatly in- 
jured the effect of the design, whilst the piecemeal way 
in which the work was laid rendered it very difficult to 
produce a level surface. 

It is not our purpose here to detail the several at- 
tempts that have been made during the last few years, 
with various degrees of success, to produce mosaic pave- 
ments, by the use of clay tesserae, coloured cements, 
&c. ; but it will readily be understood that the principal 
difficulties to be overcome in the use of solid tesserje 
arc those aiising from irregularity in the shape and size 
of the several pieces, as well as the great labour and 
expense attending the laying of such pavements piece 
by piece. 

These difficulties have been entirely overcome by the 
use of the patent tesserae, which, being made in steel 
dies, by the process above described, are perfectly uni- 
form in size, and fit closely together, with an almost 
imperceptible joint. 

The mode in which the tesserae are used is precisely 
the reverse of the Roman process, and is as follows : — 
a coloured design of the intended mosaic having been 
drawn to scale, after the fashion of a Berlin wool 
pattern, the pattern is set out full size on a cement floor, 
perfectly smooth and level, and on this floor the tesserae 
are placed close together, the workmen being guided in 
the arrangement of the colours by the small drawing. 



ART OP MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 195 

The pieces are then joined together by a layer of 
cement applied to the upper surface, and in this way they 
are formed into slabs of convenient size, which, when 
hard, are ready for use, and can be laid with as much 
ease as ordinary flagstones. It will at once be under- 
stood, that the side of the slabs which is next the floor 
during the process of manufactui'e forms the upper 
side of the flnished pavement, the pattern appearing 
reversed during its formation. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

ON THE MANUFACTUEE OF BRICKS AND DRAIN 
PIPES BY MACHINERY. 

Ii is the general opinion that brickmaking by ma- 
chinery is not economical in small work, since the cost 
of moulding bears so small a proportion to the total 
cost. In large engineering works, however, where a 
contractor requires many millions of bricks in a limited 
time, for the construction of a tunnel or viaduct, the use 
of machinery may be desirable. In this chapter we do 
not, of course, pretend to give descriptions of the various 
patented and other machines connected with the manu- 
facture of bricks and tiles. Our object, in a work of 
this kind, being to deal with the principles of the art 
rather than with a multiplicity of minute details. "We 
may, however, in order to show the great vitality of the 
trade, quote a few titles of inventions, &c., belonging to 
the years 18G1 and 1862. The patent list displays the 
strong tendency to invention for making bricks, &c., by 
machinery. Thus, we have — 

K 2 



196 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

Wimball's pateut for making bricks^ tiles, and drain 
pipes. 

^Morrell and Charnley's apparatus for making bricks^ 
tiles, and other articles from plastic materials. 

Green and Wright's machinery for the manufacture 
of plain and ornamental bricks, slabs, tiles, and quarries. 

Basford's patent for constructing brick -M-alls, and 
ornamenting the materials to be used for the same. 

Effertz' machinery for making bricks, tiles, &c. 

Grimshaw's patent for compressing brick-eai'th and 
other materials. 

^lorris and Radford's pateut for the manufacture of 
fire bricks, blocks, kc. 

Poole's patent for making ornamental bricks, tiles, &c. 

Newton's machine for making bricks. 

Sharp and Balmer's apparatus for the manufacture 
and drying of bricks. 

GrimshaVs patent apparatus^ used in drying, pul- 
verising, and compressing clay. 

Piatt and Richardson's apparatus for making bricks. 

Foster's method of rendering bricks impervious to 
damp. 

Smith's patent apparatus for the manufacture of 
bricks, tiles, S:c. 

The following description of Oatcs's brickmaking 
machine is from Tomlinson's " Cyclopsedia of Useful 
Arts, &c." It was described by ':Mr. J. E. Clift, of 
Birmingham, at a meeting of the Institution of Me- 
chanical Engineers, in November, 1859, and the descrip- 
tion is printed in the ''Proceedings" of that body, and 
is illustrated by four engraved plates, from which Mr. 
Tomlinson has compiled the illustrative figure. "NVc do 
not give this machine as the best, since there are many 
other well-known machines of merit in use ; but we 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 197 

offer it as an example of the meclianical means adopted 
in tins class of inventions. 

The present brickmaking machines at work are 
divided by Mr. Clift into two classes, viz., those that 
operate on the clay in a moist and plastic state, and 
those for -which the material requires to be dried and 
ground previous to being moulded. In the former class, 
the plastic column of clay, having been formed into a 
continuous length by the operation of a screw, pugging 
blades, or rollers, is divided into bricks by means of 
wires moved across, either while the clay is at rest or 
while in motion, by the wires being moved obliquely at 
an angle to compensate for the speed at which the clay 
travels. This wire-cutting requires the clay to be soft, 
so that the bricks are but little harder than those made 
by hand, and require a similar drying before being placed 
in the kiln ; and aV this renders the expense of manu- 
facture about the same as for hand-made bricks. In the 
second class of machines, tlie bricks are compressed in 
a dry state in the mould ; but the processes for drying 
the clay, and reducing it to a uniform powder, add to 
the cost of manufacture. 

JNIr. Gates has got rid of both objections, viz., the 
difficulty respecting the previous preparation of the clay, 
and the subsequent drying of the bricks. In his machine 
the clay is used of such a degree of dryness as to allow 
of its being mixed up and macerated, and compressed 
into bricks by a single continuous action, the clay being 
formed into a continuous column and compressed into 
the moulds by the action of a revolving vertical screw. 
The clay requires, in general, no previous preparation 
beyond that given by the ordinary crushing rollers, and, 
in some cases, may be put into the machine direct from 
the pit, unless it contain stones, when it is passed through 



198 



RUDtMENTS OF THF 



a pair of rollers. Figs. 2 and 3, when joined at the 
parts indicated by the dotted lines^ form a longitudinal 
section of the machine, and fig. 1 is a plau of the screw. 

Fig. I. 




The cast-iron clay cylinder A is expanded at the upper 
part to form a hopper, into which the clay is supplied, 
and the lower cylindrical portion is about the same in 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 
Fig.d. 



199 




diameter as the length of the brick mould F, at the 
bottom of the pressing chamber B. The vertical screw 
C is placed in the axis of the cylinder, and carried by 



200 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

two bearings in the upper frame D ; this screw is 
parallel at the lower part^ the blade nearly filling the 
parallel portion of the clay cylinder, and is tapered 
conically at the upper part to nearly double the diameter. 
"When the clay is thrown loosely into the hopper it is 
divided and directed towards the centre by the curved 
arm E revolving with the screw shaft, and drawn down 
by the tapered portion of the screw into the parallel 
part of the clay cylinder in sufficient quantity to keep 
this part of the cylinder constantly charged. The clay 
is then forced downwards by the parallel portion of the 
screw into the pressing chamber B_, and into the brick 
mould F, which consists of a parallel block equal in 
thickness to a brick, and sliding between fixed plates 
above and below, and containing two moulds, F and G, 
corresponding in length and breadth to the bricks to be 
made. The mould-block F is made to slide with a reci- 
procating motion by means of the revolving cam H, 
which acts upon two rollers in the frame I, connected 
to the mould-block by a rod sliding through fixed eyes; 
and the two brick moulds are thus placed alternately 
under the opening of the pressing chamber B to receive 
a charge of clay, the mould-block remaining stationary 
in each position during one quarter of the revolution of 
the cam H. "When the brick mould F is withdrawn 
from under the pressing chamber, the brick is dis- 
charged from the mould by the descent of the piston K, 
which is of the same dimensions as the brick mould ; 
the piston is pressed down by the lever M, worked by 
the cam X, when the brick mould stops at the end of 
its stroke, and is drawn up again before the return 
motion of the mould begins. A second piston L acts in 
the same manner upon the second brick mould G, and 
the discharged bricks arc received upon endless bands 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 201 

O, by wliich they are broiiglit successively to the fron^ 
of the machine, when they are removed hy boys to the 
barrows used for conveying them to the kihis to be burnt. 
The solid block that divides the two brick moulds 
F and G is slightly Avider than the discharge opening 
at the bottom of the pressing chamber B, having an 
over-lap, so that the making of one brick is terminated 
before that of the next begins, in order to ensure com- 
pleteness in the moulding. During the instant wheij 
this plauk is passing the opening at the bottom of the 
pressing chamber, the discharge of the clay is stopped, 
and it becomes necessary to provide some means eithei 
of relieving the pressure during that period, or of stop- 
ping the motion of the pressing screw. Accordingly 
the pressure is relieved by an ingenious contrivance, 
forming in effect a safety-valve, which prevents the 
pressure in the chamber from increasing wdien the brick 
mould is shut off, and also serves to maintain a uniform 
pressure during the formation of the brick, so as to en- 
sure each mould being thoroughly and equally filled 
with clay; this is effected by an escape-pipe P, similar 
in form to the brick mould, but extending horizontally 
from the side of the pressing chamber, and is open at 
+hc outer extremity. The regular action of the screwy 
forces the clay into the escape-pipe, as far as its outer 
extremity, forming a parallel bar of clay in the pipe. 
The resistance caused by the friction of this bar in 
sliding through the pipe is then the measure of the 
amount of pressure in the machine ; and this pressure 
cannot be exceeded in the machine, for the instant that 
the brick mould is full, the further supply of clay, fed 
into the pressing chamber by the continuous motion of 
the screw, escapes laterally, by pushing outwards the 
column of clay in the escape-pipe. The uniform pres- 

K 3 



202 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

sure of every brick in the mould up to this fixed limit 
is ensured by the escape-pipe not beginning to act until 
that limit of pressure is reached. Its action is similar 
to that of a safety-valve, and the amount of pressure 
under which the bricks are made is directly regulated 
by adjusting the length of the escape-pipe. The latter 
discharges a continuous bar of solid clay, advancing by 
intermittent steps of j to ^ in. in length, each time 
that the brick mould is shut oflF and changed. The 
projecting piece of clay from the end of the escape-pipe 
is broken off from time to time, and thrown back into 
the hopper of the machine. 

The upper side of the solid block separating the two 
moulds F and G is faced with steel : and the upper 
face of the brick is smoothed bv beiug sheared oflp bv 
the edge of the opening in the pressing chamber ; the 
under face of the brick is smoothed by being planed by 
a steel bar R, fixed along the edge of the under plate, 
and having a groove in it for discharging the shaving 
of clay taken oflf the brick. 

The screw shaft is driven by bevil gear from the shaft 
S, which is driven by a strap from the engine, the speed 
being adjusted according to the quality of the clay or 
the Avear of the screw. The screw is driven at about 
thirty revolutions per minute, when at full speed, or one 
brick for each revolution of the screw. The machine 
completes 12,000 bricks per day, or an average of 
twenty per minute. The clay, as already stated, can 
be taken dii'cct from the pit, passed through crushing 
rollers, and then fed straight iuto the moulding machine. 
Indeed, tlie clay within a quarter of an hour after being 
brought from the pit may be seen stacked in kilns, and 
in a few days burnt ready for use. The amount of 
power required for driving the machine, and the wear 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 203 

of the screw, vary according to the material worked. 
With a calcareous marl about twelve horse-power was 
found sufficient. AVhen the material is very siliceous 
the cast-iron screws wear out quickly. Gun-metal has 
been found much more durable than iron for the screw 
and mould-block. 

In burning bricks that contain much alumina, and 
consequently retain a good deal of moisture, it is found 
advisable to stack the bricks in the kiln in lifts of from 
fifteen to twenty courses each. As soon as the bottom 
lift has been stacked, small fires are lighted to drive off 
the steam from the bricks, which might otherwise soften 
those stacked above ; the middle lift is then stacked and 
similarly dried, and then the top lift; after which the 
full fires are lighted. 

The crushing strength of these bricks made in the 
machines at Oldbury is said to be double that of the 
hand-made blue bricks of the neighbourhood, being an 
average of 150 tons compared with 76 tons, or 8,024 lbs. 
per square inch compared with 4,203 lbs. The trans- 
verse strength, with 7 in. length between the bearings, 
was found to be, for hand-made bricks, 2,350 lbs., 
for machine-made bricks, 3,085 lbs., and for the same, 
hard burnt, 4,320 lbs. 

One of the advantages of this machine is, that clay 
containing a good deal of stone, which could scarcely 
be worked for hand-made bricks, can be used. Th.< 
brick-earth at Cobham is very unfavourable for brick- 
making, it being so weak and friable that hand-made 
bricks made fi'om it were crushed by a moderate pres- 
sure; when made by the machine, however, serviceable 
bricks were turned out. A material containing 84 per 
cent, of silica has been made by this machine into 
bricks. The bricks had not any hollow or frog in the 



204 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

upper space for holding the mortar, but arraugementt 
were being made for producing it. 

The extent to which bricks absorb water is im- 
portant, since dry houses cannot be built with bricks 
that are very absorbent. A brick of 9 lbs. weight will 
absorb about 1 lb. of water, and it is stated that the 
bricks made by this machine absorb less. 

The cost of Oates's machine is from £150 to £200, 
exclusive of the engine for driving it. The cost of brick- 
making varies according to the price of coal in diflferent 
localities ; but there is very little variation in the price 
of the unburnt bricks made by the machine, the differ- 
ence arising chiefly from the varying amount of royalty 
charged on the clay in the pit, which varies from 1*. 
to 2s. 6d. per 1,000. A machine at Cobham, employed 
by ^lessrs. Peto and Betts, produced 200,000 bricks in 
a fortnight of eleven days, but the average number per 
week, of five and a half days, was considered to be 
80,000, or at the rate of twenty-four bricks per minute. 
The contract for the bricks in and out of the kilns, 
exclusive of the cost of the coals, was first taken at 
5*. 9d. per 1,000 bricks ; which was afterwards raised 
to 65. 9d., owing to the distance of the clay from the 
machine. To this had to be added 6d. per 1,000 royalty, 
and the wages of the engine-driver at Gd. per 1,000, 
raising the expenses to 7s. 9d. per 1,000 bricks. The 
quantity of coals required for burning the bricks, and 
for the engine driving, might safely be taken at ^ ton 
per 1,000 ; and the price of coal at that place being 25*. 
per ton, the total cost of making the bricks by the ma- 
chine amounted to 20^. per 1,000, including the burning. 

The following particulars respecting drain-pipe mak- 
ing machines, and hollow bricks, ai'e also from Mi. 
Tomlinson's " Cyclopaedia.^' 



ART or MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



205 








The large and increasing demand for draining tiles 
and pipes has led to great economy in their manufac- 
ture. Some are moulded flat^ and afterwards bent 
round a wooden core to the 
proper shape : others are made at 
once of a curved form by forcing 
the clay through a dod or mould, 
fig. 4, by mechanical pressure. 
The action will be readily under- 
stood from fig. 5, which repre- 
sents a section of a strong iron 
cylinder, containing a quantity of 
clay in the act of being pressed 
down Avith enormous force by a 
solid piston or plunger. The 
clay, as it escapes through the 
dod, is evidently moulded into 
the form of the pipe (also shown 
in section), which is cut ofi:' in 
lengths, by means of a wire, and 
these, after a preliminary drying, ^'9- S- 

are ready for firing. By using dods of different sizes, 
pipes of various magnitudes arc formed. 

Fig. 6 is an elevation of a drain-pipe making 
machine, which we have copied from ]\Ir. Green's Avorks 
at Lambeth. The cylinder contains a second cylinder, 
capable of holding a given weight of clay, adapted to 
the moulding of a certain number of pipes at one 
charge. Thus, one box-full will furnish five 9-in. pipes, 
six 6-in. pipes, seven 4-in. pipes, and so on. By the 
action of the rack the piston forces the clay through 
the dod or die upon a table, so balanced by Aveights 
that the lengthening pipe is sufficient by its weight to 
force doAvn the table, and when a certain ^engtli of pipe 




206 



RUDIMEXTS OF THE 



is formed, the boy stops the machine by shifting the 
strap "vrhich drives the rack-screw from the fast to the 
loose pullevj and then cuts off the length of pipe with 

Fig. 0. 




a wire, removes the pipe so formed, raises up the table, 
sets the machine in action, and receives a pipe upon the 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 207 

table as before. When all the clay is thus forced out 
of the cylinder^ the action of the rack is reversed, 
whereby the plunger is drawn up out of the cylinder. 
The cylinder, which moves on a kind of hinge, is then 
tilted on one side to receive its charge of clay, and being 
restored to its vertical position, the action proceeds as 
before. By an ingenious contrivance, the fork which 
shifts the strap from the fast to the loose pulley, is 
weighted in such a manner that, when the boy raises 
his foot from a treadle, the strap is at once moved on 
to the loose pulley, and vice versa, thus giving the 
attendant a third hand, and diminishing the chances of 
danger from the strap. Mr. Green has a machine 
worked by a screw, in which the process is continuous. 
These pipes are washed with glaze before the firing, as 
will be explained hereafter. 

^ yV means of a tile machine, the holloiv bricks are 
formed, which are so much recommended by the " So- 
ciety for Improving the Condition of the Labouring 
Classes,'^ and introduced by them in the construction 
of dwelling-houses for the poor. The idea of tubular 
bricks is not new, for such articles were used by the 
Romans in large vaultings, where lightness of construc- 
tion was required, and they are said to be in common 
use in Tunis at the present time. The size of the bricks 
is 12 in, long, and three courses rise 1 ft. in height. 
Nine hollow bricks will do as much walling as sixteen of 
the common sort, with only a slight increase in weight. 
In passing through the tile machine, or in the process of 
drying, the bricks can be splayed at the ends for gables, 
or marked for closures, and broken off as required in 
use, or they may be perforated for the purpose of venti- 
lation. If nicked with a sharp-pointed hammer, they 
will break off at any desired line ; and the angles may 



208 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



be taken off with a trowel as in the common brick. 
The bricks for the quoins and jambs may be made solid 
or perforated, and with perpendicular holes, either cir- 
cular, square, or octagonal : those in the quoins may 
be so arranged as to serve for ventilating shafts. The 
hollow bricks, from their mode of manufacture, are 
more compressed than common bricks, require less 
drying, and are better burned with less fuel . 

The following figures represent some of the forms of 
hollow bricks in common use. a, fig. 7, is an extei'nal 
brick, llf in. long, which with the quoin brick e, 
and the jamb brick b, are sufficient for building 9-iu. 
walls, e is 10^ in. long, with one splayed corner for 
forming external angles, reveals, and jambs of doors 
and windows, either square or splayed. The internal 
jamb and chimney brick, b, is 8| in. long; c is an 

Fig. 





internal brick, adapted to any thickness of wall beyond 
9 in. : d is for 5|-in. partitions, or internal walls, and 
arch bricks, and is used for floor and roof arches of 
7 to 10 ft. span. / is used for the same purpose, with 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



209 



a webb to give extra strength, and to adapt them for 
using on edges in partitions, 3f in. thick to rise in 
6-in. courses. 

Fig. 8 represents a specimen of hollow brick work 
in 6-in. courses, with square 
rebated joints for extra strength. 
These bricks are adapted to the 
lining of flint or concrete walls. 
Fig. 9 is a section illustrative 
of the construction adopted in 
H. E,. H. Prince A.lbert's model 
houses. The span of the arches 
is increased over the living 
rooms to 10 ft. 4 in., with a 
proportionate addition to their 
rise. The external springers 
are of cast-iron, connected by 
wrought-iron tie rods. 
It is stated that there is an advantage of 29 per cent. 
in favour of the patent bonded hollow bricks over ordi- 




Flff.8. 




nary bricks, in addition to a considerable diminution in 
the cost of carriage or transport, and of 25 per cent, on 
the mortar and the labour. 



210 RUriMENTS OI TUB 



CHAPTEB IX. 

ADDITIONAL KEMAEKS ON THE MAXTFACTTRE OF 
BRICKS BY MACHIXEEY. 

It is proposed here to supplement the previous chapter, 
written by Professor Tomlinson in 1863, by giving 
full descriptions of some of the most remarkable, or 
most used, of the very many brickmaking machines 
now before the public. The trade in producing brick 
machinery itself has come to be a very large one, in 
which great intelligence, energy, and capital have been 
invested, and from which have emanated an immense 
number of inventions, chiefly the subjects of patents. 
The results have naturally been much rivalry and com- 
petition, so that, perhaps, there is no one of the trains 
of machinery for making brick, which has had a success 
enough to make it worth notice, which has not been ex- 
posed to partial advocacy, and to equally interested and 
frequently more mijust depreciation. 

It would be highly out of place that "an outline" such 
as this volume can alone pretend to, within its limits, 
should undertake to appraise the relative merits or 
demerits of the various machines we are about to notice 
— the rather, as we are imable to treat the whole sub- 
ject in the exhaustive manner that alone would justify 
8uch criticism. The following notices, therefore, must 
be viewed as merely collecting before the reader, with 
sufficient illustrations, a few of the more prominent 
brick and tile machines, or those most in use in Great 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS ,VND TILES. 211 

Britain, sufficient to serve as an index to those specially 
interested, whereby more complete information may be 
obtained through the respective makers or otherwise. 

As has been sufficiently shown in the preceding 
parts of this volume, the natural clays from which 
bricks are to be made, though they may occasionally be 
found in a state capable of being at once made into 
brick, must most usually be subjected, after having 
been dug out, to more or less disintegration, grinding, 
and mixing into perfect plasticity, before being em- 
ployed. For these purposes, the screen sometimes 
being used beforehand, the crushing rollers and 
the pug-mill are employed. Other methods of pro- 
ducing perfect freedom from adventitious matter and 
perfect plasticity are occasionally employed, when 
special qualities of extra fine bricks are sought for, 
but with those we need not trouble the reader here. 

The above machines are employed in combination, 
i.e., as parts of one compoimd machine, as produced by 
some makers, separately as turned out by others. The 
clay-mill, with crushing rollers working on edge in a 
circular pan, is also in use. Brick machinery itsell*, 
since the invention of Prosser, many years since, is 
divisible into two great classes, wet and dry clay ma- 
chines, i.e., machines which form the brick, by moderate 
pressure in moulds, from ah'eady tempered and plastic 
clay, and those which, under a far more severe com- 
pression, mould the bricks from clay perfectly commi- 
nuted, but either dry, or at most only very slightly 
moistened. One of the most salient advantages of the 
dry method is, that it produces a denser brick, and one 
that shrinks less both in drying and in baking than 
do those made wet ; and that a certain amount, though 
not a very great one, of the labour and cost of the 



212 



RCDliLENTS OF THE 



pelimmary preparation of the clay is saved. The 
disadvantages, or some of them, are, that miless the 
clay in the dry or merely damp state be scrupulously 
well prepared, and unless a degree of pressure be 
employed which demands a good deal of power, the 
brick may be deficient in tenacity and in uniform 
solidity, or even in perfect fairness of face. On the 
other hand, with certain clays, and pressures beyond a 
given point, bricks are thus produced, which, though 
dense and resistant, have so ?/;«porous a surface as 
hardly to take bond with either cement or mortar. 
Fig. 1 represents Whitehead's Improved Clay Crush- 




ing and Grinding Roller Mill, consisting of two pairs of 
large iron rollers, fitted in a massive cast-iron frame. 
The dimensions of the top rollers (which revolve at equal 
speed) are 2 ft. 6 in. long by 1 ft. 8 in. diameter. The 
lower pair (running as two to one, fur more thoroughly 
incorporating the clay) are 2 ft. 6 in. long by 1 ft. 6 in. 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



213 



diameter. The above mill is constructed for the pur- 
pose of reducing rough strong clays or hard marls not 
disintegrable by water, into a state to be rendered plastic 
by future operations in the pug-mill, of which two dif- 

Fiff.2. 




feront examples are given in figs. 2 and 3 by the same 
maker. 

Fig. 2 is a large and powerfid pug-mill. The cylinder 
is one strong loam casting made perfectly true ; it is 
erected upon a massive iron basement, and provided 
with two cast mouth-pieces for the discharge of the 
pugged clay, one situate on each side at bottom. These 
mouth-pieces may have sliding doors fitted, to increase 
or diminish the area of the orifice, so as to cause the 
clay to be more or less finely groimd. This is valuable 
in admitting the adaptation of the mill to the pressing 
out of large and small pipes, &c. 

This mill makes about three revolutions per minute, 
Vjrorked by the power of one horse, The cylinder is 24 in. 



214 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



diameter inside, and 54 in. liigli ; the total height to top 
of vertical shaft is 87 in. 

Fig. 3 represents TVhitehead's Perforated Pug-mill. 
The advantage of this mill is, that during the opera- 
tion of pugging the clay is forced out through the 





'm^- iiii 



perforations at the sides in the plastic state, leaving 
behind the stones, which are carried, by means of the 
internal arrangement of the knives on the vertical shaft, 
through an aperture at the bottom ; thus combining 
the process of pugging and screening in one op<»ration. 

We entertain some doubts of the advantages of this 
machine, however ingenious ; for screening as a pre- 
liminary operation should, whenever practicable, never 
be omitted. 

Fig. 4 shows a very good form of nearly portable 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES, 



215 



clay-milL Mills in this fonn may be used for grinding 
wet or plastic clay, but are more suitable for indurated 
dry clays, wbich are to be used with, one or other of the 
dry-clay brick machines. The pan, as is evident from 




the figure, revolves, and the runners are carried round 
by it, being free to move within a certain range verti- 
cally. The pan is provided with curved blades, so fixed 
as to keep the stuff constantly beneath the runners. 

We now come to the composite machines, in which 
crushing rollers and horizontal pug-mill are combined, 
as in fig. 5. 

For very hard clays, such as fire-clays for fire-brick, 
two or even more pairs of crushing rollers may be 
needed above each other, those closest set being at bottom. 



216 A"RT or MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 

The rollers are driven at different speeds, so as to 
produce a rub as well as a mere squeeze between the sur- 

lig. 6, 



faces, and so better disintegrate the clay. The rollers 
are usually made about 20 in. diameter, and about 3 ft. 
long. They are fed by hand, through a hopper at 
top. 

Haying thus described the machinery generally in 
use for the pre}mrat\on of the clay, whether plastic or 
dry, we proceed to illustrate a few of the brickmaking 
machines themselves, commencing with those for operat- 
ing on moist or plastic clays. 

Fig. 6 represents a large machine as constructed by 
Whitehead, of Preston, in which the rough clay thrown 
in between the rollers at top is ground, and then passes 



218 



RLDIMENTS OF THE 



at once into the vertical pug-mill, and is thence expressed 
in two continuous prisms of the size in section of a brick 

Fxg.l. 





on flat, and which are at intervals cut transversely 
into bricks by the wires of the frames, seen in the front 
of the drawing. These are moved by hand. 

Fig. 8 represents another form of machine, in 
which the clay, already tempered, is drawn in and con- 
tinuously expressed by a pair of rollers, the prism 
being cut asunder into bricks by the radial wires 
forming the arms of the wheel C, which is moved auto- 
matically. 

An extremely simply-contrived and most efficient 
French machine of this class was exhibited in 1862 in 
the French department. It was an invention of M. 
Jardin, and manufactured by Cazenave & Co., Paris. 
At work in the Exhibition, it made at the rate of 
twelve thousand per day of ten hours, with only the 
attendance of two men. The division of the prism of 
clay was effected by wires attached to a wheel moved by 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES, 



219 



the macliine, but differently arranged from that of 
fiff. 8. 




^^ '.' 



The followmg machine belongs to this same class. 
It is Clayton and Co.'s second-sized horizontal brick 

l2 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AXD TILES. 



221 



machine, which combines the crushing rollers, pug- 
mill, and brick-forming in one machine. 

These machines are largely run upon, and have been 
employed extensively by our great contractors, and 
upon many public works — facts which give the best 
assurance that they answer well. 

One of these machines weighs about 3^ tons, and of 
this second size, with about 8 or 10 horse power, will 
turn out from 75,000 to 90,000 bricks per week. 

We now come to another class of machines working 



Fig. 10. 




with plastic clay, though capable of employing clay 
nearly dry, or at least very stiffly tempered. The 
machine shown in fig. 10 consists of a vertical pug-mill, 
into the upper part of which the clay is fed, and in 
which it imdergocs tempering and mixing, and, on 



222 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

reaching tte bottom of the mill, is pressed into the 
moulds, of the form and size of brick required, which 
are arranged in the form of a circular revolving table. 
As this table revolves, the piston-rods of the moulds 
ascend an inclined spiral plane, and so gradually lift the 
bricks out of the moiilds, whence they are taken from the 
machine by a boy, and placed on an endless band which 
carries the bricks direct to the "waller." The speed of the 
several parts is so arranged, that the operations of 
pugging, moulding, and delivery proceed simultane- 
ously in due order, the whole being easily driven by a 
steam engine of about 6-horse power, which, at the 
ordinary rate of working, will make 12,000 bricks per 
day ; or with 8-horse power from 15,000 to 18,000. 
In consequence of the great pressure to which the clay 
is subjected in the moulds, the bricks produced by this 
machine may be made from stiffer clay, so that less 
H-ater has to be evaporated in the drying, thus saving 
much of the time required for hand-made bricks, and 
n voiding the risk of loss from bad weather. 

One poiut of importance to remark as respects this 
last class of machines, compared with the previous one, 
is this — wire-cut bricks are smooth and perfect in form, 
provided the clay be not only perfectly plastic, but per- 
fectly uniform and free from adventitious particles. 
If, however, the plastic clay contains gravelly par- 
ticles, or be of such a quality that it is necessary to 
mix it with ashes or '•' breeze," then the section made 
by the passage of the wire drags out and after it more 
or less of these solid particles, and the faces of section 
are rough and uneven ; in such cases resort is best had 
tD those machines of pressure only. 

In the following brick-pressing machine also, for 
plastic clay, the moulded bricks are delivered by the 



AUT OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 223 

mactine directly on to tlie horizontal belt that carries 
them away ; so that the labour of attendance is nearly 
limited to feeding the tempered clay into the top 
hopper. We are not aware to what extent as yet this 
ingenious machine has been employed. 

Figs. 11, 12, 13, and 14 illustrate a brick-pressing 
machine recently patented by Mr. W. Longley, of Leeds. 
The invention relates to an arrangement of brick- 
moulding machinery, whereby bricks are produced from 
"wet" clay, having great solidity, with a smooth ex- 
terior, and containing a less amount of moisture than 
those produced by hand, or by machinery at present in 
use. 

Fig 11 is a side elevation of the machine ; fig. 12 is 
a partial end elevation, showing in longitudinal section 
the cylinder which carries the moulds, and presents them 
successively to a conical hopper to be fed with clay ; fig. 
13 is a cross section of the mould-cylinder, showing its 
connection with the hopper ; and fig. 14 shows the 
means used for locking the cylinder, so as to keep the 
moulds stationary while being filled and discharged. 

A A is the main framing of the machine, upon which 
is mounted in suitable bearings a horizontal cylinder B. 
This cylinder is cast with open ends, and it is fitted 
near the middle of its length with a series of four 
moulds, C C, arranged radially around it. These moulds 
are formed by recesses cut through the periphery of a 
projecting band a a, that surrounds the cylinder, having 
their ends closed by the rings b h (bolted to the cylin- 
der) : a series of close chambers, D D, are formed in a 
similar manner between the moulds for receiving steam 
for heating the latter. Immediately above this con- 
centric projection of the cylinder B, and in close prox- 
imity thereto, is situate the hopper E, in which a screw 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 225 

is mounted for forcing down the clay into the moulds 
as they arc presented to the former. Fitted into the 
moulds are plungers, F, the stems of "which project 
through the inner periphery of the cylinder B, and are 
intended for discharging the bricks from the moulds ; 
the inner periphery of the cylinder B is also pierced to 
receive the ends of a cruciform arrangement of steam 
pipes, G (fig. 18), for supplying steam from a central 
pipe running in the direction of the axis of the cylin- 
der to the chambers D ; an intermittent axial motion is 
given to the cylinder, for the purpose of bringing the 
moulds severally imder the hopper to be filled, and 
subsequently under the action of a plunger the clay thus 
filled into the mould presented to it is compressed 
therein. "When this is efiected, and the cam in its 
revolution has passed out of action, the weighted crank 
lever draws back the plunger N out of the mould. An- 
other movement of the cylinder B now takes place, and 
the compressed brick is brought down to the position 
for being discharged on to an endless apron 0. This is 
efiected by the stem of the plunger, F, of the mould, 
being pressed upon at its rear end by the rocking lever H. 
This rocking lever is mounted on a bent bracket arm 
attached to the main framing, and it is provided with a 
roller, which bears upon a rocking cam having a stud 
pin on the framing for its fulcrum. This rocking cam is 
jointed to a rod, which connects it with a rocking arm, 
pendent from a bracket on the framing. The arm 
carries a roller which bears against a cam on the cam 
shaft ; the revolution therefore of the cam shaft gives 
a reciprocating motion to the cam H, thus causing 
it to rock the lever H, and depress the plunger that has 
been brought beneath its inner end. This depression 
of the plunger efiects the discharge of the brick, which 

l3 



226 TltT)DJEXTS OF THE 

is facilitated by the heating of the moulds through the 
admission of steam as before explained. To prevent 
the adherence of the clay to the compressing plunger, 
that is made hollow, and steam is convered into it by 
an arrangement of jointed steam pipes, as shown at fig. 
1 1 . The discharged brick is received on to an endless 
apron, 0, which receives motion from the spur wheel 
on the cylinder B, gearing into a spur wheel on 
the axle of one of the carrying rollers of the apron. 
The cylinder B is also furnished with a ring, in the 
periphery of which are four notches, corresponding 
with the moulds. These notches (see fig, 14) are for 
the purpose of receiving the taper end of a locking bar 
P, which, when it is desired temporarily to lock the 
cylinder (as at the moment of filling, pressing, and 
discharging the moulds), is thrust forward by a cam on 
the cam shaft pressing upon a roller, mounted on the 
end of the locking bar, which slides in guides provided 
to receive it. The release of the cylinder is efiected 
by throwing back the locking bar by means of a 
weighted crank arm, as in the case of the compressing 
plunger. 

This machine (fig. 15), the subject of a patent, is 
made by Whitehead, of Preston ; it works upon tem- 
pered clay also. The merits claimed for it consist in 
simplicity of construction and eflUcient performance. 
The junk of clay or brick may be previously moulded 
as for other pressing machines, but with this machine it 
is not absolutely necessary to previously mould the lump, 
if only sufficient clay be supplied to make a brick, and 
be simply placed in front of the piston ; it then is forced 
into the mould or die (of which there are four on a 
revolving shaft) of the desired size, and any superfluous 
bulk of the clay is cut ofi", thus making all the bricks 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



227 



perfectly true and of uniform dimensions. During the 
return of the piston the box of dies or moulds revolves 
one-fourth of the way round, thus bringing another 
empty mould, which has already been oiled and cleaned 
by a self-acting lubricator, directly opposite the piston, 

Fig. 15. 




to receive the next brick. In the meantime, a self- 
acting push-plate forces the brick, already pressed, out 
of the die upon a self-acting table prepared for carry- 
ing it away. 

The following well-arranged machine belongs to the 
class which can operate upon either plastic or dry clay, 
but which is, in our opinion, best adapted to the former. 
The makers and patentees, Messrs. Bradley and Craven, 
of Wakefield, have had a large experience in machinery 
of this sort. 

Simplicity of parts and strength are the main cha- 
racteristics of this machine. 

If the material be coarse or strong, it must be crushed 



228 



RrDiHEirrs of the 



before being passed into the hopper, into which it may 
be delivered either with or without water. 

Two moulds receive the charge of clay at once. 
^Vhile these are being filled, the two that had been 



Fig. 16. 




just before filled are being subjected to a considerable 
pressure, and the two bricks that had just previously to 
that been so pressed are in process of delivery, out of 
the moulds and on to a flat belt which takes them 
away. 

For the production of smooth, well-squared facing 
bricks this machine works extremely well. 

We now arrive at the last class, namely, of ma- 
chines intended specially to operate upon dry clay, or 
nearly dry clay. 

Amongst these we may notice the patent machine of 
Hersey and Walsh, which has been recommended by a 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 229 

competent authority — Mr. Humphrey Chamberlain, 
Consulting Pottery Engineer, formerly of Kempsey, 
near Worcester. 

This machine is stated to have been an American 
invention, which attracted attention from the simplicity 
of its movements and the enormous power it was capa- 
ble of exerting with a small amount of friction. It 
was found working successfully in the United States, 
and arrangements made for its introduction in this 
coxmtry. It produces an excellent article, and works 
satisfactorily here also. 

Some few alterations had to be made to adapt it 
to English-sized bricks, as American bricks are little 
more than one-third the cubical contents of the English. 
The weight of these machines is about 25 tons, which 
is necessary to withstand the enormous pressure they are 
capable of exerting. They are made with any number 
of moulds from 2 to 8. "With 6 moulds, and driven by 
a 6-horse engine, to deliver 24 bricks per minute, one 
machine is capable of giving 330 tons pressure on the 6 
bricks ; and if worked by a more powerful engine, the 
pressure can be increased, only limited by the strength 
of the machine. As few clays require more than 20 or 
30 tons on a brick, from 4 to 5 horse power is ample. 
The motions of this machine are performed by a pair 
of cam wheels, the pressure being communicated by a 
pair of rollers running on the cams, with the mould 
pistons fixed on the shaft between them. The moidds 
are raised and lowered by the same cams. The bricks 
are delivered and the moulds re-fed with dry clay from 
the hopper by a feeder worked by friction. The ma- 
chine, after pressing 6 bricks, delivers them on a board 
ready for removal, so that they go dii-ect to the kilns 
without being handled or injured. The whole machine 



230 



RUDIMENTS OF THE 



is fixed on one bed-plate, and is made of such strength 
as not to be likely to get out of order. 

The following machine will afibrd a sufficiently clear 
notion of the construction, or at least the general prin- 
ciples of construction, of the great majority of dry- 
clay brick-machines which have been brought into 
successful action. 

Fig. 17 represents the di-y-clay brickmaking ma- 

nj. 17. 




chine, of which Messrs. Bradley and Craven, of "Wake- 
field, are the inventors and patentees. 

One of the disadvantages or difficulties of making per- 
fectly sound and solid bricks from completely dry clay, 
however finely pulverised, is that the air lodged in the 
interstices of the clay dust is sometimes not easily and 
completely expelled by a single compression, but lodges 
in one or more irregular cavities into which it has col- 
lected, and so leaves the brick hollow. One of the 
main objects of this machine is to obviate that evil, 



AKT OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 231 

which is proposed being accomplished by its possessing 
the power of relieving each brick from pressure, and 
again applying it, so as gradually to force out the air, 
and finally consolidate the brick, and that to an extent 
that a single pressure, though greater, and hence 
exerting a greater strain on the machine, might not 
accomplish. 

The patentees state : " By this machine two or three 
distinct pressures can be given to each brick. If two 
pressures (that is, upward and downward) are sufficient 
to produce a good article from the clay, then the ma- 
chine makes two bricks at a stroke, or for every revolu- 
tion one brick by each eccentric. If the clay is of such 
a character that the whole of the air cannot be expelled, 
or the dust sufiiciently condensed to make a perfect 
brick by two pressures, then a third is given by carry- 
ing the brick round under the second eccentric. With 
most clays two pressures will be found sufficient. It is 
only necessary to test a little of the clay to be worked 
so that the machine may be adjusted to mould and 
press from any kind of earth equally good bricks. The 
only change for giving three pressures is, to adjust 
the machine to run faster, and change the inclined 
plane for giving the upward or first pressure, and 
delivering the bricks. The action of the machine is 
easily imderstood. The clay being delivered by an 
elevator from the crushing rollers into the hopjDcr of 
the machine in motion, the tappet wheel turns the 
mould table the length of one mould. This action 
delivers two empty moulds under the hoppers to receive 
clay, delivers two bricks to the attendant, and gives a 
powerful upward pressure to the clay received in the 
moulds that have just left the hoppers. The table is then 
for a moment stationary, while the two eccentrics give 



232 RUDIJIENTS OF TKR 

the final strain on two bricks. When the eccentric 
pistons are clear of the moulds the tappet again turns 
the table one brick's length, and the same action is 
renewed. During the time the eccentrics are giving 
pressure, the table is held firmly by a stop, which if 
then released." 

The last of this class which we shall notice is the 
dry-clay machine of Wilson, of Campbellfield Brick- 
works, Glasgow, which was exhibited in action at the 
Exhibition of 1862. 

The peculiarity of working of this machine is, that 
the dry and pulverised clay prepared for being made 
into brick is carried along automatically to the hopper, 
and, just before being delivered into it, is subjected to 
being blown upon by the waste steam discharged from 
the non-condensing engine which drives the machine. 
The result is a slight condensation of steam on and in 
tive pores of the clay, and a slight Karming of the clay 
itself. From this arises a much-increased tendency to 
rapid and perfect agglutination in the clay when sub- 
mitted to pressure in this state, between wet and dry, 
and a much readier expulsion of the air involved in 
the mass. There is not the slightest doubt of the 
great advantage derived from this very simple mode 
of treating the dry clay prior to compression. 

There are several contrivances in Mr. Wilson's ma- 
chine, as to details, also of value, especially one by 
which the maximum pressure possible is so regu- 
lated that the destruction of the machine is guarded 
against. 

One great improvement yet remains to be made to 
render perfect dry-clay brickmaking machines, namely, 
to adapt to them the same method that was employed 
by Mr. Brockedon, in his patent for compressing dry 



ART or MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



233 



powder of plumbago into a dense and solid block to be 
sawed into pencils, namely, the operatiJig the compres- 
sion in a vacuum, so that the air involved between the 
particles of dry clay (or dust, if quite dry) being thus 
extracted, the mechanical pressure is free to act fully 
and solely in producing condensation and agglutination 
of the clay particles. 

Any one of the brick machines of the first class, 
down to fig. 8, inclusive, may, by a suitable alteration 
of the discharging dies and receiving tables, be made 
to express and form perforated bricks, moulded bricks, 
drain or other pipes, or tiles of any sort, as in 
Fig. 7. 

"We shall therefore confine our illustrations of tile- 
making machinery, specially so designed, to two exam- 
ples, viz., to fig. 18, the large drain-pipe machine of 

Fig. 18. 




Page and Co., of Bedford, which forces out a con- 
tinuous hollow cylinder from the plastic clay (as at A, 
fig. 19), and fig. 19. 



234 



RUDIMEXTS OF THE 



The macliine by "Whitehead, of Preston, for pressing 
one end of the cylinder so cut off to a given length, as 




at A, into the socket form, as at B, fig. 10, so that the 

lengths shall go together with spigot and faucet joints. 

Dies of Tarious forms, prepared to adapt to any of 

the brick or tile machinery, are supplied by the makers, 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 235 

by w'hicli almost any form (solid or hollow, tubular or 
multitubular, i.e., perforated like "perforated brick"), 
that can be produced by the advance of a given section 
parallel to itself, may be formed. The figures in Fig 7 
show a few of the more usually employed sections — 
those at the right being drain-pipes, those in the middle 
for building purposes, and the left-hand ones for roof- 
ing use. 

In addition to the machines for brick and tile making, 
which we have thus pretty copiously illustrated, there 
are other machines almost innumerable for making 
special forms in plastic or in dry clay, referable to the 
great family of bricks and tiles. A great tribe of 
these machines, to which our space forbids our making 
any allusion, is employed in Great Britain and abroad 
in the manufacture of encaustic, or inlaid, or intaglio 
tiles for flooring and other architectiu'al purposes. 
Those who desire still more complete or enlarged infor- 
mation on the subject of this class of machinery shoidd 
consult the Practical Mechanic's Journal Record of the 
Exhibition of 1862, Mr. D. K. Clarke's "Exhibited 
Machinery of 1862," the Reports of the Juries of 
Exhibition, 1862, and the volimie of Abridgments of 
Patents, relating to drain tiles and pipes, bricks, tiles, 
and pottery, issued by the Patent Office, extending from 
1619 to 1861. There have been many patents since 
that date, and many descriptions of machines of more 
or less value are also to be found scattered through the 
British and foreign mechanical journals, in encyclop?edia 
articles, &c. Though not important for those employ- 
ing brick machinery at home, it may be desirable, for 
the information of British colonists, that we should in- 
dicate the form of portable high-pressure steam engine 
most usually employed for actuating such. It is that 



236 RUDIMENTS OF Tire 

shown in fig. 20, being one of this class of engines 
manufactured by Cla3rton and Shuttle worth. When 
bricks, &c., are required for a special contract or some 
private work presenting but a terminable demand, such 

Fi^. 20. 



portable engines are the best and cheapest in ever^ 
way ; but, for a great and permanent brickmakiug 
establishment, engines upon fixed bed-plates or foimda- 
tions are to be preferred. 

In concluding these notices of the apparatus of the 
mechanical brick and tile maker, we must not omit to 
call the reader's attention to probably the greatest im- 
provement that has ever been made in the constructioD 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 



237 



of kilns, for at once drying and burning brick, viz., 
the patent brick-kiln of Hoffmann. 
This kiln is, in fact, an admirable adaptation to brick 

FUj. 21. 




drying and burning of Siemens's regenerative principle 
of furnace, as will be apparent from the following 

Tig. 22. 




account, abridged chiefly from a paper by Professor 
James Thomson, of Belfast. Fig. 21 is a half-plan on 
top of the kiln, the other being a horizontal section at 



238 



RrDIMESTS OF THE 



the level of the flues, leading into the central chimney- 
stalk, as seen in the vertical section, fig. 23. Fig. 22 
is a diagram of the whole to a reduced scale, which is 




referred to in illustrating the description of the mode 
of working of the kiln. 

The accompanying engravings illustrate this remark- 
able form of kiln, invented by M. Hoffinann, of Berlin, 
but patented in England by Mr. H. Chamberlain, who 
supplies designs ibr their construction, &c. Some sixty 
of these kilns are already at work on the Continent and 
in Great Britain. The furnace or oven consists of a 
circular channel, 0, of any section, which receives the 
objects to be fired, introduced through doors in the 
outside wall ; the fuel is fed in by apertures formed in 
the top of the arch. Flues lead from the bed of the 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 239 

furnace to the smoke-chamber R, whicli surroimds 
the base of the central chimney, the commimication 
with which can be cut off when required by means 
of cast-iron bell-shaped covers. An intercepting 
damper can be lowered or placed in grooves built 
into the walls of the furnace immediately behind each 
flue, so as to separate it at any distinct or equidistant 
compartment. The fuel passes through apertures which 
are constructed in the arch, and falls through channels 
formed by the objects to be burnt to a chamber in the 
bed of the furnace, from which a certain number of 
small flues radiate to produce a free current from fire 
to fire. In practice it is found barter to divide the 
kiln into twelve chambers, to which there are twelve 
entries or doorways, and the same number of flues 
communicating with the smoke-chamber, and just as 
many openings in the arch for the reception of the 
large intercepting dampers — thus the furpace can be 
divided at any one of the twelve parts. For clearer 
distinction, these compartments may be numbered, as 
in fig. 22, from 1 to 12, of which two, ISTos. 12 and 
1, we will suppose are separated by the intercepting 
damper. The objects to be burned may be bricks or 
tiles, &c. Suppose the fire in full operation — the doors 
leading to the compartments 1 and 2 being open, No. 1 
for filling it with fresh goods, and No. 2 for taking 
out those already burnt. The chambers Nos. 3, 4, 5, 
and 6, which arc all filled with burned goods, are 
gradually cooling by the air entering through the doors 
of Nos. 1 and 2, and as it passes on through warmer 
and at last glowing ware, it will result that the kiln 
fires are supplied with atmospheric air almost as hot as 
the furnace itself. In chamber No. 7 the fire is burn- 
ing, and when its contents have reached the desired 



240 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

temperature, No. 8 will have arrired at such a degree 
from the absorption of the waste heat, that the fuel 
introduced from the top is instantly inflamed. 

The compartments Nos. 9, 10, 11, and 12, will be 
dried ofi", and heated one after another by the waste 
heat which passes through and expends itself on the 
contents of these chambers, and on its arrival in No. 12, 
meeting with the obstruction of the large damper, 
it is conducted by the small flue to the chimney, with 
its temperature again so lowered that it will only just 
support the draught. No. 1 being now filled again, 
the damper between 12 and 1 is lifted and lowered be- 
tween 1 and 2. The bell damper above the mouth of 
the flue No. 12 is lowered, and that of No. 1 lifted. 
The doorway of No. 12 is then closed, and that of 
the compartment No. 3 opened, the contents of which 
wiU be sufficiently cooled to be taken out, while No. 2, 
which is empty, can be fiUed again. 

On the 5th of January, 1864, Professor J. Thomson, 
of Belfast, read a paper on the manufacture of bricks, 
before the Chemico- Agricultural Society of Ulster, in 
which he referred at considerable length to the Hofl&nann 
oven. The foUonNnng is an abstract of his paper : — 
Having explained the chief methods in use for working 
the clay and forming it into bricks ready for the kiln, 
he then turned attention to the great loss of heat which 
occurs in the ordinary modes of burning bricks in com- 
mon kilns. This loss is twofold. First, during the 
burning of the bricks the air which has passed through 
the fuel, or among the heated bricks, and the smoke, 
including the gaseous products generally, passes away 
from the kiln to waste at a very high temperature, even 
at a red heat, during a considerable part of the process. 
Secondly, when the bricks are raised to the high tern- 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 241 

peratnre I'equired to burn them, and render them pei-^ 
manently hard, the great store of heat which they 
contain is entirely thrown to waste while they are 
left to cool. In this new kiln a remarkable economy 
of fuel is effected, by saving the twofold loss of heat 
uli'eady mentioned : first, it saves the heat of the 
gaseous products of combustion and imconsimied air 
passing through and away from the burning bricks, by 
applying this heat effectively in drying the new fresh 
bricks about to be burnt, and raisiiig them up to an 
incandescent temperatui'e, so that oiliy a very slight 
addition of-heat ffbm ignited fuel directly is required to 
complete their burning; and, secondly, it saves the 
heat of the cooling bi'icks, after their having been 
sufficiently fired, by appl^^ing it all again in warming 
the air which goes forwaM io supply the fires; so that 
the fuel is bufnt with air already at nearly an incan- 
descent temperature, instead of requiring, as usual, to 
heat the air for its own combustion. Professor Thom- 
son explained, as an example, the large kiln which 
Mr. Moore was then constructing at his brick- works at 
IIayfieldPark,in the neighbourhood of Belfast. Thekiln, 
as will be seen, is built in the form of a large arched 
passage, like a railway tunnel, bending round in going 
forward on the ground till it closes with itself to form a 
great circular ring-chamber, within which the burning 
of the bricks is carried on. This ring-chamber maybe 
of any convenient dimensions, 160 ft. diameter being 
a suitable size. Round its circumference there are 
twenty-four entrance doorways, admitting of being 
closed with temporarily-built bricks and clay, so as to 
retain the heat and exclude all entrance of air by the 
doorways so built up. The great ring- chamber may now 
be conceived as consisting of twenty-foui* compartments 

M 



242 RUDIMENTS OF THE 

or spaces, with one of these doorways to each. In the 
centre of the ring a high chimney is erected, and from 
each of the twenty-four compartments of the annular 
chamber an underground flue leads into the chimney. 
There are, then, twenty-four of these flues converging 
towards the centre like the spokes of a wheel, and each 
flue has a valve, by which its communication with the 
chimney can be cut off. Arrangements are made by 
which a partition like a damper can be let down at plea- 
sure, or otherwise placed, so as to cut off all communi- 
cation between any of the twenty-four compartments of 
the ring- kiln and the next one. Let us now suppose the 
working of the kiln to have been already fairly esta- 
blished ; for, after being once kindled, the fire is never 
extinguished, but the burning of new bricks and the 
removal of the finished produce are carried on by a con- 
tinuous and regular process from day to day. Two 
adjacent compartments have this day their entrance 
doors open, all the rest being perfectly closed. By 
the arrangement of the valves in the flues, and the 
large partition, the air which gets admittance alone 
by the two open doors has to go round the whole 
circuit of the ring-kiln in order to be drawn into the 
chimney. From one of the two open compartments 
men are taking out the finished and cooled bricks, and 
in the other one they are building up newly-formed 
uubumt bricks which are not yet quite dry. The air, 
entering by these two compartments, passes first among 
bricks almost cold and takes up their heat, and then 
goes forward to warmer bricks, and then to hotter 
and hotter, always carrying the heat of the cooling 
bricks forward with it till it reaches the part of the 
ring diametrically opposite to the two open and cold 
compartments. At this place it gets a final accession 



ART OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 243 

of heat ftom the burning of a very small quantity of 
small coal, which is dropped in among the bricks from 
time to time by numerous small openings furnished 
with air-tight movable lids. Thus at this part of the 
kiln there is generated the full intensity of heat which 
is required for the burning of the bricks. The hot air, 
including the products of combustion, which, for brevity, 
we may call the smoke, though it is really perfectly 
gaseous and free from sooty particles, then passes for- 
ward to the bricks, which, by its continuous current, 
are being heated ; and it passes on among them from 
hot bricks to those which are less and less hot, heating 
them as it goes, and then passes on to those which are 
still damp, drying them as it goes ; and then it passes 
to the chimney, in a state almost cold, and saturated 
with the moisture, in the form of steam or vapour, 
which it has taken from the damp bricks. On the 
following day to that on which the operations just 
described have been going on, the partition is shifted 
forwards by the space of one compartment, and a 
corresponding change is made as to the flue which is 
to communicate with the chimney, and as to the pair of 
compartments open for the admission of air and for the 
removal of finished cold bricks, and the building in of 
fresh damp bricks ; and so the air, including the products 
of combustion, at the end of its circuit in the annular 
chamber, just before passing ofi" to the chimney, now 
passes among the fresh bricks which were described as 
built in on the yesterday of this new day. The place 
where the small-coal fuel is thrown in is also advanced 
roimd the circle by the stage of one compartment ; and 
so now the whole process goes on just as it did yesterday. 
The fire thus makes a complete circuit of the annvJar 
chamber in twenty-four working days. The whole 

M 2 



244 VRT OF MAKING BRICKS AND TILES. 

process may be left dormant on Sundays, merely by this 
closing of all apertures for the admission of the current 
of air. The same kind of kiln, with the same process 
of working, is applicable in the burning of lime ; and 
both for the brick-burning and the lime-burning, the 
saving of fuel, relatively to what is consiimed by the 
ordinary methods, is such as to appear at first sight 
almost incredible. 

The Hoffimann or Chamberlain kiln is not so easily 
applicable to burning lime as it is to brick, nor will it 
answer without considerable modification for burning 

o 

thin and light tiles or pottery. There must be mass 
enough in the goods to be fired to afibrd the requisite 
magazine of absorbed heat to be afterwards used up, 
and the draught must not be impeded as by the breaking 
down of limestone when burnt into lime. 

Those kilns are not necessarily made circular. They 
are, indeed, now more usually rectangular, with 
or without rounded ends, in plan. 'V\T?en originally 
writing the preceding, the author of this chapter had 
not himself seen those kilns at work, and hence quoted 
from others as to their properties, &c. He has since, 
however, had occasion, professionally, to make himself 
fully acquainted with their construction and perform- 
ance, and can indorse fully all that has been stated, 
and, indeed, might say much more in their com- 
mendation. 

Many structural improvements and simplifications 
have latterly been made in those kilns ; but as the 
patentee, Mr. H. Chamberlain, as a Pottery Engineer, 
is professionally engaged in providing designs for those 
who employ these kilns, it would not be fair that the 
writer shoiild here enter into further details. 



APPENDIX 1. 



The following pajier was read by Mr. Tomlinsoii at a meeting of the 
Geologists' Association, ou February 3, 1862 : — 

On the Plasticity and Odouk of Clay. 

It is a happy result of Bacon's method of inquiry that science is 
not required to explain the causes of things, but to state the laws of 
phenomena. Nevertheless, while these laws are obscure, and facts 
are scattered, theory may often do good service by collecting and 
marshalling them : for, as our great master of induction well observes, 
"Facts are the soldiers, but theory is the general." And again, 
" Truth is more easily evolved from error than from confusion." That 
is, a bad theory is better than none at all, for it serves to collect and 
arrange the facts, and thus makes them more easy to handle. 

In these remarks must be found my excuse to-night for endeavour- 
ing to bind together some of the facts respecting a property of a 
very common substance ; namely, the Plasticity of Clay. 

The more I consider this property the more wonderful and inex- 
plicable does it appear. Take a mass of dry clay ; it cracks easily, 
and crumbles readily : add to it a certain proportion of water, and it 
becomes jtlasiic — it obeys the will of the artist or the artizan, who 
can, out of this yielding mass, create new forms, or perpetuate old 
ones. Drive off the water at a red heat, and plasticity is for ever 
lost ; rigiditi/ takes its place : the clay is no longer clay, but some- 
thing else. It may be reduced to powder, and ground up with water; 
but no art or science can again confer upon it its plasticity. 

All this is very wonderful. There is another fact that is equally 
.-0 : if we combine the constituents of clay in the proportions indi- 
cated by the analysis of some pure type of that substance, we fail to 
produce plasticity. I have on the table specimens of Dorset clay3 
dry and crumbling ; the same wet and plastic ; and the same in the 
forma of casts of fossils, which have been passed through the- five, 



246 APPENDIX. 

and have exchanged plasticity for rigidity. Tiiey are, in fact, in the 
form of biscuit. 

With respect to the temperature at which clay becomes rigid, we 
have no accurate information. It is much lower than is generally 
supposed, as will appear from the following experiment : — I pounded 
and sifted some dry Dorset clay, and exposed it to a sand-bath heat 
in three portions varying from about 300° to 600°. Specimens were 
taken out from time to time, and rubbed up with water, but they did 
not lose their plasticity. Some clay was put into a test tube with a 
small quantity of mercury, and heated until the mercury began to 
boil. At this temperature (viz. 650°) the clay did not cease to be 
plastic. The flame of a spirit-lamp was applied, and the tube was 
heated below redness ; after which the clay, on being mixed with water, 
showed no sign of plasticity. 

In experiments of this kind, the first action of the heat is to drive 
off the hygrometric water. The clay then becomes dry, but is not 
chemically changed ; it does not cease to be plastic. On continuing 
to raise the temperature, the chemically combined water is separated, 
and the clay undergoes a molecular change, which prevents it from 
taking up water again, except mechanically. With the loss of this 
chemically combined water, clay ceases to be plastic. 

It was, I believe, first noticed by Brongniart,* that we cannot pro- 
duce plasticity by the synthesis of clay. The fire clay of Stourbridge, 
for example, is a hydrated silicate of alumina, represented by the for- 
mula Alo O3, 2 Si O2 + 2 Aq. If we mix one atom of the sesqui- 
oxide of alumina with 2 atoms of silica and 2 of water, we get a 
compound which cannot be called clay, since it is wanting in plasticity. 

It is quite easy to obtain either alumina or silica in the gelatinous 
state ; but we cannot obtain them in the plastic state. 

Clay is almost the only substance in the mineral kingdom that pos- 
sesses plasticity. In loam, if the sand be in large proportion, and in 
marl, if calcareous matters abound, so as to deprive either material 
of plasticity, it ceases to be clay. There are also certain silicates of 
alumina which are not plastic ; such as bole, lithomarge, and fuUers'- 
earth. Bole consists chiefly of a hydrated bisilicate of alumina, in 
which a portion of the alumina is replaced by sesquioxide of iron. 
Lithomarge also contains iron, and is sometimes so compact as to be 
used for slate-pencils. FuUers'-earth contains lime, magnesia, and 
iron, in addition to its principal ingredients. 

■ '■ Tiai'4 Jes Arts C^ramiques." Parij, 18M. Vol. 1. p. 83. 



APPENDIX. 247 

There is probably no substance so indeterminate in its composition 
as clay. Regarding it, as Lyell does,* as " nothing more than mud 
derived from the decomposition of wearing down of rocks," it must 
necessarily contain a variety of substances ; such as oxide of iron, 
lime, magnesia, potash, silica, bitumen, fragments of uudecomposed 
rock, &c. These substances impair the plasticity of the clay, and 
impress upon it certain characters which are of more importance to 
the manufacturer than to the chemist, or the geologist. Bronguiartf 
enumerates, and gives the analyses of no fewer than 167 clays and 
28 kaolins, all of which are in use in the arts in different parts of the 
world. They probably all differ in plasticity, but they all possess it ; 
and at a high temperature exchange it for rigidity. A rough method 
of measuring the plasticity of different clays is to note the length to 
which a cylinder of each can be drawn out in a vertical direction 
without breaking. In such a comparison, the clays must, of course, 
be worked equally fine, and contain the same proportion of water. 

It is commonly stated that the ingredient that confers plasticity 
on clay is its alumina ; and yet, strange to say, pure alumina alone 
whether gelatinous, or after having been dried and ground up with 
water for a long time, never gives a plastic paste. Indeed, nothing 
can be conceived less plastic than gelatinous alumina, as may be seen 
from the specimens on the table. We may drive off most of the water 
from this gelatinous hydrate, but it will not become plastic. Or we 
may form clay by mingling solutions of the silicate of alumina and the 
aluminate of potash. You see they are perfectly fluid. I apply the 
heat of a spirit-lamp, and we get an opalescent gelatinous mass, but 
still no plasticity. We have, indeed, formed a gelatinous clay. 

We cannot say that the gelatinous state of alumina is the cause of 
plasticity in clay ; for silica may be made as gelatinous as alumina, 
and silica is certainly not the cause of plasticity. It may be that the 
strong affinity of alumina for water (retaining a portion of it even 
when near a red heat) may be the cause of this property — ^just as 
turpentine renders wax plastic; and water and gluten confer the 
same property on starch. 

We have seen that clay ceases to be plastic when its chemically 
combined water has been driven off. Still, however, water cannot be 
said to be the cause of plasticity, as a general property, since we 
have, in melted glass, a more perfect example of plasticity even than 

» "Manual of Elementary Geology" (1855), p. 11. 
i *' Des Arts C^ramiques," Atlas of Plates. 



•248 APPENDIX. 

in clay ; and few substances are more plastic than sealing-wax at a 
certain temperature. 

A clear idea of plasticity, and of some of the other mechanical 
properties of matter, may probably be gained by considering them as 
variations of the forces of cohesion and adhesion, and by bringing 
these, in their turn, under Newton's great law of attraction, which, 
whether exerted between atoms or masses, is directly as the mass, 
and inversely as the squares of the distances. 

Now, if we suppose the distances between the molecules of matter 
to be 1-millionth or billionth, or 2, 3, i, 5, 6, &c., millionths or bil- 
lionths of an inch asunder, the intensity of their attractions will be 1, 
^^th, -g^th, iV^h, &c., or, to represent it in a tabular form : — 

Distances 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10, &c. 

Intensities of attraction 1 i i iV -rs -sV "iV "CT -gV tdij. &c- 
Suppose the molecules to be of the same density, but at different 
distances apart, as represented in the upper line. At the distance of 
1-millioath of an inch we get an intensity of attraction represented 
by 1. At 2-milliouths of an inch the force of attraction is only one- 
fourth. Now, the idea is this, that the mechanical properties of 
matter, — such as porosity, tenacity, hardness, brittleness, plasticity, 
elasticity, &c., depend upon variations in the attractive force of the 
molecules according to the distances apart of such molecules. Thus, 
if the molecules of clay require to be 5-millionths of an inch apart 
iu order to produce plasticity, the intensity of attraction between 
them will be represented by ^Vth ; but if such clay be passed through 
the fire, and the molecules, in consequence of the escape of water, 
be brought nearer together, and rigidly fixed at 4-millionths of an 
inch asunder, the force of attraction will then be iVth. 

Now, the method of arranging the particles of clay at that precise 
distance that shall impart plasticity, is one of Nature's secrets that 
we have not yet succeeded in penetrating. It may be that the circum- 
stances under which clay is formed and deposited, or the time that 
has elapsed since its formation, or the pressure of the superposed 
layers, may have so arranged the particles as to enable them to 
become plastic when the proper proportion of water is added. It 
may be that a certain state of disintegration is required on the part 
of the alumina and the silica, so that their proximate elements shall 
be neither too fine nor too coarse ; or it may be that the silica, in 
combining with the alumina, separates the atoms of the latter to pre- 
cisely those dis*anccs required for the development cf the property ; 



APPENDIX. 249 

or, lastly, the presence of a small portion of animal or other organic 
matter in clay may have something to do with this remarkable pro- 
perty. 

An extensive series of experiments, by Delesse,* show the presence 
of animal matter in quartz and various rocks, where its presence had 
not previously been suspected ; and this may have as important an 
effect in modifying the properties of a mineral as the presence of 
minute portions of bodies, formerly entered as impurities, has in 
producing pseudo morphous crystals. 

Still, the question recurs, "VYhy is not a clay artificially formed 
from pure materials plastic ? The answer is, that we do not know all 
the conditions of plasticity. We do know the conditions under which 
some mechanical properties exist — such as the hardness of steel, the 
brittleness of unannealed glass — and can confer or remove such pro- 
perties at pleasure. Eut with respect to plasticity, we can only confer 
a factitious property of this kind on mineral substances by taking 
advantage of another property which it somewhat resembles, namely, 
viscosity or viscidity. Viscosity differs in plasticity in this, that the 
viscous body does not retain the form impressed upon it when the 
force is removed, as a plastic body does. The materials of the old 
soft porcelain of Sevres had no plasticity ; but this property was con- 
ferred by means of soft soap and parchment size.f 

TYithout speculating further on the nature of plasticity, I may 
remark that in the ancient pliilosopliy the word was one of power. 
Derived from the Greek -KXaocuv, or -KXarrnv, " to form," or " to 
create," it not only included the arts of modelling in clay, but also 
sculpture and painting, and, by a refinement of language, poetry and 
music. Plato and Aristotle even supposed that a plastic virtue 
resided in the earth, or did so originally, by virtue of which it put; 
forth plants, «S:c. ; and that animals and men were but effects of this 
plastic power. They did not suppose the world to have been made 
with labour and difficulty, as an architect builds a house ; but that a 
certain "efficient nature" {natura effectrix) inherent and residing in 
matter itself, disposed and tempered it, and from it constructed the 

* " De I'azote et des matiferes organiqnes dans I'ecorce terrestre."— jlnn<i7« dei 
iiines, xviii., 1860. 

t Brongniart (" Des Arts Cferamiqiies ") says that the old porcelames tendret were 
formed of 22 per cent, of fused nitre, 60 of Fontainebleau sand, 7-2 of salt, 36 of alum, 
8*6 of soda, and 3-6 of gypsum. These materials were fritted and ground, and 75 
parts taken, to which were added white chalk 17 parts, marl 8. This mixture was 
ground, sifted very fine, and made up Into a paste with l-8th soft soap and size, or, at 
« later period, with gum tragacautb. 

M3 



250 APPENDIX. 

whole world. Aristotle distinctly recognises mind as the principal 
and directing cause, and nuiura as a subservient or executive instru- 
ment. Even in later times men have contended for the existence of 
a plastic nature, or incorporeal substance endowed with a vegetative 
life ; but not with sensation or thought, penetrating the whole uni- 
verse, and producing those phenomena of matter which could not be 
solved by mechanical laws. The learned Cudworth supports this 
view,* and the discussions into which it led him and other metaphy- 
sicians form a curious chapter in the history of the human mind. In 
England we do not now retain the term pbsiici/y, except as a phy- 
sical property of matter ; f but in Germany it has still an extensive 
Cgurative meaning. The word plastisch still means bild^nd or 
schopferitch (i.e. " creative") ; and it is still applied not only to sculp- 
ture, but adso to painting, poetry, and music. A German well under- 
stands the expression " plastische Gedsmken," or " plastic thoughts." 

Before concluding, I would refer to another property of clay, which 
seems to me as wonderful as its plasticity ; namely, its odour when 
breathed on, or when a shower of rain first begins to wet a dry clayey 
aoil. This odour b commonly referred to alumina, and yet, strange 
to say, pure alumina gives off no odour when breathed on or wetted. 
The fact is, the peculiar odour referred to belongs only to impure 
clavs, and chiefly to those that contain oxide of iron. This was 
pointed out by Brongniart as far back as ]816,J who also remarked 
that minerals which do not contain alumina, such as pulverised chal- 
cedony, possess this remarkable property. 

I have found that a pure kaolin, ground up in a mortar with a 
small quantity of water, emits a slight odour, which, however, 
becomes much more sensible if a little sesquioxide of iron be 
added. 

Smooth quartz pebbles when rubbed together give an electric spark, 
and a fetid odour. It is commonly supposed that sea-side pebbles 
aJonc i>osses5 this property ; but the odour belongs equally to those 
found among gravel overlying the chalk, and in ploughed lands where 
the surface is exposed to all the vicissitudes of the weather. It is quite 
possible that the odour of these pebbles may hereafter be traced to 
the presence of oi^nic matter ; but I cannot resist the reproduction 
here of a suggestive hint given me by my friend Professor Bloxam, 

• See " The True Intellectn»l System of the Universe," by RAlph Cadworth, D.D., 
167*. A reprint hM been pnblUhed by Tege, in which see Vol. I.. P. 22S, el «f. 
i Dr. Johnic>n dtfioeiptarfie as " having the power to give form. 
J " DictionnaJre del Sciences >'atttrelles," art. ArgiU. 



APPENDIX. 251 

who is reminded by the spark aud odour from these pebbles of the 
presence of ozone. 

What, again, is the cause of the odour in the narrow parts of stone 
buildings, not of new buildings alone, but of old ones, as in the stair- 
cases of old cathedrals ? 

I do not attempt to reply to these questions. It requires some 
amount of knowledge and experience to put them — but how much 
more to answer them ! 



On Drying Bricks. 
^Extracted pom Noble s ''Professional Practice of ArcJiitects" p. 143.) 
" The observations by Richard Neve, above a century since, upon 
itock bricks, will illustrate tlie subject : ' When the hack is as high as 
they think fit, they cover them with straw till they are dry enough to 
burn, ' &e., &c. He proceeds : ' A brickmaker being sent to Rum- 
ford, in Essex, went to work unadvisedly, aud laid them abroad in a 
place to dry ; but the sun, about ten o'clock, began to shine very hot, 
and the whole quantity of bricks burst to pieces, so that he was forced 
to go to work again : and then, before the sun shone too hot, he 
thatched or covered them over with straw till the next morning, 
when removing it, they did very well when set on the hack ; and 
when burnt, were curious red bricks, which would ring when hit with 
any hard thing.' " 

On the use of Coal Dust in making Clamp Bricks. 

{Extracted from Noble's " Professional Practice of Architects" p. 153.) 

" Natives should be employed {in making bricks in Wales) in the 
manufacture, in preference to London hands, as the former use coal 
dust in preparing the earth, and not breeze (ashes), as about London ; 
and provided an undue portion of coal is used, a whole clamp would 
be destroyed, of which there was an instance at Lampeter (Cardigan- 
shire). An Islington brickmaker was sent to Wales, and as he was 
too conceited to make inquiries, or to receive information, set light 
to a clamp he had prepared with coal, being 70,700 ; and in a very 
short time the whole kiln was in one general blaze. The man being 
alarmed, took to his heels, and, unlike Lot's wife, he turned not 
back, neither looked behind him. Even from the heights leading to 
Landovery the rejlectioii was quite enough for him ; nor did he stop 



252 APPENDIX. 

till he reached London, being, as he said, ' afeared' tbey xvould catch 
him and put him in prison ! " 



Bkicksiaking at Great Gkimsbt, Likcolnsuibe. 

Large quantities of bricks have been made during the last few 
years at Great Grimsby, for the Dock Company, from the Humber 
silt. These bricks are remarkable for their colour, which varies in 
the same brick from dark purple to dirty white, passing through 
various shades of blue, red, and yellow, in the space ol two or three 
inches. The silt, when first dug out of the bed of the Humber, is of 
a dark blue colour, which soon, from exposure to the air, changes to 
a brown. 

The bricks made for the Dock Company were burnt in close 
clamps — fired with layers of small coal, but without coal-dust or 
ashes being mixed with the clay as in London brickmaking. With 
the first clamps there was much waste, the quantity of fuel being 
excessive, and the bricks were cracked and made brittle in conse- 
quence ; but the experience obtained by the first trials has led to the 
production of a sound well-burnt brick, with, however, the peculiar 
colour above mentioned. 

Considerable quantities of bricks have been lately made for sale at 
Great Grimsby, and burnt in clamps with Hues, as in kiln burning, 
which method appears to be attended with less waste than close 
clamping. 

The slack or small coal used for fuel may cost from 25. G(/. to \s. 
per 1,000 bricks. The cost of clay getting, tempering, moulding, 
and drying, is about S*. G(/. per 1,000. The moulds used are of 
wood, plated with iron. The process employed is that known as 
slop-moulding. 

Kilns as well as clamps arc used in this part of Lincolnshire, their 
construction being similar to that of the kilns in general use in the 
Midland Counties. 



BaiCKilAKIXG IN SUFPOLK. 

Two kinds of bricks are made in Suffolk, viz., reds and whites. The 
latter are much esteemed for their shape and colour, and large quan- 
tities arc annually sent to Loudon, for facing buildings of a superior 

class. 



APPENDIX. 253 

Clay. — The supplies of brick-earth are chiefly derived from the plasvio 
clays lyiug above the chalk, although the blue clay is occasion- 
ally used. 

The clays in most parts are too strong to be used as they rise, 
and have consequently to be mixed with a white loam or a 
milder earth. 
Tempering. — The clay is turned over in February and March, and in 
some parts of Suffolk it is passed through the wash-mill, but 
this is not generally the case. 

Tempering is generally performed by spade labour, but the 
pug-mill is sometimes used, although not commonly, for white 
bricks ; it is, however, used for all oilier white ware. 
Moulding. — The brick mould is of wood, shod with iron ; the dimen- 
sions vary slightly according to the nature of the clay, but are 
usually as follows : 9|ths long by 4yf ths wide and 2>\ deep. 
There is no hollow formed in the bottom of the brick for the 
mortar joint. Brass moulds are unknown. 

Sea sand is used in the process of moulding, for sanding the 
mould and the table. 

The strike is used for taking off the superfluous clay from the 
mould. The use of the plane is not known. 
Dri/ing. — The bricks are not dried on flats as in the Midland Coun- 
ties, but are taken directly from the moulding stool to the hacks. 
Sheds are used in some yards, and drying houses with flued 
floors are used in winter for pantiles and kiln tiles, but not for 
bricks. 

The length of a hack is about 70 yards, and each moulder 
will keep four hacks going. 

The time required for drying in the hacks of course varies 
according to the weather, but may be stated on an average at 
about eighteen days for red bricks. White bricks dry somewhat 
quicker. 

The contraction of the clay in drying amounts to about | in. in 
the length of a brick, and, if properly burnt, the shrinkage iu 
the kiln is imperceptible. 

The weight of a brick, when first moulded, is about 8 lbs. ; 

when dried, about 7 lbs. ; and when burnt, about 6 lbs. ; but 

much depends upon the nature of the earth. 

Bvrning.—The construction of the kiln is quite difi'erent from that of 

the kilns used in other parts of England, having two arched 



254 APPENDIX. 

furnaces runninjr its whole length underneath the floor, which ij 
formed of a kind of lattice work, througli the openings of which 
the heat ascends from the furnaces below. 

The cost of erecting a kiln to burn 50,000 whites is about 
£1 -15. A kiln to burn 35,000 reds costs about £100. 

The bricks are commonly set in the kiln in bolts two bricks 
long by ten on ; but some brickmakers prefer to cross them in 
the alternate courses, in order to admit the heat more freely. 

The fuel used is coal, and the quantity consumed is about 
half a ton per 1,000 for white, and 7 cwt. per 1,000 for red, 
bricks. 

The iime of burning is about GO hours for white, and 40 
hours for red, bricks ; white bricks requiring a greater heat than 
the red ones to bring them to their proper colour. The coal 
costs from 15s. to 16*. per ton. 

Cost of Manufacture* 
The selling prices vary from £1 10*. to £2 per 1,000 for reds, and 
Trom £2 2«. to £3 per 1,000 for whites. 

Of red bricks two qualities only are distinguished, viz., out- 
side and inside ; of white, four qualities are distinguished, viz., 
best, 2nd, 3rd, and murrays. 
The price of the ordinary red brick is about £1 lO*. per 1,000, 
uud the cost may be thus divided :— 

Clay digging, per 1,000 .... 

Tempering, ditto 

Moulding, ditto 

Drying, ditto 

Barrowing from hacks and setting kiln ditto 

Burning, ditto 

Drawing kiln, ditto . 

Stacking, ditto 

Cost of labour per 1,000 £0 12 2 

Coals, about , 6 

Duty 6 U 

Rent, tools, contingencies, and profit . .058^ 



£ 


s. 


d. 





2 


6 





1 








5 











f) 





1 








1 


3 








8 








3 



Selling price at the yard, about £1 10 
These ostimates l^long to the date of the First £<liUoa of this work. 



APPENDIX. 255 

White bricks are made in many parts of England, but the Suffolk 
whites have the pre-eminence over all others. 

The white bricks made near Lincoln are remarkable for swelling 
when laid in work, which causes them to throw off the mortar joints, 
and renders it impossible to make use of them in good work. 

The clay from which these bricks are made extends from the 
VVitham northwards as far as the Humber, and, so far as we are 
aware, possesses the same property throughout this distance, the 
bricks made from it at various points between the Witham and the 
Humber having the common defect of swelling after burning. A 
curious specimen of this may be seen in a large chimney at Saxilby, 
which has a complete twist, from the irregular swelling of the brick- 
work. 

The peculiar property of swelling after burning is not confined to 
the Lincolnshire white clay. The author was informed some years 
ago, by Mr. Vignoles, C.E., that some of the bricks made on the 
^lidland Counties Line of Railway, between Rugby and Derby, had 
the same defect. 

For the above particulars respecting the Lincolnshire white bricks 
we arc indebted to Mr. William Kirk, of Sleaford. 



On the Making and Buening of Dbain Tiles. 

Extracts from a communication by Mr. Law Hodges, published in 
the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, Vol. V. 
Part II. :— 

" Reflecting on these obstacles to universal drainage, where 
required, I conferred with Mr. John Hatcher (brick and tile maker 
and potter, Benenden, Kent), on the possibility of erecting a kiln 
of common clay that would be effectual for burning these tiles, and 
of cheap construction— and the result was the building one in my 
brickyard in July last, and the constant use of it until the wet 
weather at the commencement of this winter compelled its discon- 
tinuance, but not until it had burnt nearly 80,000 excellent tiles ; 
and in the ensuing spring it will be again in regular use. 

" I shall now proceed to take in order the six points enumerated 
under the 9th head of the Prize Essays for lSi5, as printed in th* 
last volume of the Royal Agricultural Society's Journal, viz. : — 



2j6 ArrtNDix. 

•■ ]i)(. Mode of vrorkinj^ clav according to its qaaiitj. 

" iad. Machine for making tiles. 

" 3rd. Sheds for drying tiles. 

" 4th. Construction of kilns. 

" 5th. Cost of forming the esfablishmcn*. 

" Cth. Cost of tiles when ready for sale. 

" 1st Point. Working the clay. 

" All clay intended for •working next season must be dug in the 
winter, and the earlier the better, so as to expose it as much as pos- 
sible to frost and snow. Care must be taken, if there are small 
stones in it, to dig it in small pits, and cast out the stones as much 
as possible, and also to well mix the top and bottom of the bed of 
clay together. It is almost impossible to give minute directions as 
to mixing clay with loam, or with marl when necessary, for the better 
working it afterwards, as the difference of the clays in purity and 
tenacity is such as to require distinct management in this respect in 
various localities ; but all the clay dug for tile-making will require to 
be wheeled to the place where the pug-mill is to work it ; it must be 
there well turned and mixed in the spring, and properly wetted, and 
finally spatted down and smoothed by the spade, and the whole heap 
well covered with litter to keep it moist and fit for use through the 
ensuing season of tile-making. 

" 2nd Point. Machine for making tiles. 

" For the reasons already alluded to, I prefer Hatcher's machine- 
Its simplicity of construction, and the small amount of hand labour 
required to work it, would alone recommend it ; for one man and 
three boys will turn out nearly 11,000 pipe tiles of 1 in. bore in a day 
of ten hours, and so in proportion for pipes of a larger diameter ; but it 
has the great advantage of being movable, and those who work it draw 
it along the shed in which the tiles are deposited for drying, previously 
to their being burnt : thus each tile is handled only once, for it is 
taken off the machine by the little boys who stand on each side, and 
at once placed in the rows on either side of the drying shed, thus 
rendering the use of shelves in the sheds wholly unnecessary, for the 
tiles soon acquire a solidity to bear row upon row of tiles, till they 
reach the roof of the sheds on either side; and they dry without 
warping or losing their shape in any way. 

"The price of this machine is £25, and it may be proper to add, 
that the machine makes the very best roofing tiles that can be made, 
and at less than half the price of those made by hand, as well as 



APPENDIX. 257 

hvjing much ligbter, and closer, and straighter, in consequence of the 
pressure through the die. 

" It is necessary, in order to ensure the due mixing of the clay, as 
well as to form it into the exact shape to fill the cylinders of the 
machine, to have a pug-mill, Messrs. Cottam and Hallen make these 
also, and charge £10 for them. This mill must be worked by a 
horse ; in general one day's work at the mill will furnish rather more 
prepared clay than the machine will turn into tiles in two days 

" 3rd Point. Sheds for drying. 

"The sheds necessary for this system of tUe-making wUl be of a 
temporary kind : strong hurdles pitched firmly in the ground in two 
parallel straight lines, 7 ft. apart, will form the sides of the sheds, 
and the roof will be formed also of hurdles placed endways and tied 
together at the top, as well as to the upper slit of the hurdle, with 
strong tarred twine, forming the ridge of the roof exactly over the 
middle of the shed. They must then be lightly thatched with straw 
or heath, and the sharpness of this roof will effectually protect the 
tiles from rain. Two of these sheds, each 110 ft. long, will keep 
one of the kilns hereafter described in fuU work. 

" N.B. — These sheds should be so buQt as to have one end close 
to the pug-mill and the clay-heap, only leaving just room for the 
horse to work the mill, and the other end near the kiln. Attention 
to this matter saves future labour, and therefore money. 

" 4th Point. Construction of kilns. 

" The form of the clay kiln is circular, 11 ft. in diameter, and 
7 ft. high. It is wholly built of damp earth, rammed firmly together, 
and plastered inside and out with loam. The earth to form the walls 
■s dug out round the base, leaving a circular trench about 4 ft. wide 
and as many deep, into which the fire-holes of the kiln open. If wood 
be the fuel used, three fire-holes are sufficient ; if coal, four will be 
needed. About 1,200 common bricks are wanted to build these 
fire-holes and flues ; if coal is used, rather fewer bricks will be 
wanted, but then some iron bars are necessary — six bars to each fire- 
bole. 

"The earthen walls are 4 ft. thick at the floor of the kiln, are 
7 ft. high, and tapering to the thickness of 2 ft. at the top ; this 
will determine the slope of the exterior face of the kiln. The inside 
of the wall is carried up perpendicularly, and the loam plastering 
inside becomes, after the first burning, like a brick wall. The kiln 
may be safelj erected in March, or whenever the danger of injury 



258 



AITLNDIX. 




F'kj. 2. I'ian of Top of Kiliu 



APPENDIX. 



25« 



Fig. 3. 




Trom frost is over. After the summer use of it, it must be protected 
by faggots or litter against the wet and the frost of winter. 
" A kiln of these dimensions will contain — 

47,000 1-in. bore pipe tiles. 
32,500 \\ 
20,000 If 
12,000 2i 

and the last-mentioned size will hold the same number of the inch 
pipes inside of them, making therefore 2i,000 of both sizes. In good 



26C 




^ 



weather this kiln can be filled, burnt, and discharged once every fort- 
night ; and fifteen kilns maj be obtained in a good season, producing — 

705,000 1-iu. pipe tiles. 
Or isr.oOO H „ „ 
Or 300,000 If „ „ 

and so on in proportion for other sizes. 

" N.B. — If a kiln of larger diameter be built, there must be more 
fire-holes, and additional shed room. 



APPENDIX. 261 

" 5th Point. Cost of forming the establishment. 

The price chared by Messrs. CotUm and Hallen for the machine, 

with its complement of dies, ;» £25 

Price of pug-mill 10 

Cost of erecting kiln 5 

Cost of sheds, straw 10 

60 

(The latter item presumes that the farmer has hurdles of his own.) 

" 6th Point. Cost of tiles when ready for sale. 

" As this must necessarily vary with the cost of the fuel, rate of 
wages, easy or difficult clay for working, or other local peculiarities, 
1 can only give the cost of tiles as I have ascertained it here accord- 
ing to our charges for fuel, wages, &c., &c. Our clay is strong, and 
has a mixture of stones in it, but the machine is adapted for working 
any clay when properly prepared. 

" It requires 2 tons 5 cwt. of good coals to bum the above kiln 
full of tiles. Coals are charged here at £1 8*. per ton, or 1,000 brush 
faggots will effect the same purpose, and cost the same money ; of 
course some clays require more burning than others ; the stronger 
the clay the less fuel required. 

" The cost of making, the sale prices, and number of each sort that 
a waggon with four horses will carry, are as follows : — 

Cost. Sale Price. Waggon 

*. d. s. holds — 

l-in. pipe tiles 4 9 per 1,000 12 



li „ 6 „ 14 

1} „ 8 „ 16 

2} „ 10 



, 20 

2} „ 12 „ 2t 

Elliptical tiles 

Boles 



n- 



8,000 
7,C00 
5,000 
3,500 
3,000 

2,000 



" AU these tiles exceed a foot in length when burnt. 

" The cost price alone of making draining tiles will be the charge 
to every person making his oicn tiles for his otcn use. If he sell them, 
a higher price must, of course, be demanded to allow for some profit, 
for credit more or less long, for bad debts, goods unsold, &c. &c. ; 
but he who makes his own saves all expense of carriage, and, as his 
outlay will not exceed £50, the interest on that sum is too trifling to 
be regarded, and he has no additional rent to pay; and after he has 
made as many tiles as he wants, his machine and pug-mill will be 
as good AS ever, with reasonable care, and will fetch their value " 



APPENDIX II. 



The Sciekce op BsicKscAKiyG. 

It has been said by the author of this volume, in his preface, *.hat 
the science of brickmaking has yet to be formed and written. 

This is no doubt in one sense true, though it must be remarked 
that, inasmuch as the art of the brickmaker is to be viewed iu its 
chemical and physical relations as only the humblest branch of that 
of the potter or porcelain manufacturer, the saymg so is not to dis- 
credit the vast and wide-spread importance of exact knowledge to 
the brickmaker, nor of the value of his universally-diffused and indis- 
pensable art. 

The manufacture of pottery, in all its branches, having been the 
subject of lengthened and important scientific labours at the hands 
of successive able men of science, amongst whom are Reaumur, 
Bottcher, Brongniart, Malaguti, and Salvetat, as well as of the 
tentative and technological labours of innumerable manufacturers, 
amongst whom Cookworthy, Chaffers, Wall, Wedgwood, Minton, 
and others stand pre-eminent, in England alone, it cannot be said 
that pottery in general is devoid of a formed and established science, 
though very much remains to be discovered over its wide domain of 
theory and practice. This being so, and very much of the science of 
the porcelain manufactory being directly applicable and available in 
the brick-field (if indeed the brickmaker himself possess the requisite 
foundation in general scientific education, especially in chemistry and 
physics), it is only true in one sense that no science of brickmaking 
yet exists, namely, in the sense that the knowledge we already possess 
of the science of the ceramic arts has not yet been systematised 
and applied in a special manner to the brickmaker's art. To attempt 
to supply this want in the present little volume is impossible. 
Three such volumes would scarcely afford sufficient space to treat of 
the science of brickmaking in a systematic and complete manner. 



APPENDIX. 263 

SI ill it seems undesirable that in an elementary outline of this art 
so little should have been given in the original text, even as a sketch, 
of some salient points which such science presents. We shall attempt 
iliis, however incompletely. 

The brickmaker deals with natural clays only, the constitution of 
which, when more or less ascertained in respect to his object, he may 
modify by the addition of other mineral bodies, such as sand, ashes, 
&c., or by the mechanical extraction of naturally-mixed matter, as 
sand, pebbles, pyrites, &c., and whose physical qualities he may alter 
by mechanical means— grinding, "slip-washing," Sec. 

The choice of a clay that shall answer well for the brickmaker's use 
cannot be made before trial, by any amount of examination, unless 
we also possess a chemical analysis of the natural material. Aided 
by that, it is quite possible upon tempering a ball of the clay, observ- 
ing its plasticity and body, and then wetting further a little bit, and 
rubbing it between the thumb and the forefinger, to tell with a great 
degree of certainty whether it will make good brick or not ; either 
alone or, as is almost always the case, mixed (and so altered) either 
with more sand or more tough clay, and occasionally with coarsely- 
ground coal, or breeze, or ashes, &c. 

Clays are essentially chemical compounds, and this is true, whether 
they be or be not always mere mud from disintegrated rocks, as 
some geologists have probably erroneously supposed. They are in fact 
true hydrates, and have the general constitution (S + Al, O3) + 
H O ± R ; tiie last or accidental base or bases being usually cal- 
cium, magnesium, manganese, or iron, or more than one of these ; 
and they may be divided into four great classes. Pure aluminous 
clays and pure magnesian clays, both hydrated : these are rare, the 
latter especially so— when indurated, constituting meerschaum ; and 
we may pass them without further notice here. They belong, not 
to the brickmaker, but to the porcelain-maker. 

More widely spread for our use, we Iiave the ferruginous clays, 
which have generally this combination (Si + (Al., Os -f Fe« ) 
± Fe -f N + K 0) + H ; and the calcareous clays (Si 
+ (AU O3 + Fe., O3) + (Ca -f C 0, + lilg + C 0,) ± Fe + 
N + K 0) + H 0. Either of these may be mixed with more or 
less siliceous sand, and when this is in considerable proportion the 
clay is a loam. 

At a red heat they lose most of their combined water, losing more 
nr less hygroscopic water at 212°; and at a bright yellow or white 



264 APPENDIX. 

heat, or rather below it, they bake into pottery or brick. And 
while many of the clays rich in alumina, silica, and iron do not fuse, 
or but very slowly, at the melting-point of cast-iron, most of the cal- 
careous clays melt at or below this temperature, or at least agglu- 
tinate, assuming the vitreous texture if rhe heat be long contina^. 

The following table contains the analysb of ten natural clays, 
which gives a pretty clear notion of their usual range of constitu- 
tion : — 
No. 1 is a fuller's earth, analysed by Dr. Thomas Thomson. 
No. 2. A sandy clay, known as the " ball-clay " of the Potteries, 

and used for salt-glazed ware ; analysed by Cowper. 
No. 3. An ash-white pipe-clay. 
No. 4. A grey-blue clay. 
No. 5. A red-brown Glasgow clay. 

No. 6. A yellow midland counties clay, used for brick and for 
Kockinghaii pottery. 

(Ail these analysed by Cowper, Phil. iJag. xxii. p. 435.) 
No. 7. A marly English clay ; analysed, with the following, by 

Berthier. 
No. 8. A marl from Yitry, Department of Mama ; used in Paris 

foundries. 
No. 9. A German clay {Loeu of the Rhine), used at Bonn; analysed 

by Kjenulf. 
No. 10. A loam, analysed by 'Jr. Ure. 



APPENDIX. 



265 



1 


« 














'~~ 


^~'~~^~~~ 


o 


-o o 


o 


^^ 








^ 




O C-l 


oc 




o 








o 


6 


M ^ 


c- 




-o 








o 


i^ 


CO .^ 


c 
















r^ r^ CI to •* ^ 


i-> 




c-l 


a 


C> C5 O -7 


O (M 


'^' 




CO 


o* 


a: C3 O o o ■* 


■^ 




CO 


^ 


lO 




(M 














-— . — 


' 
















Qt5 


o 




- 




o 




^ 


~ 


o 




o 




^"Z 




'-"^ 




O '" 


o 


o 


OO 




i 




CO 




C' 


~t 


■rr< 


A 


c< 




•^ 










" 






,— -— 


^ 
















»•' 


o c 




c= 




o 




G 




o 


6 


X y 




"? 




C-l 




• c 






CI c 




a 




ifl 




li 




A 


CO — 




CO 












'^ 


^ 


t^ oc 


o 




O 




c 




o 




9 ^ 


^c 




O 




CO 




CO 


6 


K) t^ O 




u 


• 




CO 




o 


'O c^ 
















to 


■* «: 


« 




^ 




■* 




-*< 


T« <>J 






c> 




i^ 


> •~* 


6 


o -• 


^ 




^ 


• 




t^ 




o 


A 


^ c: 
















1 


■» 


00 -* 


c: 




^ 






'f 




1^ 


CO o 


c- 




o 










d 


o i 


_ 




r_ 


• 




t ^ 




CO 


*A 








■^ 










ri 


o o o 


O 




t^ 


cc 


o o -^ 


O , 




!>l 




o 


d 


CO i- 


o 


ii 




• G 




CI 


/5 


O CO 














c^ 


en oc 


^ 




o 


c^ 






-*< 




o c: 


oi: 




2 : 


c 








1 


CO i 


6 




^ 






li 


O CM 






"*^ 












o o 


cc 




c 






G 








o c 


c 




o , 




C 




* 


1 


4< i 


Tf 




if) 


• 




C^ 




• 


-«< CO 






































u 






















z> 












































C 


flD 












































d 




















o 


5 




















M 






















+ 


6 








O 












o 










4 


- 


+ 






o 


o 






] o 


o 


O 


O 


o 


O 


a 


"r; 


^m 


o 








o 


"" o 


X 


^ 



2G6 ArPEXDix. 

Most of these clays, as found in nature, contain some organic matters 
and pebbles of foreign bodies. Unless these are of hard pyrites or 
limestone, they are unimportant. Flinty pebbles can generally be 
crushed in the clay-mill, or taken out by the screen or sieve. 

Clays should, if possible, be delivered into the brick-yard in their 
moist natural state; for when they have been permitted to dry up 
under a scorching sun or drying wind, they shrink and harden 
greatly, and the labour of mixing into good brick "stuff" is greater, 
and the plastic mixture not as free and nice as before. 

Whether a natural clay contains much or little «a?icZ naturally is 
not important. Every clay requires more or less grinding and mix- 
ing; and when sand in a separate form is at hand, it is easiest and 
best mixed in such proportions as we may require in the pug- 
mill. Clays naturally very rich in lime or in the alkalies (derived 
from felspar) are the worst, and in fact a clay that contains more 
than about 5 per cent, of lime, at the utmost, is scarcely fitted for 
good brickmaking. 

If the lime be in the state of carbonate, it is so much the worse; 
and if it exist in the state of ditfused limestone or chiUk-pehhles, 
it is worst of all ; for these burn into caustic lime in the brick-kiln, 
and then as in after-time the brick absorbs moisture and carbonic acid, 
the contained nodules of lime "slack," and swell in their places, 
and so burst the brick to pieces. This is oue of the most prevalent 
evils of the ill-made bricks which are almost universal in Ireland, 
arising from the wide diffusion of limestone gravel in that country, 
and the total neglect of grinding or efficient sifting of the clay. 

Iron pyrites also is a not uncommon accidental product present in 
clays, and unless separated, durable, to say nothing of well-coloured, 
brick can never be made of the clay. The pyrites in the kiln is but 
partially decomposed: oxide of iron and basic sulphides of iron 
remain. When at an after-period these are exposed to air and moisture, 
which are absorbed to all depths in brick, oxidation takes place, 
sulphate of iron, and frequently also sulphates of lime or alums 
(sulphates with double bases), are formed, and, crystallising within the 
mass of the brick, split it to pieces. 

Common salt is nearly always present in minute quantity in clays; 
but when these are taken from the sea-shore, or without or beneath tiie 
sea-washes, or from localities in and about the salt-formations (trias), 
liicy freq\iently, though in all other respects excellent clays, are 
unfit for burning into good brick. Chloride of sodium is not only a 



APPENDIX. 267 

powerful flux when mixed even in very small proportion in clays, but 
possesses tlie property of being volatilized by the heat of the brick- 
kiln, and in that condition it carries with it, in a volatile state, 
various metallic compounds, as those of iron, which exist in nearly all 
clays, and also act as fluxes. The result is that bricks made of such 
clays tend to fuse, to warp, twist, and agglutinate together upon the 
surfaces long before they have been exposed to a sufficient or sufii- 
ciently prolonged heat to burn them to the core into good hard brick. 
" Place bricks " can be made of such clay, but nothing more ; and these 
are always bad, because never afterwards free from hygrometric moisture. 

Much carbonaceous matter naturally mixed in clays is also in 
certain states objectionable, for when not burnt completely and in the 
kiln, which is sometimes with the denser clays difficult, the bricks 
are of a different colour in the interior and exterior, and will not bear 
cutting for face-work, without spoiling the appearance of the brick- 
work. But, worse than this, such bricks when wetted in the wall 
occasionally pass out soluble compounds like those absorbed from 
soot by the bricks of the flue, and, like those (when used again in new 
workj, discolour plastering or stucco-work. 

The normal constituents of brick clays, then, may be said to be 
oxides of the earthy metals, and of a few others, hydrated or not, 
with silicic acid, and with small amounts of the alkalies, potash and 
soda, also present, together with several other chemical elements 
occasionally, but uncertainly, present in minute proportions, with which 
we need not concern ourselves. Silicic acid, the (jreat electro-nega- 
tive element of clays when combined with the oxides of the eartliy 
bases, singly or in combination, and exposed to high temperatures 
in certain proportions, forms glass or enamel (i.e., opaque glasses). 
Alumina, though in a less degree, also plays the part of acid towards 
the earthy bases, though itself a base with respect to silicic acid. 
As regards the oxides of the earthy metals, alumina, lime, magnesia, 
&c., these, in accordance with the general law of chemistry, that 
bodies in the same range combine, oxides with oxides, &c., also 
combine at high temperatures. The most powerful bases, such as 
the alkalies or oxides of potassium and of sodium, and the oxides of 
iron, combine more readily with silicic acid than do the earthy oxides. 
These combinations usually take the form of glass at once, the chief 
characteristic of which is the vitreous fracture. When such glasses 
are formed with oxides of earthy bases also present, they may assume 
wystaiiine or porcellaneous textures when cooled. 



CG8 APPENDIX. 

Porcelain, earthenware, and hard brick (such as the Staffordshire 
or Flintshire blue bricks) coniist in substance of such compound 
glasses, diffuied throughout their substance uniformly, and binding 
together the finely-diffused particles of the excess of earthy oxides 
which are present, or binding together fragmentary bits of uniformly- 
diffused silicic acid (sand, ground flint, &c.). The degree of fusi- 
bility, or of partial fusibility (agglutination), of any hard-baked brick 
depends, then, not only upon the chemical nature of the constituents 
of the clay, but upon the proportions in which these are present. 

The laws, so far as they have been ascertained, upon which depends 
the induration or agglutination by heat of silicic and earthy compounds, 
with or without other metallic oxides present, have been elicited 
from innumerable experiments made by ceramic chemists upon very 
varied compounds. The phenomena are complex, and in great part 
as yet in results only empirical. "We must refer for these to the 
works of Kirwan (" ^Mineralogy"), who made very many experiments 
upon known combinations of earths when exposed to heat — which 
have not in England attracted the attention they deserved — of Achard, 
Brongniart, Berthier, Lampadius, and various systematic chemical 
writers. Silica, alumina, lime, magnesia, are all infusible, per te, at 
the highest temperature of the porcelain furnace or brick-kiln. 

Silicic acid combined with any one earth is less fusible than when 
combined with two or more — a proof that not only the silicic acid 
combines with each earth, but ihat these in its presence combine 
with each other. Binary compounds of silicic acid and of earths, or 
of earths with earths, are most usually infusible except at still higher 
temperatures. Compounds of silicic acid with alumina are less 
fuiible than with lime, and these less so than with the alkalies. 

With oxides of iron, silicic acid forms fusible compounds in certain 
proportions. Magnesia, present in large proportions with either of 
the other earths, produces a very difficultly-fusible compound. 
Where the silicic acid constitutes the largest proportion of the mass, 
it is much more fusible, the bases being iwo others combined, with or 
without alkalies ; but if the silicic be in great excess (as in Dinas 
fire-brick), or if one or other of the earthy bases be in great excess, 
more especially alumina or magnesia, the mass is infusible in the 
kiln. 

All difficultly-fusible and pulverulent oxides, as when obtained by 
precipitation or by levigation, when exposed for some time to a high 
temperature, Wcome hard in grain, i.e., indurated more or less, and 



APPENDIX. 269 

frequently compacted. This is true eveu of some pure earths, such 
as alumina aud magnesia, and of nearly all the oxides of the com- 
mon metals. Compound oxides, when so exposed to heat, become 
still more indurated and compact, though presenting no traces of 
agglutination or of fusion. Thus alumina and sesquioxide of iron 
become compact. This induration, which is probably rather a change 
in the state of molecular aggregation than a chemical combination, 
but which may be both, is much concerned in the production oi 
certain qualities of brick ; for example, the fine, soft, scarlet cutting 
brick — that which was so much employed for fine facing-brick in the 
reign of William III., down to George II. — presents no sign of 
agglutination; its constituents have merely become partially indurated 
and compacted by the fire. The same is true of many of tlic light- 
coloured bricks now in use. 

Two sets of forces, then, are, or may be, in play in the burning 
of brick — chemical, and physical or molecular — and must be held 
in view by the scientific brickmaker. To the latter belongs the con- 
traction that takes place in the process of firing of all porcelain aud 
brick. This is greatest with those which contain most alumina, aud 
with any given specimen, is great not only in proportion to the eleva- 
tion of tlie temperature to which it is exposed, but with the duration 
of the time of exposure. It is least in compounds in which the silicic 
acid predominates ; and if these pass partially from the ci'ystalline to 
the vitreous state of aggregation in the firing, the specific gravity is 
reduced, and the increase of volume may more than equal the contrac- 
tion. This is said to be the case with Dinas fire-brick, which, when 
liighly heated in furnaces built of it, is said to expand. 

Were brick constituted of silicic acid and pure clays only, it would 
be perfectly white. Bricks, like porcelain, owe their oolour to admixed 
metallic oxides — iron in various states of oxidation, from prot. 
oxide to sesquioxide, or true chemical combinations of those with 
each other, or with the earths themselves, and present in the most 
varied proportions, give the wliole range of colouring to bricks, from 
the liglitest tawny yellow, through full yellow, orange, and to the 
rich scarlet of red facing-brick, almost as bright as red-lead. Where 
the proportion of oxide of iron present is very large, and it com- 
bines with silicic acid to form silicates of iron in or on the brick, 
its colour may be dark purple or nearly black, as is the Staffordshire 
blue brick ; and when a small quantity of oxide of manganese is 
present also, the colour is still darkened, and may become quite black. 

N 3 



270 ArrENDix. 

For light- coloured bricks ilie clays must be almost free from iron, 
and the latter must not be peroiidised, if possible, in the burning. 

For tbe production of fine red brick, on the contrary, the clajs 
must be pure, silicic acid not present in excess, oxide of iron 
present in abundant proportion, and be fully peroxidised, but must 
not be fused into a silicate of peroxide of iron, which is fatal then 
both to the texture and colour. 

With a given constitution of brick clay, the final colour of the 
burnt brick depends upon a large number of conditions in the pro- 
cess of firing, but mainly upon two — viz., what proportion of air be 
admitted to the combustion of the fuel in the kiln — i.e., whether the 
brick be finally burnt with an oxidising or a deoxidising fiame ; and 
whether or not, or in what proportion, steam or water be present in 
the brick, or be brought in the state of vapour in contact with it, 
when at elevated temperatures. 

Upon an exact knowledge of the effects producible by the play 
of these conditions (chiefly) upon the brick in burning rests the 
power of the brickmaker to vary or maintain with certainty the good 
colour of his ware, or to effect any desirable changes of colour of 
which his material may be susceptible. 

From this very incomplete sketch it will be seen that brickmaking 
is one of the chemico-mechanical arts. Being so, we ne«d scarcely 
say that the foundation of all accurate and predictive knowledge of it 
must be based upon a sound knowledge of chemistry, and of the laws 
of physics, and of heat especially, which is but a branch of the latter. 



KOTES. 
CoLorRED Bricks. 

Quite a new branch of trade remains to be opened in the manufac- 
ture of coloured and intagUo bricks, so treated upon the one face- 
side only, for both external and internal decorative building. 

"What may be done in this way may be seen in the Romanesque 
domes of the interior covering of the great centre hall of the 
museum building of Trmity College, Dublin, erected, a few years 
iince, by Messrs. Deane and Woodward, architects, in which ordinary 
bricks arc enamelled in brilliant glazed coloms, arranged in desigiis, 
upon the exposed face only. 

The German architects are generally in advance of us in (he art 



APPENDIX. 271 

of ornamental polyclircme brickwork, avoiding those hideous discords 
of colour that so otFend the eye in many of our London buildings. 
See especially for this "Les Constructions en Briques, par Louis 
Degen, Ingenieur de la Commission Speciale d' Architecture de la 
Ville de Munich," published in ]S65, at Paris. It is marvellous 
how much beauty the German brick architects contrive to extract 
out of tlie judiciously-arranged patterns producible from mere common 
brick, combined with delicate and beautiful harmonies of tint and 
colour. 

Infusoeial Siliceous Matebiais, p. 22. 

The bricks with which the arching of the floor of the Museum at 
Berlin was built, were made from tl\is infusorial siliceous and micro- 
scopically porous material, mixed with a certain proportion of clay 
" slip." Many of the floor arches of the Pinnacotheca, however, 
■were constructed of hollow bricks, in the form of frustra of cones, 
like flower-pots without bottoms, laid into place with plaster or 
cement. 

Materials exist in Southern Italy in abundance, as also in many 
other places, from which brick of considerable strength and of great 
lightness might be readily and cheaply made, viz., either from certain 
varieties of volcanic tufa or from pumice-stone detritus. Of the 
former there are suitable beds close to Naples, and elsewhere ; of the 
latter, inexhaustible supplies exist in the islands of Lipari, Ischia, 
and the Ponza Isles, from which it might be brought wuth facility. 

Plasticity and Odour of Clay, p. 210. 

It is certainly not a general fact that no chemically pure preci- 
pitates are cliaracterised by pla-^ticity. Precipitated carbonate of 
hme and white-lead are iu^tances to the contrary ; but nearly all 
precipitates (especially when rapidly made), though to the eye 
amorplious, are in fact crystalline, as Stokes long ago proved micro- 
scopically {Ditllin Phil. Mag.) \ and crystalUsed bodies are often not 
plastic. 

Water Chemically Combined on Mechanically Present, p. 212. 

Water mechanically present is one thing, but water chemically 
combined is another. Hydrate of alumina, in wliich the water plays 
the part of base, is a different body chemically from the alumina 
dehydrated and separated from its base by heat. The former may 



272 APPENDIX. 

possess plasticity, the latter not, simply because the former has the 
power to retain, intimately diffused throughout its divided mass 
water in mechanical mixture, while the latter has not. This diffused 
water seems to be the real cause of the plasticity of clay and of all 
plastic precipitates ; the mmute, solid, and rigid particles slip over 
each other, as it were upon liquid rollers, just as two plates of glass 
or metal slip over each other when a film of water is iutcrposed. 



INDEX, 



Ainslie's tile machine, 109. 
Alumina, use of, in brick-earth, 14. 

Blue brlck-i, 21. 

Breeze detcribed, 19 n, ; use of, by 
London brickmakers, 122; quan- 
tity required for 100,000 bricks, 
153. 

Brick buildings, list of early, 4. 

Brick-earth, composition of, 14 ; pre- 
paration of, 12. 

Brick-kilns, Dutch, described, 48. 

Brick-kilns, Hoffmann's, described, 
237—244. 

Brickmaking, introduction into Eng- 
land by the Eomans, 4 ; perfection 
of, in time of Henn' VIU., 4 ; the 
science of, 262—270. 

Brickmaking machines described — 
Oates's, 197 ; Whitehead's, 216 ; 
Clayton's, 219 ; dry-clay machines 
— Bradley and Craven's, 230; 
"Wilson's, 232. 

Brick-mould described, 28. 

Brick-pressing machines described — 
Longley's,223 ; Whitehead's, 226 ; 
Bradley and Craven's, 227 ; Her- 
sev and Walsh's, 228. 

Bricks, coloured, 21, 270. 

Bricks, lirst use of, 1 ; early use of, 
by the Dutch, 3 ; application of, 
by the Dutch, 47 ; Roman use of, 
3 ; repeal of the duties on, 8 ; 
schedule of duties on, 7 ; strength 
of bricks, 9; comparison of the 
strength of hand and machine- 
made bricks, 11 ; use as a build- 
ing material after the fire of Lon- 
don, 5. 

Bricks, manufacture of, 12; various 
modes of manufacturing described, 
9; colour of, 20 ; influence of the 
chemical composition of clay on 



the colour of bricks, 20 ; variation 

in the weight of, 10 ; drying, 251 ; 

usual form of, 34 ; warping of, 33 ; 

weekly produce of a London yard, 

37 ; annual manufacture of, in 

Great Britain, 8. 
Bricks, manufacture of, by machi- 

nerj-, 195 ; list of patents for, 196 ; 

macliines described, 197 ; strength 

of machine-made bricks, 203. 
Bricks, Egyptian, 2 ; two classes of, 

19 ; with hollow beds, 34 ; for 

railway work, 26. 
Burning, process of, 38. 

Chalk, use of, in brickmaking, 18, 
121. 

Cheshunt, brickmaking at, 157. 

Clamp-burning described, 38. 

Clay, analysis of, 12, 115, 265 ; com- 
position of, 13 ; properties of, 245 ; 
cannot be produced artificially, 
246; its plasticity, 248—271"; 
odour of, 250 ; digging, 22 ; pro- 
cess of preparing, 24 ; tables of 
colour, order of fusibilitv, ic, 
116. 

Clay, dry, machines for working, 230, 

Clay, machines for preparing, 212— 
215 ; clay crushing and grinding 
mill, 212 ; pug-mill, 27, 2l3 ; per- 
forated pug-mill, 214 ; portable 
clay-mill, 215 ; composite machines 
for crushing and tempering, 215. 

Clayton's horizontal brick machine, 
219. 

Coal, analysis of, 117. 

Coal-dust, use of, for making clamp 
bricks, 251. 

Compound for brick-earth, 14. 

Copper moulds, method of using, SO 

Cupola, 40. 

Cutters, 19. 



274 



INDEX. 



Dense bricks, disadvantages of, 3 J. 

Dinas fire-bricks, 16 ; manufacture 
of, 16. 

Drain-pipes, machine for the manu- 
facture of, 205 ; manufacture of, 
by machinery, 195. 

Drain-tiles, manufacture of, 43 ; 
making and burning, 255 ; cost of, 
201 ; machine for making, 256 ; 
cost of, 256 ; sheds for drying, 257 ; 
working the clay, 221. 

Drying, process of, described, 35. 

Dutch, their early use of bricks, 3. 

Dutch bricks, size of, 43. 

Dutch method of burning bricks 
described, 50. 

Dutch tile kilns described, 53; me- 
thod of filling the kilns, 53, 49 ; 
fuel used for, 43. 

Dutch tiles, method of making, 52 ; 
method of glazing, 54 ; mode of 
burning, 53. 

Encaustic tiles, manufacture of, 
1S9 ; colours, production of, 191 ; 
colouring the tiles, 192 ; glazing, 
1;'3 ; moulding, 192 ; plain tiles, 
193 ; slip described, 192. 

Fire-bricks, 15 ; value of, 18. 
Fire-clays, composition of, 15 ; where 

found, 17. 
Floating bricks, 21. 
Fuel for brickburning, 41. 
Fusible earllis, 19. 

Cn'nding described, 23. 

Holland, manufacture of bricks and 

tiles in, 47. 
Hollow bricks, form of, 207 ; method 

of asing, illustrated, 209 ; machine 

made, 207 ; Roman use of, 207 ; 

use of, in Tunis, 207. 

Kiln described, 38 ; circular, 40 ; 
burning described, 39, 40. 

Lincolnshire, brickmaking in, 252 ; 
cost of production, 252. 

Tx)am«, 14. 

lyondon-made bricks, superiority of, 
19. 

London, brickmaking in, 119 ; pro- 
cess, 138 ; cost, 1-39 ; arrangement 
of a brickwork, 123 ; cost of ma- 
terials, 1.59; breeze, 155; cost of 
breeze, 159; brick-earth, 119; 



cost of chalk, 159 ; chalk mill, 
164 ; cLiuip described, 144; clamp- 
ing, 144; foundations of the clamp, 
149 ; upright of ditto, 150 ; paving, 
154; necks, 152; clay described, 
120 ; cost of the clay, 159 ; digging 
the clay, 138 ; quantity of clay 
required for 1,000 bricks, 139 ; clay 
washing mill, 165 ; use of chuck- 
hold, 125 ; process of firing, 152 ; 
cost of fuel, 1-59 ; hacking de- 
scribed, 142; hack barrow, 136; 
hack ground, 136 ; cost of labour, 
162 ; cost of machinery, 161 ; pro- 
cess of maiming, 139 ; malm, 120; 
hand method of preparing malm, 
120; chalk miU described, 123,164; 
clay mill, 123 ; brick mould, 135 ; 
moulding, 141 ; moulding-stool, 
125 ; pallets, 136 ; pug-mill, 123 ; 
pugging, 141 ; cost of sand, 159 ; 
scintles, 154 ; scintling, 143, 149 ; 
process of soiling, 140 ; use of soil, 
122 ; cost of soil, 159 ; use of stock- 
board, 135 ; use of the strike, 136 ; 
tempering described, 141 ; cost *t 
tools, 161 ; cost of water, 159 ; 
cost of wood, 159 ; illustrations of 
London brickmaking, 164. 

London brickm.iking : bats, 156 ; 
place bricks, 156 ; burnovers, 153 ; 
burrs, 156; clinkers, 153; cutters, 
155 ; grizzeles, 156 ; malms, 155 ; 
paviours, 156 ; pickings, 156 ; 
second?, 156 ; shufTs, 156 ; grey 
stocks, 156 ; rough stocks, 156. 

London tile making described, 167 ; 
block board described, 175 ; build- 
ings, 170; cby getting, 183; kiln, 
1S3; kilning, 186; illustrations 
to, described, 1S6 ; moulding, 184 ; 
moulding-shed, 173 ; pantile table, 
174; place grounds, 167; plant, 
170; roll described, 177; sling, 
description of, 1 70 ; slinging, 184 ; 
splayer, 180; tempering, 184; 
thwacker, 183; thwacking, 185; 
thwacking frame, 180; thwacking 
knife, 183; thwacking stool, 183; 
washing-off frame, 178 ; wash- 
ing-off table, 177 ; wealliering, 
183. 

Marls, 14. 

.Minton's encaustic tile manufactory 

described, 191. 
>roulding, process of, 28. 
Moulding table, 29. • 



INDEX. 



275 



Norton coal, analysis of, 117. 

Nottingham, brickmaking at, 55 ; 
process of, 80 ; illastrations of, 
described, 92 ; batting, 82 ; cost of 
buildings, 88; burning described, 
84 ; colour, 58 ; brick-earth, 57 ; 
cost of ditto, 87 ; brick-moulds, 
70 ; bricks, number made per day, 
84 ; size of bricks, 84; brick-yard, 
general arrangements, 59; clapper 
described, 73 ; clay digging, 80 ; 
clay mill described, 62 ; dressing- 
bench, 73 ; dressing described, 
82 ; dr}-ing process, 81 ; fiats 
described, 71; fuel for the kilns, 
86 ; hovel described, 61, 72 ; kiln, 
75 ; setting the kiln, 84 ; cost 
of setting and drawing kiln, 86 ; 
cost of labour, 90 ; cost of land, 
87 ; machinery for pressing bricks, 
74; cost of machinery, 88; cost 
of manufacture, 87 ; moulding de- 
scribed, SO ; moulding sand, 68 ; 
moulding table, 68 ; plane de- 
scribed, 71; polished bricks, 83; 
pressed bricks, 83 ; tempering de- 
scribed, 07, 80 ; cost of tools, 90 ; 
wash mill described, 66. 

Oates's brickmaking machines, 196 ; 

cost of, 204 ; rate of production, 

204. 
Ornamental brickwork, examples of, 

6. 

I'allet moulding described, 29. 
Paving tiles, 42. 
Pressed bricks, defects of, 33. 
Prosser's method of making bricks, 

32. 
Pug-mill described, 27. 

Red bricks, 21. 

Refractory clays, composition of, 15. 

Roofing tiles, 42. 

Sand, object of using, li:2. 

.'^ilica, use of, in brickmaking, 14. 

Slip kiln, 32 n. 

Slop moulding described, 28. 

Soil, term described, 27 ». 

Staffordshire brickmaking described, 
95, 97 ; buildings described, 97 ; 
burning, 99; clay, described, 95; 
cost of manufacture, 101 ; drying, 
99 ; firing, 109 ; illustrations, 
102; moulding, 98, 103; oven 



described, 100 ; plant described, 
97 ; rate of production, 97 ; rental, 
101 ; specific gravity of the bricks, 
when raw, dried, and burned, 
99 ; tempering, 97 ; weight of the 
bricks, 99 ; arrangements of yard, 
118. 

Staffordshire tile making, 105 ; class 
of tiles made, 95 ; drain tiles, 
108 ; drying, 107 ; manner of 
drying. 111; firing, 113; illustra- 
tions to, described. 111 ; machines 
for making, 108 ; moulding, 107 ; 
moulding bench described. 111; 
pug-mill described, 106 ; setting 
described, 108; tempering, 106; 
weathering, 106. 

Stourbridge clay, 151, 

Striking tlie clay, 28. 

Suffolk, brickmaking in, 252; burn- 
ing, 253 ; clay, 253 ; drying, 253 ; 
cost of manufacture, 254 ; mould- 
ing, 253 ; cost of plant, 254 ; tem- 
pering, 253. 

Table of analysis of different kinds 
of clay, 13 n. ; of analysis of 
Norton coal, 117; of analysis of 
Staffordshire clays, 115; of the 
colour of Staffordshire clays, 116 ; 
of the cost of 1,000 bricks, London 
make, 162 ; of the cost of London- 
made pantiles per 1,000, 187; of 
the cost and profit on 1,000 Not- 
tingham-made bricks, 91 ; of the 
cost and selling price of Stafford 
quarries, dust bricks, and roof 
tiles. 111 ; of the fusibilitv of 
Staffordshire clays, 116; of the 
price of fire-bricks of various 
manufactures, 18 ; showing the 
proportion of bases contained in 
Staffordshire clays, ]16; of llie 
relative value of different quilities 
of bricks Nottingham make, 91 ; 
of the selling price of London- 
made tiles, 187; of space required 
for each moulding-stool by eitlicr 
process, 37 ; of loss of weiglit in 
drying and burning, 99; of the 
strength of hand and machine- 
made bricks, 11. 
Taxes upon bricks, 6; repeal of the, 

8. 
Tempering, 25 ; process described, 

I 27. 

] Terra-cotta, early use of, 5. 

I TessMse, Clinton's, 193 ; Roman 



276 



INDEX. 



process described, lOS , modern 
process described, 194. 

Tile-burning, 44, 255. 

Tile-kilns, construction of, 183, 189, 
257 ; in Holland, C3. 

Tile-making in England, 42 ; in 
Holland, 52 ; in Staffordshire, 
105 ; in London, 167. 

Tile-making machines, Ainslie's, 109; 
Hatcher's, 256; Page's,233; White- 
head's, 2'M. 

Tile-moulding, 184. 

Tileries, London, 167 ; Staffordshire, 
105. 

Tiles, encaustic, manufacture of, 189. 

Tiles, manufacture of, 42 ; schedule 
of duties on, 7 ; cost of manufac- 
ture, 186 ; manufacture of, in 
Holland, 52. 

Tower of Babel, btirot bricks used in 
building, 1. 



I'nsoiling, 22. 

Utrecht, principal seat of tile mw.u- 
facture in Holland, 54. 

Ventilating bricks, 35. 

Washing described, 24. 
Weathering, process of. 22. 
White bricks, 21. 
Whitehead's brickmaking machine, 

216 ; brick-pressing machine, 226 ; 

clay crushing and grinding mill, 

212 ; perforated pug-mill, 214 ; 

tile-making machine, 234. 
Wilson's drj-cla\' brick machine, 

232. 
Wooden moulds, method of usiag, 

30. * 

Yellow bricks, 21. 



THE END. 



LONUO.-. : ll.l.N'lLD DV J. 6. VIUILK .\.\U CO., LIMITLU, CllV UOAU. 



THE 

PRACTICAL BRICK AND TILE BOOK 



PART II. 
TEE RUDIMENTS OF 

PRACTICAL BRICKLAYING 

By ADAM HAMMOND 



THE BUDIMEXTS OF 



PRACTICAL BRICKLAYING 



m SIX SECTIONS : 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BRICKLAYING ; ARCH DRAWING, 

crrnxG, and setting; different kinds of 

POINTING ; PAVING, TILING, MATERIALS ; SLATING, AND 

PLASTERING; PRACTICAL GEOMETRY 

MENSURATION, etc. 



By ADA]\I HAMMOXD 



ILLUSTRATED WITE SIXTY-EIGHT WOODCUTS 



SIXTH EDITION. CAREFFLLY REVISED, TTITH ADDITIONS 




gpio^Jj 



LONDON 

CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND CO. 

7, STATIONERS' HALL COURT, LUDGATE HILL 
1887 



PREFACE. 



The object of this little work is to assist young 
beginners and others who, though in the trade 
many years, have not had the opportunity of 
seeing so much of the higher branches of practice 
as they might desire. I also trust it will not be 
thought unworthy the notice of the more skilful 
mechanic. 

The language I have used is as simple as the 
subject would allow, and the terms used are those 
well understood in the trade ; for it is to be 
regretted that the greater number of books upon 
" building construction " are written in such 
terms that it is very difficult for the majority 
of working men to understand their meaning 
without continually referring to a technical 
dictionary. 

In speaking of foundations, I have said nothing 
of those which are formed in soft situations, upon 
piles, or woodwork of any description ; for in such 
cases the bricklayer has nothing to do with the 
work until the foundation is made. 



VI PREFACE. 

I have no hesitation in saying tlie methods 
here employed in drawing and cutting arches, 
also in mixing the materials and executing the 
difFerent sorts of pointing, are practically the 
best, and those generally adopted by the most 
experienced workmen. 

For the sake of those who have not had an 
opportunity of learning Geometry and Mensura- 
tion, such problems are given as are generally 
required in bricklaying. 

The tables, and also the quantities of materials, 
have been carefully calculated ; and during the 
eighteen years I have been in practice I have 
proved them correct. 

Adam Hammond. 



NOTE TO FIFTH EDITION. 

The author views with satisfaction the extensive 
sale of this little work, and also the favour with 
which it is generally received, having already 
run through four editions since its publication. 

The present edition has undergone a thorough 
revision, and various additions and corrections, 
thought necessary for the improvement and 
utility of the work, have been made throughout. 

A. II. 

London, August, 1884. 



co:n'tents. 



SECTION I. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OP BRICKLAYING. 

pag:i 

Foundations 1 

Concrete and Concreting 3 

Drains ...... .... 4 

Footings 4 

Bonding — 

Old English 5 

Flemish Bond G 

Broken Bond 8 

Herringhone Bonding ...... 8 

Douhle Herringhone Bonding 10 

Garden-wall Bond . . . . . .10 

Damp Courses 11 

Air Bricks , ..11 

Wood and Iron Bonding 11 

Joints .... 12 

Window Sills 13 

Ruhhle "Work 14 

Brick and Stone combined 15 

Limes, Cements, &c. — 

Blue Lias Lime 16 

Dorking and Hailing Limes 16 

Chalk Lime 17 



vni 


CONTENTS. 










TAOt 


Limes, Cements, Sec, 




Cements . 


17 


Portland Cement 








17 


AVood Bricks . 








18 


Frost 








19 


Toothings 








19 


Thick and Thin Joints- 


-their Evils . 






19 


Profiles . 


. 






. 20 


Trammels 








. 21 



SECTION II. 



DEAWTXG, CUTTING, AND SETTING ARCHES. 

Plain Arches 23 

Ased Arches 24 

Gauge-work ......... 25 

Various Arches used in the Building Trades — 

The Semi-circular 26 

The Segment 26 

The Camher . . 26 

The Gothic 26 

The Elliptic Gothic 27 

The Scmi-ellip.«e 27 

Drawing Arches — 

The Semi-circular 29 

The Segment 31 

The Camber Arch 32 

The Gothic 35 

The Reduced or Modified Gothic .... 36 

The Ellipse Gothic 37 

The Semi-ellipMs 39 

The Wheel Arch, or Bull's Eye .... 41 

Moulding ......... 42 

Setting 44 

Axed Work 46 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



SECTION III. 
DfFFERENT KINDS OF POINTING. 

PAOK 

Stock Work with the "White Joint 47 

Yellow Stopping ........ 48 

White Putty . 48 

Eed Brickwork .51 

Red Stopping . . ...... 61 

AVhite Brickwork 62 

Black Putty 62 

Kcd Putty 53 

Old Brickwork 53 

Flat-joint Pointing 54 



SECTION IV. 



PAVING, TILING, USE OF 5IATERIALS, Etc. 



Paving — 

Brick Paving 
Plain Pa\'ing 
Tile Paving 

Tiling- 
Roofing Tiles 
Plain Tiling 

Scaffolding 

Relieving Arches 

Bakera' 0\ens . 

Smoky Chimneys— their Causes, &c 

To proporlion Windows to Rooms 

Materials— their Use, &c.— Memoranda and 

showing the Quantities of Materials required for 
various Kinds of Work— their Weight, &c. 



. 


55 


. 


55 


o . 


5G 




57 




58 




60 




Dl 




62 


» 


63 




64 



T 



'ables, 



Go 



X CONTENTS. 

SECTION Y. 

SLATER AXD PLASTERER'S WORK. 

Slater- 
Description of Slater's Work .... 

Gauge, " Lap " Margin, &c 

Table of Sizes and Gauges of Roofing Slates 

Slater's Scaffold 

Plasterer — 

Plasterer's Work 

Lime and Hair, or Coarse Stutf . 

Fine Stuff, or Putty .... 

The Operations of Plastering ... 

Bough Stucco .... 

Laid Work ... 

Cement Floors 

Plaster and Welsh Lime Floors 

Memoranda of Materials and Quantities required for 
different Kinds of Plastering 

Artificial Stone 

Distempering of Ceilings, Walls, &c. 



70 
71 
73 
74 

74 
75 
75 
77 
79 
79 
SO 
80 

81 

82 
S3 



SECTION YI. 

PRACTICAL GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION. 

Geometry ......... 84 

Problem I. — From a given point in a straight line to 

erect a perpendicular . . .87 

When the point is at the end of the 

line 88 

,, II. — Fpon a given right line to describe an 

equilateral triangle . . . . 8S 



COXTEM'S. XI 

PAGS 

Problem III. — To describe a triangle, having tlie length of 

the three sides given .... 89 
„ rV. — To find the centre of a given circle . . 89 
,. V. — To describe a regular pentagon upon a 

given line 89 

„ VI. — To describe a regular hexagon upon a 

given line 90 

Table of Polygons showing an easy Method of di-awiug 
any Polygon, from Five to Twelve Sides, the Length of 
the Side or Diameter of circumscribing Circle being 

given 90 

Description of the above Table, with Examples . . 91 
Problem VII. — To describe an eUipsis, ha\-ing the 

longest diameter given ... 92 
Another method of describing an ellipse 93 
„ VIII. — To describe a circle about any triangle . 93 
., IX. — To inscribe a circle within a triangle . 94 

.. X. — In a given circle to inscribe a square . 94 

■ I XI. — In a given circle, to inscribe any regular 

polygon ; or, to divide the circumfer- 
ence of a given circle into any number 

of equal parts 94 

„ XTI. — To draw a straight line equal to any 

given arc of a circle .... 95 
„ XIII. — To make a square equal in area to a 

given circle . . , . . 95 



A FEW RE5IARKS ON MEXSIJEATION OF 
BRICKLAYEES" WOEK. 

Duodecimals . 96 

Decimal Fractions .97 

Subtraction of Decimals .99 

Multiplication of DecimiUs .99 

Division of Decimals 100 

Uow Brickwork is measured — with Examples . . .101 

To find the Contents of Chimneys and Chimney Shafts . loa 



XU CONTENTS. 



PACB 

103 
105 
105 
106 
106 
106 



Cfaimiiej Shafts in the Form of a Circle . 

When the Shaft is in the Form of a Bcgular Polygon 

Table for measuring PolygoHS ..... 

Vaulting ..... . . 

Groins ..... 

Bakers' Ovens .... ... 

A Table of Brickwork, showing an Cds y Method of flnding 
the Quantity of l?eet and Bricks contained in any 
Nimiber of Supeificial Feet, from 1 foot to 10.000 Feet, 
by Addition only ... ... 106 

Explanation of Table . . . 107 

Mensuration of G-auge-work . . .114 

Old and new Bricks stacked in Bollfi .114 

Short and useful Table .... .114 

Tiling and Slating ... .114 

Paving 11.5 

Plastering ll.5 



THE RUDIMENTS 

or 

PKACTICAL BEICKLAYING. 



SECTION I. 

GENEEAX PRIXCIPLES OF BRICKLAYING. 

The Business of a Bricklayer not only consists in 
the execution of all kinds of brickwork, but it 
also includes rough stonework or "walling," 
paving, and tiling, both plain and ornamental ; 
and (in many parts of the country) slating 
and plastering is united with the above-nam«i|^ 
business. The bricklayer also superintends all 
excavations and concreting for ordinary building 
purposes. 

In preparing for the erection of most buildings 
the first things required are the plans, elevations, 
sections, &c., and upon these too much care 
cannot be bestowed so that the foreman may 
get them thoroughly impressed upon his mind, 
for by so doing very many mistakes will be 
prevented. 

FOUNDATIOXS. 

The ground should be set out from a given 
line, such as the face-line of the building, and 
wood stakes driven into the ground on which to 

7 



Z BRICKLAYING. 

strain the different lines. Great care is required 
in squaring out the foundation trenches so that 
the brickwork (when built) shall stand in the 
centre of them, and not all on one side of the 
trench and none on the other, which is but too 
frequently the case, for the greatest care is 
usually taken when the icaU line is drawn. 

The sides of the trenches ought to be upright, 
so that there is not a less area for the concrete 
at the bottom than at the top : for upon this 
depends the strength of the superstructure. 

Should the ground be ** an incline plane,'^ or 
unlevcl, it is much better to bench the ground 
carefully out — that is, cut out the bottom of the 
trench in horizontal steps.* The concrete will 
then be of a more uniform thicknes?, and the 
settlement of the building will be more regular, 
as nearly all buildings are built with materials 
that will settle little or much, and it does not so 
much matter as long as the settlement is perfectly 
regular, but the evil effects are seen when it is 
greater in one part than in another, and, in con- 
crete as well as brickwork, the greater the thick- 
ness the more will be the settlement. 

It is usual to drive stakes in the bottom of the 

trenches to show the level of concrete ; but 

perhaps it would be better, if possible, to drive 

these stakes in the sides of the trenches, leaving 

just enough projecting out to level them with, 

for very often by shooting the concrete into the 

• Taking care that each step shall be 3, 6, 9, or 12 inches 
above the next lower one if the work above is to be built 
4 couTBee to the foot. 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BRICKLAYING. 6 

trench the stakes are knocked further into the 
ground and the concrete levelled to them, thereby 
causing a great deal of trouble when the brick- 
work is begun. 

Concrete. 

The " limes " generally used for concreting in 
this country are obtained from Dorking in 
Surrey, and Rochester in Kent,* besides other 
places where the grey limestone is to be obtained. 

This lime is ground and mixed with ballast 
while in a powdered state ; it is then wetted and 
turned over twice, to mix them well together ; 
this is then wheeled in barrows to an elevated 
position and thrown into the trenches, and after- 
wards levelled to receive the brickwork. This 
kind of concrete is mixed in the proportions of 
one part of lime to six or seven parts of gravel. 
Although this kind of concrete is very much 
used in and about London, it is considered a very- 
imperfect method, although economical as regards 
the labour : it proves most expensive in the 
material, for if the work was properly executed 
it would not require nearly so much of the latter. 

The method of concreting which is thought by 
most engiueers to be the best is, to reduce the 
lime to the state of a thick paste, and tlien it is 
made into a soft mortar by mixing about an 
equal quantity of sand with it before it is mixed 
with the gravel ; and instead of shooting it down 
from a height and leaving it to settle by itself, it 

• This ia open to local circumstances. 

«2 



4 BRICKLAYING. 

ought to be wheeled in upon a level and beaten 
with a rammer ; for it is thought by being 
thrown from a height the materials separate, and 
by so doing some parts get more lime than they 
ought to have, while others get but very little. 

Of course this kind of artificial foundations is 
not required where there is a natural one, such 
as a bed of rock, hard gravel, or anything that is 
thought sound enough to sustain the weight of 
the building. 

Drains. 

As soon as the concreting is completed, all 
levels should be taken for the drains, &c., so that 
the brickwork is not cut about afterwards ; and 
if the pipes are very large it would be better to 
leave out the brickwork so that they may be 
fixed after the work has had time to settle. And 
if a small arch of brick is turned over each of 
these pipes, it will be found very convenient 
should they want repairing or cleaning at any 
time. 

Footings. 

In all buildings of any importance it is usual 
to build a certain number of courses as footings 
(as shown in Fig. 1) to give the 
walls a greater bearing ; and 
where the building is principally 
constructed with piers, such as 
a great many warehouses, &c., 
inverted arches are turned for 
the purpose of distributing the weight over the 





1 






1 






1 1 






1 




III 1 


1 1 1 J 



GENERAL PKINCirLES OF BRICKLAYING. 5 

whole length of the foundation, as shown in 
Fisr. 2. Sometimes these are formed in the 




Fig. 2. 



footing courses, but generally upon the top of the 



footings. 



Bonding. 

The next thing of importance is the bonding 
of the brickwork, of which a great deal may be 
said, for this is a very important part of brick- 
laying. 

Old English is that which is used in nearly all 
buildings where strength is the principal object, 
as it is the strongest of any, on account of the 
greater quantity of " headers " used, and also 
because there are less broken bricks required to 
fill in with. 

But the appearance is not considered so neat as 
Flemish bond. 

Figs. 3 and 4 show two successive courses of 
Old English bond : in all cases the inside headers 
and stretchers should be opposite those of the 
same names on the outside {i.e. a is opposite b, 
Fig. 3). If this rule is strictly adhered to, there 
will always be correct quarter bond throughout 
the whole thickness of the wall. 

Very often but little attention is paid to 



6 BRICKLAYING. 

the middle of the \call, so long as the faces are 







1 




































1 














1 




1 


1 




, 





















































I I I 1 



ri?. 3. 



lip. 4. 



kept right, although it is of quite as much 
importance. 

Figs. 5 and 6 show the bonding of the face and 



iig. 6. 



1 iL-. 6. 



end of what is called an 18-inch, or two-brick 
wall, in Old English bond. 

Flemish Bond (Fig. 7) is very much used for 
house building, owing to ita 
neater appearance. But very 
often the inside of the house 
is Old English ; and when the 
walls are built in this manner, 
the heading bricks of the Fle- 
mish work are halved (" bats," as they are more 
generally called) every second course ; and by so 



TV 



I I 



_LJ_ 



Rfr-. 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BRICKLAYING. 7 

doing the inside of the wall gets a half-brick tie 
into the face -work. 

In Flemish bond the headers and stretchers 
are laid in turns in each course, as shown in 
Fig. 7. 

In all cases where quoins are to be got up at 
different parts of the building, gauge-rods should 
be used after the work has been levelled, and a 
nail or something of the kind knocked into the 
work at the level of which it is intended to gauge 
from. 

If this is not done, different bricklayers will 
raise their work some more and some less than 
the others, thereby causing the work to get out 
of level. 

If it be possible every man ought to be kept 
on his own work ; then he is more likely to take 
an interest in that particular part. But if they 
are not, when one man goes on to another's work 
there is often a great deal of fault-finding, and if 
the work is wrong it is simply impossible to 15 nd 
out who it was that did it. 

Architects are generally under the impression 
that the bricks used in and about London are 
something under 9 inches in length, 4^ inches 
wide, and 2^ inches thick ; the thickness may be 
about right, but the other dimensions are decidedly 
wrong. This causes a great deal of trouble to 
the bricklayer when working to plans ; because 
he is asked to build a wall (for instance) eighteen 
inches thick, the regular bond of a two-brick wall, 
which is impossible to do without cutting the 



8 BRICKLAYING. 

bricks, as they are from nine inches to n>ne inches 
and a quarter in length, and never less than the 
former. 

Again, as regards the width of the brick, if it 
were 4j inches, it would be impossible to build, 
say, a 9-uich wall, giving it the proper waU-joint,* 
without sailing the stretching course over ; which, 
of course, is against all rule. 

This is the reason (the bricks being only A\ 
inches wide) that bricklayers have to cut so many 
three-quarters, or long bats, in face- work, to keep 
the cross-joints' quarter-bond on the stretcLers. 

Broken Bond. — A great deal of this might be 
done away with if the plans were got out to suit 
the bricks more than they usually are ; for very 
often we see pairs between openings sixteen, 
twenty, and thirty inches in length, without the 
least regard to what the bricks will work ; thereby 
causing a great quantity of brick to be wasted, 
more labour, and then the work is nothing near 
so strong as if the work had been arranged so 
that the bricks would work without cutting them. 

It is very necessary, when laying the first 
course on the footings, that all doorways, windows, 
and other openings, should be measured, and the 
bond properly set out, so that there is no diffi- 
culty when the work is up, ready to receive them, 
and the perpends t are kept throughout the 
height of the building. 

Herringbone Bonding, as shown in Fig. 7a, is 

• Three-eighths of an inch between the bricks, 
t The cross joints in a perpendicular line. 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BRICKLAYING, 



9 



greatly used for cores of arches and other places 
where something different to the regular plain 
work is required in the shape of ornamentation. 
But it has but very little tie with the inside work. 
This work should be begun and continued with 




the set square of 45 degrees ; and if the bricks 
are all of one length, the joints will all cut 
straight with one another, showing so many 
oblique lines at an angle of 45 degrees with the 
horizontal from where the herringbone started; 
that is, place the set square upon the base-line 
A B, Fig. 7 A, in such a manner that the right 
angle of the square shall be uppermost and the 
longest side upon the line, and as it is drawn 
along from a to b, or from b to a (if the work 
is right), it will cut in a line with the joints c d, 
E F, &c., and as the work proceeds it will be 
necessary to either hold up a levelled straight- 
edge and work the square upon it, or otherwise 
draw a line perfectly level, and so hold the 
square to it. 

But to do this kind of work properly, it is 

really necessary that every hick sJwuId be of one 

length, that is, what three courses of bricks will 

measure upright when laid temporarily with joints 

b3 



1 BRICKLAYING. 

the same thickness as those required for the 
herringboning. If the joints are to be small 
very often the bricks will have to be cut short, 
and this gives it a better appearance than 
having thick joints, and, beside, it is much 
stronger work if it is well grouted in at the 
back. But in all cases let the grout be of the 
same kind as the work is built with. 

Fig. 8 represents another style of herringbone. 
This is called " Double Herringbone" on account 

of two bricks being 
worked instead of one, 
as shown in Fig. 7a. 
The working of this is 
much the ^ame aa 
Fig. 7a, but perhaps a 
little more difficult in 
the arrangement of the bricks ; nevertheless the 
joints must cut one with another just the same as 
the " perpends " of plain brickwork. If the 
bricks are cut to 8| inches in length the work 
will show a neat joint, and there will be less 
trouble in keeping the work right. But it is very 
frequently done without any care being taken to 
get the bricks to suit the work, or to keep them 
in their proper places while laying them. 

Garden Wall Bond, as it is generally called, 
is that which is in practice usually when build- 
ing 9-inch walling, which requires to be faced 
on both sides ; and as the headers cause an un- 
sightly appearance if worked through too often, 
on account of their different lengths, it is 




GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BRICKLAYING. 11 

usual to work three " stretchers " between two 
** headers," instead of one, as in Flemish bond. 

Damp Courses. 

As soon as the work is above ground it ought to 
receive a course of something to prevent the damp 
from rising up into the walls, and for this purpose 
asphalte is often used to cover the walls. But where 
this is difficult to be obtained a clouhle course oj 
slates bedded in Portland cement will generally 
answer the same purpose ; but they must be so 
bonded, that no two joints shall be over each 
other to allow the dampness to rise between them. 

Air Bricks. 

"Where the ground-floors of the building are to 
be laid with boards, air bricks should be built in 
the face of the walls, and a passage left through, 
so that the air can freely circulate under the 
floors, and by leaving two or three bricks out in 
difierent places of the inside or parting walls to 
any part of the building where required. 

Wood and Iron Bonding. 

In addition to the regular bonding of brickwork, 
as before described, a further security is sometimes 
provided in the form of bond timber ; that is, long 
lengths of wood cut to the form of a 4|-inch 
course of bricks, and so laid throughout the length 
of the walls to answer as a longitudinal tie, and 
also to keep the pairs between openings steady 
until the work is thoroughly set. 



12 BRICKLAYING. 

But of late years this has been superseded to 
a great extent by hoop-iron, both on account of 
the wood shrinking when it gets dry and so 
causing the work to settle, also, in case of fire, 
to have material in the building as little inflam- 
mable as possible. 

The hoop-iron is laid at different stages 
throughout the whole building. This is sometimes 
tarred and drawn through sand, to protect the 
iron from contact with the mortar ; but it is more 
frequently laid between courses of bricks, and 
built with Portland cement, without being tarred. 

Joints. 

It is very necessary that all joints should be 
kept of one thickness ; for if one piece of brick- 
work is raised with thick bricks and another with 
thin (as it often is when two sorts of bricks are 
used — one for outside and the other for inside) 
the work done with the thickest joints will settle 
more than the other, thereby causing the wall to 
overhang or batter : this is the case with mortar 
joints. Cement acts in the reverse manner, on 
account of its sxcelling properties ; therefore in 
both cases it is considered very unsound work. 

Portland cement having this stceUing property, 
it is well adapted for underpinning old walls, 
where the ground has been taken out for cellars, 
&c., below the foundations ; but slate ought not 
to be driven into the joint between the old and 
new work for the purpose of wedging it tight, 
for the cement will not take hold of the slate 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BRICKLAYING. 13 

to any great extent; besides, if the joint is well 
filled up with cement, it will expand sufficiently 
to wedge itself perfectly tight. 

Window Sills. 

Where these are of stone, it is much better to 
leave the brickwork out at the reveals just large 
enough so that the sill can be fixed after the 
brickwork is up and settled ; if not, the weight 
of the brickwork upon each end of it will very 
likely break the sill, owing to the greater settle- 
ment of the work between the windows (where 
there are the greater number of mortar joints) 
than there is directly underneath the sill. 

Bricks ought to be well wetted in summer time, 
80 as to exclude the air which fills up the pores ; 
but be careful that they are not wet if there is any 
likelihood of frost, as it takes fast hold of work that 
is damp, not only causing the joints to burst out, 
but sometimes greatly disturbing the bricks. 

All walls ought to be thoroughly "flushed" up 
every successive course with soft mortar or 
cement, as the case may be. This is sometimes 
preferred to " grout," because the latter, being so 
much thinner, will naturally shrink more when 
setting ; so, if there is the proper wall-joint, there 
is little doubt but what the mortar- flushing makes 
the soundest work. There is a common but very 
evil practice in many places of building walls with 
mortar and afteruards grouting them in tcith Port- 
land cement mixed with sand. Where this is the 
case, the weight of the building must be con- 



14 BRICKLAYING. 

Bidered as standing upon the grout alone, for it is 
well known " that cement swells and mortar shrinks;" 
therefore, whenever the cement grout runs under 
the bricks, it will surely lift them off the mortar 
bed ; and, instead of strengthening the work, 
it has a great tendency to weaken it. Great 
care should be taken, in building walls of any 
considerable length, that the line is kept perfectly 
straight from end to end ; because if the line is 
drawn tight one course and another loose, there 
will be " brick and brick " in some places, and a 
thick joint in others, which gives the work a very 
bad appearance. In fact the line ought to be 
" loohed through " every course. 

Rubble "Work. 

In many parts of England rubble work is done 
to a great extent with flint and other stones ; 
and in such cases it is usual to have brick quoins, 
and these are generally " ashlarcd," as shown in 
Fig. 9. In London this name is applied to 
stone- facing. 

Although flint-stones are not so well 
adapted for works requiring great 
strength as bricks, still they answer 
very well for what they are generally 
used, that is, cottage and wall-building, 
&c., but it is not advisable to use sea 
stones for house-building, on account of 
the salt clinging to them causing the 
walls to turn damp in wet weather. 



Fig. 9. 

No flint-stones ought to be used in wet weather, 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BRICKLAYING. ]5 

or if they are at all wet ; for this is the cause of 
many a wall falling to the ground. 

Brick and Stone Combined, 

When the building is composed of brick and 
stone, which it yery often is, the bricklayer and 
mason ought to be careful to get their work 
arranged to suit each other, as brickwork cannot 
be built to the specified thickness without a very 
great deal of extra labour and waste of material. 
For instance, a wall supposed to be built 2 feet 
3 inches in thickness very often cannot be worked 
under 2 feet 3f inches because the bricks are full 
9 inches long, and a wall never ought to be built 
without allowing room for the mortar to go be- 
tween each brick in the middle of the wall. 

And so by the stonemason cutting and work- 
ing the stone that has to pass through the wall 
three-quarters of an inch longer, it would save 
the cutting of each course of bricks from begin- 
ning to end of the wall. 

And if this is not thought of in the founda- 
tions, it will very likely cause a vast amount of 
trouble when the work is further advanced. 
Again, in arch work, &c., where drawing is re- 
quired, and stone and brick are to be used, it is 
best for both mason and bricklayer to work to 
one drawing ; for it is possible for two separate 
drawings to be difierent, so causing confusion 
when fixing the work ; and it very often happens 
when anything is set out wrong through the 
oversight, carelessness, or ignorance of the fore- 



16 BRICKLAYING. 

man, the blame is directly thrown on to the 
workman for the purpose of clearing himself. 
But this is a cowardly way of doing business, and 
cannot be too much condemned. 

Limes, Cements, etc. 

Of limes, blue lias is reckoned the best in this 
country, because it is equally adapted for work 
below water-level or for moist situations as for 
dry ones. But it is not generally used for ordi- 
nary building purposes, principally on account of 
its taking but a very small proportion of sand 
before its setting properties are weakened ; so it 
is thought best only to use little more sand than 
lime in the mixing. 

This lime must not be made into mortar a long 
time before it is required as other limes often 
are, or else it will get so hard that it will be of 
very little use for the purpose of laying bricks. 

This lime will take less water than the other 
limes usualty do ; and it ought to be slacked 
several hours before it is made into mortar, as 
some parts will take much longer than others. 

The principal supplies of lias limestone are 
obtained from Aberthaw, near Cardiff, in "Wales ; 
Barrow, near Mount Sorrel, in Leicestershire ; 
and "Watchet. 

Dorldng and HaUinrj Limes. — These may 
be considered the principal limes used in and 
about London for making mortar, owing to their 
taking a greater quantity of sand than any other 
before their setting properties are weakened, the 
usual proportions being three or four parts of 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BRICKLAYING. 17 

sand to one of lime. But it must be remembered 
that very often it is not the quantity but the 
quality of sand that destroys the lime ; for the 
cleaner and sharper the sand, the better the 
mortar will be. 

These limes are obtained from Dorking in 
Surrey; and between Rochester and Maidstone 
in Kent. 

Chalk Lime is seldom used in London for out- 
side work, because it sets so slowly, and in damp 
places never sets at alL But it is used to a great 
extent for plastering the inside of houses, &c., 
where there is no dampness ; and, although it is 
not used in London for outside work, it is very 
much used in many parts of the country, where it 
is very cheap, and better limes are not so easily 
obtained. 

Cements. — The cements used by the builder 
are of various kinds ; such as Portland and Roman 
for external, and Keen^s and Martinis for internal, 
decorations. 

Portland Cement is considered the best for 
general use, owing to its fine setting properties 
and its cheapness ; for it takes a greater quantity 
of sand than any other before it is much 
weakened. This is made in different parts of the 
coimtry, principall^'^ from the cement-stone found 
in the Ijondon clay at Harwich in Essex, and 
the Isle of Sheppey in Kent ; and will take 
two or three parts of sand to one of cement for 
ordinary purposes. 

But whenever it is required to set directly oi 
for water-work, it is best to use it in its pure 



18 BRICKLAYING, 

state. For although sand docs not prevent its 
setting very hard after a few days, it stops its 
setting directly. 

All sands used for making up lime and cement 
into mortar should be as free from clay or dirt as 
possible, and the sharper the better. If this is ne- 
glected, the best limes or cements are soon ruined. 

Owing to the great demand for Portland 
cement, a great many manufacturers have been 
induced to bring out an artificial kind, and this is 
as much used as that made from the cement- 
stone. The greater part of this is made with clay 
obtained from the sides of the River Medway in 
Kent, mixed with a definite proportion of chalk 
•from the pits in the same district, and so manu- 
factured as to produce a cement nearly equal to 
the original. 

Roman cement, although possessing many good 
qualities, is greatly inferior to Portland, and 
therefore is but little used by the builder. 

Keen's and Martin's cements are in appearance 
a great deal like plaster of Paris, but they set 
much slower, thereby giving the workman more 
time to add finish to his work before it gets hard. 
They are almost always used for work which re- 
quires a hard and beautiful finish. But in no case 
should they be used for outside work, or in any 
place where they are exposed to the action of 
water, as they are like all pure limes, partly 
soluble in water. 

"Wood Bricks. 
"Wherever woodwork is to be fixed to the walls 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BRICKLAYING. 19 

(such as door and window frames, angle beads, 
skirting boards, &c.) wood bricks, or, rather, 
wood joints, should be used — that is, pieces of 
board the length and width of a brick, and about 
three-eighths of an inch thick, should be laid 
between two courses of bricks instead of the 
mortar joint. These will be found far better than 
having wood bricks the fall size of the ordinary 
brick, because the latter generally shrink, and 
so become loose. When the inside is to be 
matched-lined instead of plastered, it is best to lay 
a joint of this sort throughout the length of the 
wall inside. If these are laid about three feet 
apart from floor to ceiling, there will be no plug- 
ging afterwards in fixing the matchboards. 

Frost. 

If the brickwork is carried on in frosty weather, 
all walls must be carefully covered up with 
weatherboards, straw, or something that will pro- 
tect them ; if not, the frost will penetrate into 
the work, and greatly destroy the strength of all 
that which is damp. 

If Portland cement is mixed with mortal the 
fi'ost does not take hold of it so much as it does if 
mortar alone. 

Toothings. 

"When necessary to carry one part of the build- 
ing up without the other, the walls where they join 
ought to be "racked" back, if possible; if not, 
they ought to be toothed, as shown in Fig. 10, 
so as to avoid as much as possible upright toothings 
from bottom to top of the wall. 



1 1 


1 k 






1 




1 


1 1 . 






1 




: 1 


1 1 






1 




■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 


.1 1 1 


■ i 1' 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 


( 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 



20 bricklaying. 

Thick and Thin Joints. 

So much has been said by different writers 
about tJdck joints, that it is quite unnecessary 
for me to say that they are a very great evil, 
as they cause settlements. But 
perhaps a little ought to be said 
about very thin ones, for it is well 
known that the bricks made in 
most yards are not all of one 
thickness ; and it is possible to 
buy a quantity of bricks all made 
Fig. 10. {j^ Qj^(, yard, and to find two or 

three different sizes — some as much as a quarter 
of an inch thicker than others. Therefore, when 
these thick bricks are laid, it is found impossible 
to keep down to the gauge to which the thin 
ones are laid with a joint of the same thickness. 

The result is, the bricklayer does not spread 
out a bed to receive the brick, as he usually does, 
but he "butters" it — that is, he draws a little 
mortar, as fine as he can get, upon the front and 
back edges of the brick, and then lays it, leaving 
an air-passage imdcr every one. This is almost 
as bad as thick joints, for it is evidently not 
bedded at all. This is very bad work, but the 
bricklayer cannot be blamed for it. 

Profiles. 

In building retaining walls, either upright or 
battering, or, in fact, any kind of work that is to be 
racked back to receive additional work, it is often 



GENERAI, PRINCIPLES OF BBICKLAYING. 2] 

found convenient to erect profiles upright or batter- 
ing, as the case may be, with the face of the wall, 
and gauo^ed accordino: to the srau o^e of the work from 
bottom to top — and so strain the line to it ; by this 
means the work is kept right both on the face and 
bed. 

These profiles answer very well for setting 
arches when they are required in advance of the 
other work ; for they can be easily set up at each 
end, and the line for the face of the arches drawn 
to them, and afterwards drawn perfectly level 
over the crown of the arches, to level up the 
brickwork between them — and in tJm case it will 
answer the purpose of both level and plumb-rule. 

Trammels. 

Where work is to be cut to receive inverted 
arches, such as the bottom half of a wheel arch, 
and also cores to receive any other arches, it is 
much best to fix trammels. These are fixed to 
the centre, and struck with the same radius as 
the arch. For the wheel arch, when it passes 
throughout the thickness of the wall, it is usual 
to fix an upright piece of wood on each side of the 
wall, and pass a bar of either wood or iron from 
one to the other ; this will answer as a centre for 
the trammel to swing round upon, either on one 
side of the wall or the other. 

All joints in good face- work ought to be struck 
as full as possible without projecting beyond the 
face of the wall, and as straight as the bricks will 
allow. 



22 BKICKLAYING, 



^^SECTION 11. 

DRA\rrS'G, CTTTIXG, AKD SETTING AECHES. 

It is very necessary, in speaking of arches, that 
the reader should thoroughly understand what an 
arch really is. It must not be supposed that any 
kind of building material which has been used to 
cover an opening is necessarily an arch simply 
because it is made to form a curve, for in many 
cases we see a block of stone cut out in the form 
of an arch, and placed over doorways, windows, 
&c. ; but in the centre or crown, where the 
proper arch is the strongest, the stone being 
thinnest is the weakest, and being liable to break 
at any time, causes the work above to give way. 

An arch that is perfectly equal may be con- 
sidered as a slightly elastic curved beam, and, 
when loaded, every part is in a state of com- 
pression. The arch that the bricklayer has to 
deal with is a quantity of bricks so arranged that 
they may, by their pressure one upon another, 
not only support their own weight, but transmit 
any weight that may be placed on them to the 
abutments. 

Therefore all bricks should be of such a shape 
that they should "bed " with a perfectly equal bed- 
joint, one against the other, and at the same time 
carry an equal curve, or fit the centre upon which 
the arch is turned, throughout the whole span. 

And by each joint cutting in a line to the 
point or centre from which the arch is struck, 



|. DRAWING, CUTTING, AND SETTING ARCHES. 23 

eaeli brick will be in tbe form of a wedge ; these 
are often called " Youssoirs," and the thickest or 
uppermost part of them the " mi^0t»s," and the 
■ small, or that part which is fixed upon the centre, 
the "intrados," or sofl&t of the arch. 

These few remarks will serve to clear the mind 
of the reader as to what the general principles of 
an arch are. 

The higher calculations connected with the 
designing of arches, and rules to find the weight 
with which each course of voussoirs should be 
loaded to bring the arch into perfect equilibrium, 
would be out of place here, as this little work is 
intended for the working bricklayer, and he is 
very seldom fortunate enough to be able to enter 
into calculations of this kind, although they would 
be of great service to him. 

Plain Arches. 

All arches turned without the bricks being cut 
or shaped in any way may be classed under this 
head ; and these are in general use for railway- 
bridges, tunnels, vaultings, and all work where 
strength is essential, and appearance no particular 
object. 

In building arches of this description, in order 
to avoid the thick joints that would appear at the 
extrados if the bricks were laid with the end upon 
the centre — as they are not wedge-shaped, but of 
one thickness throughout the length — it is usual 
to build them in rings the thickness of half a 
brick, or brick on edge, so that each ring is 



24 BRICKLAYING. ^ 

separate, having no connection with the others 
beyond the cohesion of the mortar in the collar- 
joints between them, except a heading-course 
occasionally, wheneTcr the joints of two rings 
happen to coincide : sometimes this is objected to. 

It is very necessary that each ring should be pro- 
perly bonded throughout the length of the arch, 
and also that the joints should be of a regular 
thickness. For if the soffit-ring is built with a thick 
bed-joint, and the second ring with a thin one, the 
thick joints will shrink most, thereby causing an 
unsightly fracture between the two, and so deprive 
the arch of the strength of the bottom rinw. 

Mortar made with good lime is considered by 
many better than cement for this kind of work, for 
very often cement sets before the work is complete, 
and any little accident in striking the centres, or from 
any other cause, is very liable to break the arch. 

Let it be here understood that no kind of arch 
ought to be turned without the centre has folding 
wedges, so as to drop it, when the arch is finished, 
as easily as possible, and without shaking the arch. 

These wedges ought to be drawn a little a day 
or two before the centres are really struck, so as 
to give the arch its " bearincj." 

Axed Arches. 

These are used very much in the present day, 
on account of their taking less labour, as it is 
thought. But it is an inferior sort of work at 
the best, and often costs as much as gauge-work 
by the time it is fi^nished. 



UUAVVING, CUrriNG, AND SE'lTING ARCHES. 25 

The bricks of these are simply axed down to a 
given size, and nothing but the soffits are rubbed ; 
and this is done after they are brought to the 
required bevel with the hammer boaster and 
scotch ; they are then set in cement, with a joint 
about three-sixteenths of an inch in thickness, 
and afterwards pointed. 

Gauge Work. 

This consists of all kinds of work that is cut and 
brought down to a given gauge upon the rubbing- 
stone ; such as all kinds of arches, mouldings for 
external cornices, architraves to doorways and 
windows, eaves, &c., and is considered the most 
important branch of the trade. 

For this purpose a shed should be built to 
protect the bricks that are to be cut from the wet, 
and also large enough for the workmen to erect 
their benches and chopping-blocks to suit their 
own convenience. They then require the rubbing- 
stone and a bedding-block. The former ought to 
be in the form of a circle, and not exceeding 14 
inches in diameter ; for if it is, it will be very 
likely to rub out of level on the face, that is, 
either hollow or cambering ; and even with this 
size it will be found necessary to turn it round in 
its bed about once a day when in use, for if the 
stone is unlevel the bricks will assuredly be the 
same, making very bad work. 

The bedding-block is square and of a perfectly 
smooth surface. It is used for the purpose of 
scribing and fitting the bricks to the moulds, and 
c 



26 BRICKLAYING. 

is usually made to the size of one course of the arch, 
if double-faced ; if not, about 14 by 18 inches. 

Various Arches tsed in the Building Trade. 

It is necessary that the bricklayer should 
thoroughly understand the names of all arches 
used in the building trade, and also what is 
meant by these names. The following are the 
principal arches used in building construction : — 

The Scmi'Circular, as shown in Fig. 11. 

The Segment, which is the part of a circle only, 
as Fi^. 12. 




Rg. 11. Fig. 12. 

The Camber (Fig. 13). — This arch is a very small 

part of a circle, as it is generally reckoned to rise 

only one-eighth of an inch to the foot ; so if the 

span of the arch is four feet, 

V ~7 the crown or centre of the 



Rff. 13. 



soffit will only be half an 
inch above the springing 
line, and the top ought not to be more than a 
quarter of an inch above a straight line drawn 
from the top of each skewback ; then, by the 
slight settlement of the arch when taking its 
" bearing," this line w ill have the appearance of 
being perfectly straight. 

The Gothic Arch (Fig. 14) is ver}- much used 
at the present day, both as shown in this figure. 



DRAWING, CUTTING, AND SETTING ARCHES. 27 

and also with a greater or less rise above the 
springing line, as Figs. 15 and 16. 

The Elliptic Gothic (Fig. 17), which is simply 
an ellipse with a Gothic head. 




Tig. 17. 



Fig. 18 represents a Semi-ellipse, or half- oval. 

There are many other arches in use in other 
branches of the building trade ; such as the 
horseshoe (Fig. 19), the G (Fig. 20). But it 




Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. 

is very seldom the bricklayer has the building of 
any but those that have been mentioned. 

We have thus far only had the forms of different 

arches. The next thing of importance to the 

workman is the methods of striking them out, and 

taking off the moulds and bevels for cutting them. 

c2 



28 



BRICKLAYING. 



Drawing Arches. 

As it is out of reason for the builder to pay 
the workman for tis time while he is jiiactising 
on the work, it will be found necessary that 
he should learn the diflferent ways of striking 
out those things that he will require, either at 
his homo, or at some other equally convenient 
place. And for this purpose he will require 
a drawing-board. Sixteen inches square will be 
large enough for this purpose; but should a 
larger one be required, it would be better to get 
one 2 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 10 in. This will take an 
imperial sheet of drawing-paper. Also, a T 
square and set square, lead pencils, a pair of com- 
passes with pen and pencil, and a piece of india 
rubber to clean out any false lines. And as it is 
always best in these kinds of drawings to work to 
a scale, the 2-ft. rule will answer this purpose. 

Should the reader wish to 
practise drawing other forms 
of the arch, he will require 
moreand better instruments. 
It is necessary, in almost 
-g every kind of arch, to draw 
the horizontal and perpen- 
dicular lines at right angles 
with one another. If the 
reader knows how to do this, 
he will find it his principal 
guide to drawing the arch. 






Fig 21. 



So, from the points a and u, Fig. 21, '»'\t|U any 



DRAWING, CUTTING, AND SETTING ARCHES. 29 

radius greater than half the given line A b de- 
scribe two arcs intersecting each other at o and s; 
then the line joining o s will be in the centre of 
A B and at riorht ano^les with it. But with the 
T square and drawing-board this is unuecessar}', 
as he is simply guided by the square when fixed 
first to the side, and then to the bottom of the 
board. 

In showinw the methods of drawing: arches and 
taking ofi" the moulds, it will not be necessary to 
speak oi plain arches, as the bricks are not cut for 
them, therefore it will be best to deal with them 
as gauged. 

The Semi -circular (Fig. 22). — In drawing this 
arch, it is oidy necessary to place one point of the 




Fig. 22. 

compass at the centre o, and with the radius d b 
describe the half-circle which will answer lor the 
sofiit ; then with the same centre describe a 
greater half-circle, according to the depth of the 
arch required. 

Divide the outer ring with the compas.s into as 



30 BRICKLAYING. 

many parts as there are required courses in the 
arch, taking care to see how thick the bricks will 
work first, so that no more is wasted in the 
cutting than necessary. Then from the centre o 
draw the lines to each of the divisions marked on 
the outside half-circle as shown. This will be 
the size and shape of the mould for cutting each 
course of the face of the arch. And a parallel 
mould, the width of the stnall end of the face 
mould, will do for the cutting of the soffit of the 
brick, after allowing for the joint in each case 
(this ought to be about one-tenth of an inch 
thick), and is best done by working a little nearer 
the small end of the mould, which will be easily 
seen in the workinor. The bevel for cutting the 
soffit is taken by placing the stock of the bevel to 
the line a, and setting the blade to the line repre- 
senting the soffit of the first course of the arch 
at D. 

This is the only bevel required (if a X bevel is 
used) as the tops are cut to this bevel fitted on 
the brick the reverse way. 

Fig. 23 is another kind of semicircular arch 
with a Gothic head. To draw the outside portion 
of this arch it is necessary to draw the line or 
chord A B, bisect it at d, draw a line with the 
eetsquare from d, at right angles with a b, to any 
point c, and upon this line the centre is taken to 
describe the outside curve of the arch, according 
to the haunch required; and the inner ring must 
be divided in the same manner as the outer ring 
of Fig. 22 ; but the bevels for the tops must be 



DRAWING, CUTTING, AND SETTING ARCHES 31 



taken separately. In all other respects it is the 
same as Fig. 22. 

A 




Fig. 23. 



The Segment (Fig. 24) may be worked in the 




snrae way as the semicircle, the only difference 
being in taking the centre to strike it with 



32 BRICKLAYING. 

This is taken in the perpendicular line below 
the springing level, with radius according to the 
rise required as shown at d, and this is the point 
to which all lines must be drawn, both to get the 
skewback and also the size of the course. The 
bevel for cutting the skewback is taken by placing 
the stock paritllel with the springing line a b, 
and setting the blade of the bevel to the skewback 
line D E. 

We now come to the Camber Arch, which is 
perhaps one of the most difficult to draw and cut. 
To draw this arch, supposing the opening to be 
4 feet in the clear, would require an arch with 
only half an inch rise above the springing line 
at the crown, as it would take a very long radius 
to strike an arch having so small a rise in the 
ordinary way of striking a segment of a circle; 
it is necessary, therefore, to resort to other means. 

To do this it is best, in the first place, to get 
the horizontal and perpendicular lines, and 
measure out the width of the opening equal on 
each side of the upright line, then take the rise 
as shown at a. Fig. 25, and drive three nails into 
the board upon which it is intended to strike the 
arch, at the three separate points b, a, c ; this 
done, get a piece of |-inch board as long a* 
the opening is wide, in the form of a very 
flat triangle, as shown in Fig. 26, takinj? care 
the rise of the triangle is just half that re- 
quired for the arch. Place the end b. Fig. 26, 
to the nail at b. Fig. 25, a to a, and c to c, 
keeping it tight against a c with the left hand ; 



DRAWING, CUTTING, AND SETTING ARCHES. 33 

then with the right hand fix the pencil firmly 
against a, the centre of the trammel, and gently 
draw the curve with the right hand, as the 
trammel is drawn from a to c with the left. If 
care is taken to keep the pencil hard against the 
centre a of the trammel, and that part of the 

£ 



N"- 




Fis- 25. 



trammel against the two nails as it is drawn from 
A to c, it will describe very correctly that half of 



Fig. 26. 

the camber's soffit. Then by repeating the 
operation the reverse way, by drawing the 
trammel with the left hand from a to b, while 
with the right hand and pencil that half is de- 
scribed in like manner, this will complete the 
regular curve of the camber arch. Then with 



34 BRICKLAYING. 

c, as centre, and c b, as radius, cut the perpen- 
dicular in D ; this is the point to which the lines 
are drawn to get the proper skewbaek. 

It is then necessary to measure the bricks to 
see how they will work. If 3 inches, set oflF 
I3 inches on each side of the centre line e d, 
and draw lines to the point d, as shown : this will 
give the shape of the moulds of which there 
ought to be three, a quarter of an inch thick, and 
about 18 inches in length. If the arch is to be 
1 foot in depth, and in proportion if more or less, 
then mark them all at about 3 inches from the 
narrow end. 

Fix one of these upon the centre line, as 
shown at a, so the line above mentioned shall be 
exactly at the soffit-line of the arch, and then 
trace the other two alternately towards the skew- 
back, keeping each line on the moulds to the 
soffit-curve each time. 

If the last mould does not meet the skewbaek 
exactly, it must be raised or dropped down until 
it does; then mark each course, and the joint 
must then be allowed as before stated. 

The bevels must be taken for each course, and 
marked on the mould ready for working ; one 
bevel will answer for soffit, cross-Joint, and top of 
each course, if it is reversed for the two last named. 
But perhaps it would be best to leave the tops 
and cut them when setting the arch, for very 
often mistakes are made in taking the length of 
the courses with the template. The bond of the 
camber arch is the same as the quoin of a 



DRAWING, CUTTING, AND SETTING ARCHES. 35 

common wall of Flemish bond, only the arch is 
level and the quoin is upright, always remem- 
bering to work from the soffit, as shown by the 
two courses at c, Fig. 25. 

The Gothic Arch (Fig. 26) is much easier to 
construct than the camber, owing to its having 
a shorter radius. 

Set out the extent of the arch at a b on the 
horizontal line, then with a for centre, and the 
distance a b for radius, describe the arc c b ; then 
with AE as radius and with the same centre describe 




Fig. 26a. 

the inner arc d e — this forms one side of the arch ; 
then with b as centre, and same radii used for the 
first half, describe the second. 

Divide the outer curve into courses according to 
the size of the bricks, and draw the lines to the 
point A as shown, taking care in dividing out the 
courses that half a course shall be on each side of 
the perpendicular line at c, to answer for key- 
brick. The bevel once set will answer for the 



36 



bRICKl-AYING. 



whoJe of this arch, the same as the st mi -circular. 
There are diflerent ways of forming the key of 
this arch, but the one shown is considered the 
best. Sometimes the Gothic arch is cut as repre- 
sented in Fig. 27, but it is very seldcm, c 




Fig. 27. 

account of the extra work in soffiting the bn'cks, 
for in this case each course must be cut to a sepa- 
rate bevel. But the lines for each course are 
drawn to the centre o, instead of the opposite 
springing, as Fig. 26. 

A Beduced or Modified Goihic. — To draw this 
arch it is necessary to draw the chords a b and b c, 
Fig. 28, from the springing to the crown ; bisect 
A B and B c at D and h ; and from these points of 
bisection draw the lines to the points o o with the 
setsquare. And upon these lines the points are 
taken to strike the arch according to the rise 
required above the chord. The outer ares are 
then divided into courses and lines dr<iwn to the 
points o for the size of the mould, if the arch is 
to be cut in the same way as Fig. 26. But if i' 



DRAWING, CUTTING, AND SETTING ARCHES. 37 

IS to be "keyed in" with an upright key, as 
Fiff. 27, the lines must be drawn to tho centre e. 




Fiff 28 

The method of drawing and taking off the 
moulds of the arch shown in Fig. 28, applies to 
any Gothic, whether greater or less than the regular 
equilateral arch. 

The Ellipse Gothic (Fig. 29) is rather more diffi- 
cult in the working than the generality of Gothic 
arches, owing to the different striking points. To 
draw this arch, let the distance a b be set off 
equally on each side of the perpendicular line ; 
then divide it into four equal parts by marking 
the points c d, and with d as centre, and the 
distance D B as radius, describe the arc from b to 
E, mark the point b e equal with b d, draw the 
chord F E, and bisect it at g, from which point 
draw a line with the setsquare to any point o, and 
upon this line the centre is taken to draw the 
upper portion of that side of the arch as shown ; 



38 



BRICKLAYING. 



the soffit curves are obtained in the same way. 
After the lines a f e b are drawn, they can be 
made to answer either for soffit or exirados, by 
striking the other parts greater or less than those 
named ; in this figure they represent the outer 




Fig 28. 

ring; but the centres will do for either. The 
moulds for this arch are taken in the same way as 
those in the camber. Fig. 25 ; that is, it must be 
traced over with the moulds, so that each course 
shall be exactly of one size, and the bevels must 
be taken separately. 

It is of the greatest importance that the work- 
man should practise drawing this arch until he is 
thoroughly acquainted with every part ; for very 



DRAWING, CUTTING, AND SETTING ARCHES. 39 

often he may require quite a different kind of 
ellipse Gothic to the one here described, and by 
his understanding the principles of this one he 
will be better able to reduce or elevate them to 
suit his requirements. Perfect accuracy in all 
good brickwork cannot be too much impressed 
upon the mind of the bricklayer, and more par- 
ticularly in drawing and cutting arches. 

Fig. 30 represents a semi-ellipsis arch, and is a 
great deal like the ellipse Gothic, the only dif- 




Fig.30. 



But the drawing 



ferenee being in the crowns 
is quite, different. In drawing this arch, divide 
the span into three equal parts, as shown at a c d b, 
then, with d as centre and d b for radius, describe 
the arc from b to e equal to d b, and the same on 
the opposite side to f ; then, with d for centre and 
the distance d c for radius, describe an arc cutting 
the perpendicular line in g ; and from this point, 
with the distance g f, describe the arc r e : the 



40 RRTCKLAYIXG. 

oiiter curves are tuken from the same centres. 
The moulds for this arch must be traced in the 
same way as the camber and ellipse Gothic ; that 
is, take the thickness of the brick and set it equally 
on each side of the centre line at h, as shown ; 
then draw the lines to g ; this will give the size 
of the mould very nearly; then, if they are worked 
alternately down to the springing-liue, it will be 
seen where they want easing, should they require 
it. The bevels are all taken separately for each 
course, but the t bevel reversed will not answer 
for the top or outer curve of this arch. 

Another method of drawing this arch is shown 
in Fig. 31. Take the distance a b, that is, the 




Fig. 31. 

span and also the depth of the arch, and set it off 
equal on each side of the centre line ; divide 
this into three equal parts by marking the points 
c and D ; then, with n as centre and dc for radius, 
describe an arc cutting the upright line in e. From 
this point draw a straight line through d to any 
point F, and another through c to h ; then with d 
as centre and d b for radius describe the arc f b, and 



DRAWING, CUTTING, AND SETTING ARCHES. 4l 

take c for centre and same radius for the opposite 
ellipse A H, and, lastly, e for centre and e h for 
radius, to describe the crown h f. The soffit-ring 
is drawn from the same points. It is thought by 
some that the moulds can be taken by drawing 
lines as shown from divisions on the outer curves ; 
but it is evident the bricks in the arch cannot be 
all of one size and shape if this is done, although 
there is little doubt the arch is stronger that way, 
owing to there being a better skewback at h and f 
for the crown than there would be if each course 
were cut to one mould ; it is unnecessary to say 
this is the easiest method. But the appearance is 
not so good, for it is an understood thing in the 
trade that all courses of an arch should be of one 
size. 




The Wheel Arch, or Biiirs-etjc (Fig. 32).— Tn 
this arch the outer circle is divided out iu such a 



42 BRICKLAYING. 

manner that each line, a b, c d, shall be in the 
centre of the course ; or, in other words, that 
each of these points shall show a key brick, in 
the same way as one key is shown in the semi- 
circular arch. 

Where two or more arches are set close to- 
gether, " saddles " ought always to be cut, as 
shown at a and b (Fig. 33), and not a continual 




Fig. 83. 

straight joint from c to D ; for although this is 
often done, there is no bond between the two 
arches. In all arch cutting the T bevel is by far 
the best to use, for by reversing, it frequently 
answers the purpose of two. 

Moulding. 

It has been already stated that moulding is 
also included in what is called gauge-work. And 
of late years there has been a very great deal 
of this work done, particularly in end about 
London. St. Paucras Station of the Midland 
Kailway ra;iy be taken as a fine specimen. 

In many places Ihis is done by fiiinply making 
a template the form of (he brick required, and 
marking the brick, first on one side and ihcn on 



DRAWING, CUTTING, AND SETTING ARCHEb. 43 

the other, and so cutting or rubbing it down to 
these marks. But for moulding birds' mouths, 
splay, bulls* noses, and, in fact, almost any kind 
of work, it will be found much better if a box is 
made that will hold three or four bricks, either 
flat or on edge, as they may be required, taking 
care that the ends are both alike, and the exact 
shape of the brick required. If this method be 
properly worked it will be found very accurate, 
and done with a great deal less labour. The 
boxes for this purpose are usually covered with 
tin or sheet-iron to protect the wood from wearing 
away while working the bricks ; if not, the 
moulds are very apt to get out of their proper 
shape and so lead the workman wrong. Even 
with this precaution, it is very necessary to try 
them sometimes to see if they are correct. 

"When bricks are moulded for arches, it is best 
to mould them first and cut them to the shape 
required afteawards ; for should they be cut first 
and then moulded the brick is often broken, and 
all the labour upon it is wasted. 

But it must be remembered that when the 
bricks are moulded first the soflBt is not touched 
afterwards, or otherwise the bead, or splay, or 
whatever it is, will be rubbed out of shape. 
Therefore the brick must be brought down to 
the required bevel by rubbing down the side or 
" bed," so as to bring it thinner at the soffit end. 
This is called soffiting the brick from the side; 
and all bricks properly worked this way will go 
together equally as well as if they were bevelled 



44 BRICKLAYING. 

from the end, ip the same way 33 arches that are 
not moulded. 

It has been said that where a great many 
arches are required, all of one size, either p^a in or 
moulded, it is best to send the moulds to the 
brickyard and have them cut while the earth is 
soft, and so burnt to the shape required. But if 
this is tried it will prove a total failure, for it is 
impossible to burn bricks with the accuracy re- 
quired for gauge work ; and it is always found to 
take almost as much labour in brinjjinj? them to 
proper order as it would have done to cut the 
bricks in the proper manner at first. 

Let the bricklayer be careful to turn out his 
work in such a way that it shall reflect credit 
upon himself, and his employer will soon see 
which is the best and cheapest method of cutting 
gauge-work. 

Settixg. 

It has already been said that cutting is considered 
the most important branch of the trade, and to a 
great extent this is right. But it must be re- 
membered that, after the work is cut, there is 
almost as much skill required in setting it. For 
it very often happens tliat a vast amount of labour 
and skill is expended upon work while in the 
"cutter's" hands, and directly it is taken on to the 
building the beauty of it is all destroyed through 
the carelessness or inability of the setter. On the 
contrary, bad cut work is often made to look well 
through nothin<j but the skill of the setter. 



DILWVING, CUTTING, AND SETTING ARCHES. 45 

Therefore it is very necessary that this branch 
should be equally well uuderstood. In setting 
gauge- work of all kinds, it is necessary to take 
the thickness of the courses, and gauge the centre 
upon which the arch is to be turned ; and this is 
done by takiug the thickness of the brick and 
joint at the soffit. Each course should be marked 
on the centre from the key brick downwards. 
Never gauge from the springing or the skewback, 
as this often leads to mistakes when setting the 
arch. 

The soffit of each course ought to fit the centre 
perfectly ; and in order that it should do so and 
that the courses should come in right at the key, 
it is often necessary to have a radius line; that 
is, a nail should be driven into the ledge of the 
centre at the point o (Fig. 23), for instance, and 
a piece of string fastened to it, and drawn up to 
each course of the arch as it is set, in the same 
manner as the line o D is drawn. This will pre- 
vent the setter getting his work too high or too 
low at the extrados of the arch. If this is not 
done he is working at random, and will very 
likely have to make his bricks smaller, or, other- 
wise, his bed-joint thicker when he gets to the 
key ; thereby depriving the arch of its strength, 
and so causing a settlement when the centres are 
struck. Gauged arches, as a rule, are set in grey 
lime putty, brought to the consistence of cream. 
This is put into an oblong wooden box, about 
2 ft. by 1 ft. 9 in. deep, for the setter to dip that 
side of the brick where the bed-joint is reauired. 



46 BRICKLAYING. 

But in doing this care must be taken that the 
bricks are neither too wet nor too dry ; also that 
the putty is of such a thickness that it will give 
the brick just such a joint as the work requires: 
of course the brick should be held in the putty 
until it takes up the joint. If each course is 
bedded regularly throughout its thickness, the 
joint will be full and even on the face of the 
arch ; and should it project a little, which is 
often the case, it ought to be left untQ the 
building is cleaned down, then they can be rubbed 
off level with the bricks, and so leave the face of 
the arch perfectly regular. This method only 
applies to gauge- work. 

AxEu Work 

Is usually set in Portland cement ; and this 
is sometimes mixed with a little putty to make 
it work better; the brick is then "buttered" 
with the trowel and not dipped as gauge-work. 
By being buttered is meant a small portion of 
the cement drawn on the edges of the brick, and 
the middle left hollow to receive the cement 
grout which is run in after the work is set ; 
the joints are then raked out to receive the tuck 
pointing, which is done after the building is up. 
Whenever there is a long range of arches, one 
ought not to be set separately ; but a line drawn 
the whole length, so that when all are set, they 
shall be perfectly straight one with another. 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF POINTING. 47 

SECTION III. 

DIFFERENT KIXDS OF POINTING. 

PoLXTiNG of all kinds of work is another very 
important branch which the bricklayer has to 
deal with, and is more in practice at the present 
day than ever before, both on account of its 
cheapness and also its appearance. These may 
be classed under two heads — Tuck-pointing and 
flat-joint pointing. The first is of the most 
importance, and also requires the most skill, not 
only in the difierent methods of preparing and 
using the material, but also in preparing the work. 
Stock icork icith the white joint is most general 
in London ; and the first thing necessary is to 
mix the pointing stuff. It is often thought best 
to colour the work, even if it is a new building, 
to bring all the bricks to a uniform colour, 
because some bricks are much darker than others, 
and therefore have a bad appearance when 
finished. This colour as a rule is made with 
green copperas in the proportion of one pound 
of copperas to five gallons of water ; but in all 
cases it should be tried first upon some bricks 
placed in the same position as the front which is 
to be coloured ; that is, if the front face the 
south, place the bricks towards the same quarter, 
as it is often found that work di-ied in the sun, 
£ind that which is dried ia the shade, are quite 
different 



48 hUlCKLAYING. 

Mix up as much colour as will complete the 
whole job, as two mixings might not be alike. 
The longer this copperas is kept the stronger it 
gets ; therefore if it cannot all be used at once, 
it is best to weaken it every morning by putting 
half a pint of water to every gallon of colour ; if 
this is not looked to, the last part which is done 
will be much darker than the first. If the work 
is wetted before the colour is laid on, one gallon 
of colour will do 100 feet, more or less, according 
to the bricks and the season of the year. 

Telloic Stopping. — This is made with grey lime, 
putty, and fine washed sand, in the proportion of 
one bushel of the former to three of the latter, 
and will take about 2 lbs. of yellow ochre to each 
hodful of stopping. But of course the workman 
will regulate it to suit the colour of the brick. 
This also must be tried in the same way as the 
< opperas, and in all cases let the stopping be a 
shade darker than the brick when it is dry. 
This will give the putty joint a better appear- 
ance when it is laid on. In no case should 
copperas be used to colour the stopping. 

White Putty. — This is generally made with 
chalk lime (because it dries much whiter than 
grey lime, and gives the work a better appear- 
ance), and silversand, or marble dust ; the latter 
should be used whenever it can be obtained, on 
account of its giving the joint a beautiful glaze. 
It is usual to heat the pieces of marble until 
they fall to a powder, then screen it througl. 
a very fine screen or sieve before mixing it 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF POINTING. 49 

with the lime. But silver sand is more generally 
used. 

The lime is slaked and sifted through a fine 
sieve. Sometimes oil or size is mixed with it to 
make it work better, and also to give it greater 
binding properties ; but this must be done while 
the lime is hot and dry, and one pint of either to 
half a bushel of lime is enough. 

If chalk lime is used, one peek of silver sand 
is sufficient for half a bushel of lime ; but if grey 
lime is used, it will take double that quantity of 
sand. If work is to be pointed, it must be well 
cleaned down from top to bottom, and well rubbed 
with pieces of the same brick as the wall is built 
with ; this will give the work a level surface. 
Brush off all dust, and wet it well, then follow 
with the colour and give it one coat throughout ; 
if it should require two coats, let one get well set 
before the second is laid on ; but if it only 
requires one coat, the work is ready for the 
stopping. It is usual to do this in lengths of 
about 8 feet; this is about the length that two 
men will work when laying on the fine stuff; 
and if this is taken for the length and 5 feet for 
the height, it will be quite enough at one time. 

We sometimes see houses stopped in from top 
to bottom before ever a putty joint is laid on ; 
but the man who does this evidently knows but 
very little about tuck-pointing, for, whenever 
this is done, the stopping gets so dry and hard 
that the putty will not combine with it as it 
ought, and it will fall off in a very short time, 

D 



dO bricklaying. 

The work is also so besmeared with the white 
stuflf, that it has more the appearance of being 
plaotered than tuck-pointed. 

TThen the length, as before stated, is stopped 
in, it is usual to rub it well with a piece of dry 
sacking, or something of that kind, to give the 
stopping and bricks the appearance of being one 
uniform block. Brush ofi all dust, and, if neces- 
sary, damp it with the stock-brush carefully, so 
as not to disturb the stopping ; then gauge the 
joints at each end of the rule as a guide for 
holding it, so that each course is of the same 
thickness, and each joint perfectly level through- 
out. This gauging must be applied to all work, 
whether yellow, white, or red, and it would be 
best to have a gauge-rod expressly for this pur- 
pose. The cross-joints should be perfectly plumb 
from top to bottom of the building. The rule 
that is used to lay on the bed-joints (if it is done 
with the jointers) is about 8 feet long, 5 inches 
wide, and about | inch thick ; and there ought to 
be two or three pieces of cork a quarter of an inch 
thick nailed on to the back, to keep the rule 
from the work, so as to allow room for the waste 
putty that is cut from the joint to fall clear to the 
ground. The fine stuff is spread upon this rule, 
and afterwards taken off it with the jointer and 
laid on the work that is stopped in, according to 
the rule when it is held to the gauge-marks. 
After this the rough edges are cut off with a 
knife, or " Frenchman," as it is called. This is 
the process for yellow or stock-work pointing. 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF POINTING. 5] 

Bed brickwork Is treated in many respects quitt 
differently. The colour used for this is composed 
of 1 lb. of Venetian red, and 1 lb. of Spanish 
brown to IJ gallons of water ; but it ought to be 
tried in the same way as copperas. This colour 
has no setting properties, therefore it is necessary 
to mix something with it that has, or else the 
first shower of rain will surely wash it off. 

One of the best things to use for this purpose 
is white copperas. This must be dissolved in 
warm water, and 1 lb. will set about 3 gallons of 
colour. Alum is also used in the same propor- 
tions ; and sometimes half a gallon of stale beer 
to the same quantity of colour for setting. 

Bed Stopping is composed of 1 part of grey lime 
to 3 parts of fine washed sand (red sand would be 
better, as it would take less colouring). This is 
coloured with Venetian red and a small portion 
of vegetable black. But in this case no propor- 
tions can be given as there are so many different 
kinds of red brick, and the colour that would 
suit one would look very badly if applied to an- 
other ; therefore it is best for the workman to 
try these colours, and match them with the bricks 
before he begins to point the real work, and in 
all cases mix enough for the whole of the point- 
ing, allowing three hods of stopping to 200 feet 
of work. 

This class of work is done in the same way as 
stock-work, the only difierence being in the using 
the colour. Red work is coloured throughout 
first, and then a second coat is laid on after it has 

T>2 



52 BRICKLATIXG. 

been stopped ; this is done very lightly, so as not 
to rub up the stopping. 

But in stock- vrork, colouring over the stopping 
should never be done, for the copperas being so 
strong it will bring out a white hue, and make 
the stopping almost as white as the putty joint, 
giving the whole of the work a very bad appear- 
ance. The putty for red work is just the same as 
that used for stock- work. 

WJiife BricJiicork. — When the bricks used for 
this work are sand- made, they only require well 
rubbing down before pointing ; but should there 
be any flesh-coloured ones among them, it is best 
to leave the dust on the face after rubbing it, and 
give the whole a coat of alum-water ; this will 
set the dust so securely on the face of the bricks, 
that no quantity of water will wash it oflf, and 
will give the whole front a regular appearance. 
This is made with 1 lb. of alum dissolved in 3 
gallons of hot water ; and if it can be laid on the 
work when warm, so much the better. 

The stopping for this kind of work seldom 
wants any colouring, the sand making it suffi- 
ciently dark to match the bricks. 

There are three sorts of putty used for this 
work ; white, black, and sometimes red. 

The method of mixing the first has already 
been explained, therefore it is unnecessary to 
repeat it. 

Black Putty requires \ bushel of grey lime, 
slaked and finely sifted; \\ bushels of very fine 
washed, or silver sand and 12 lbs. of lamp-black 



DIFFERENT KINDS OF POINTING. 63 

or vegetable black : the last named is much easier 
to mix with the lime and sand. Care must be 
taken that these are well worked into one another, 
if not, the joint will have a bad appearance when 
laid on the work. 

lied Puff I/. — This is made in the same way as 
the black, only the colouring is different, this 
being done with Spanish brown. But, as in red 
stopping, the colour must be mixed to the shade 
required. 

It is not always necessary to colour brickwork ; 
and if the bricks are all of one colour, such as 
Suffolk whites, best reds, or malms, it is much 
better not to do so. 

But if, on the contrary, the bricks are inferior, 
they cannot bo brought to a uniform colour 
without it. 

The putty-joint in all tuck-pointing ought not 
to exceed a quarter of an inch in thickness. 
Arches of all kinds, except those that are gauged, 
are pointed in the same way as plain brickwork, 
but the joint ought to be smaller. 

Old Brickwork. — ^Vhen this is repointed all the 
old mortar must be raked out of the joints. The 
whole front is then well rubbed with pieces of 
brick to clean off the grease and dirt, and well 
swept down with a hard broom perfectly clean, so 
that the colour may enter the face of the brick, 
and after this, it is given two coats of red colour 
or green copperas as the case may be, taking care 
that the first coat is dry before the second is laid 
on, also that both are dry before it is stopped in. 



5i BRICKLAYING. 

The stopping in old work is generally smoothed 
down level with the face of the bricks with the 
trowel, and not rubbed in the way that new work 
usually is ; for very often it is stopped with brown 
or black stopping, if it is stockwork, and, of course, 
it would never do to rub it. 

Flat-Joint Pointing. — This is of three kinds. The 
first is laid on with the trowel and cut ofi" at the 
top only with the Frenchman, to give the joint 
the appearance of having been struck when tlie 
bricks were laid. The second kind is cut off top 
and bottom, and is sometimes called " half-tuck." 
And the third is simply done by filling up each 
joint flush with the brick ; then rub it over with 
a stock-brush or a piece of sacking, and next run 
a line in the centre with a jointer or anything 
that will mark it. Inside work which is to be 
whitewashed or coloured is the only work which 
is done with this kind of pointing. "Washed sand 
and lime made into a stiff mortar is the only 
pointing material required for flat-joint pointing, 
but the darker the sand the better, and in this 
case, as in all kinds of pointing, the work should 
be kept well damped, for upon this depends the 
soundness of the pointing. 



PAVING, TILING, USE OF MATERIALS, ETC. 55 

SECTION lY. 

PAVING, TILING, USE OF LIATERIALS, Etc. 



Paving. 

Brick-paving. — This kind of flooring is less used 
in London than it is in the country, as it is often 
the practice to lay the floors of dwelling-houses 
in many parts with this material ; but this is 
seldom done in the metropolis, unless it is the 
cellar floors, and these are usually done with the 
stockbricks ; good paviours and Dutch clinkers 
being used only for stables, coach-houses, &c. 
These are laid in various ways, such as brick-flat, 
brick-on-edge, and sometimes it is herringboned. 
Plain Paving is that which is laid in parallel 
courses. This needs no explanation further than 



r 








3 






V 


- 


1 




xXxxxyxxX/ 




^ 


r 


) 






A 



Fig. »4. 



that which will be given in connection with the 
other kinds. But herringbone paving. Fig. 34, 
will be found much more difficult, both in setting 
out and also after it is set out, in the working. 



66 BR1CK.LAY1-NG. 

The first thing that must be done is to get the 
floor-line, at any point such as a, and, if necessary, 
drive a stake into the ground as a starting-point 
to take the levels from. From this point level to 
each corner of the room, taking care to reverse the 
level every length, for very often the level is not 
correct, and the work is thereby thrown out. But 
if this is done it cannot happen. After the levels 
are taken, the ground must be dug out deep 
enough to receive the brick and its bed below the 
level line; if this is hrkh-Hat, 3 inches will be 
enough, but if on edge, it will take 5 inches ; then 
with a pair of lines lay a temporary course of 
brick, as shown from d to c and from a to b, and 
the line is drawn to these courses to keep the work 
level on the surface and also to show if the points 
of the herringbone are correct, as shown by the 
line E F. Iso bricks ought to be cut against the 
straight temporary courses, but leave them as a 
toothing to be filled up afterwards. All diagonal 
joints should cut in a line, in the same way as 
those explained in Figs. 7 and 8, and those figures 
will serve for a guide for hruk-on-edge paving, 
Fig. 34 representing hrich-Ji<it only. But the 
straight temporary courses are laid for all sorts of 
brick paving. 

2'ih -paving is very much in practice, both plain 
and ornamental, notwithstandiag the great quan- 
tities of asphalte Portland cement and York 
paving used. These tiles vary in thickness from 
two inches to three-eighths of an inch. Plain 
tiling is generally done with tiles, 12, 9, and 



PAAHNG, TILING, USE OF MATERIALS, ETC. 57 

G inches square ; aud these are laid in parallel 
courses with one side of the room, yard, or surface 
that requires paving. Should the tiles be of dif- 
ferent colours, it is usual to lay them diagonally, 
80 that the different colours form diamonds. The 
methods of executing this kind of paving are 
much the same as the others. But for very 
thin or ornamental tiling the whole surface is 
*' screeded " perfectly level with Portland cement 
mixed with sand ; and when sufficiently hard, the 
tdes are laid with a thin bed of pure cement, 
according to a design ; by frequently applying the 
straight-edge, the work will be brought to a 
uniform surface. 

Tiling. 

Roofing-tiles. — These are of two kinds, plain 
tiles, which are quite flat, with two holes near the 
head of the tile, through which oak pins are 
placed, aud by this means the tiles are laid or 
hung to the laths of the roof; and pantiles, which 
are much larger. These are hollow, or curve- 
shaped, and are hung on the laths with a project- 
ing ear, which is called the nob of the tile ; and 
each course overlaps the previous one with a roll. 
This tiling is done much better in the country 
than in London, owing, in a great measure, to 
the tiles being made with greater care, and better 
shaped. If this work is properly gauged, the 
courses ought to fit perfectly close one to the 
other, so as to prevent the wind getting under 
them and lifting them off. 
u3 



58 BRICKLAYING. 

In preparing the roof for tiling, it is necessary 
to lath it with inch laths. These are called pan- 
iiJe Mhs. To do this, each outside rafter (that is, 
the rafter that is nearest to each gable) should be 
gauged out according to the gauge of the tiles. 
This is done from the eaves to the ridge, taking 
care to allow for the eaves projecting over the wall- 
plates, so as to carry off the water. This is easily 
ascertained by fitting a tile on to the eaves before 
gauging the roof. Nails are then temporarily 
driven into the rafter at each length of the gauge, 
and to these nails a line is drawn, as a guide line 
for lathing the roof. 

Where these tiles are used for dwelling houses, 
each space between the pantile laths is covered 
with small laths, and these are covered with a 
bed of mortar, to answer for a bed for the tile, 
and also to keep out the wind ; but in common 
tiling this is not done, as pointing the tiles inside 
answers much the same purpose. The roof ought 
to be gauged out lengthways also, the width 
of each course, so as to finish exactly even courses 
at the gable. For not unfrequently we see roofs 
covered at random, and finished with a broken or 
cut course against the gable, and this will 
generally be found to be the first place where the 
water penetrates through, thereby causing a great 
deal of injury to the roof, ceilings, &c. 

Plmn Tiling is worked much in the same way; 
but of course the gauge is less. They are some- 
times hung with two little nobs instead of pins. 
In plain tiling, the roof needs only to be gauged 



PAVING, TILING, USE OF MATERIALS, ETC. 59 

from the eaves to the ridge ; the guide length- 
ways is simply to keep the second course half 
bond on the first, and so on throughout the roof. 
The setting of ridge-tiles needs no explanation, 
as it is only necessary to keep them level and 
straight along the ridge-tree ; the difierent gauges 
will be given further on. 

It is the practice in buildings of any import- 
ance to construct fireproof floors, and this is 



Fig.es. 

sometimes done by turning brick arches upon 
wrought iron girders as shown in Fig. 35. But 
of late years it has been found that plain tiles 
will answer this purpose equally as well as bricks, 
without the disadvantage of being so heavy. Not 
only that, but the depth of the girder can be 
greatly reduced, for often where a 6-inch girder 
would be required for brick arches, those 3 inches 
in depth would do for tiles, so saving the 3 inches 
in the thickness of the flooring. And not only 
fireproof floors, but many flat roofs have been 
covered with two or three courses of tiles, either 



Fig. 36. 

laid flat upon the girders, as shown in Fig. 36, 
or arched as Fig. 35 ; but by all means let them 
break joint. The tiles should be well wetted, 
and the finer the sand used with the cement for 



60 BRrCKiAYINQ. 

bedding them the better. This construction of 
floors, &c., although appearing very slight, will 
carry an immense weight, if the cement used is of 
good quality. 

Scaffolding. 

One of the principal things necessary to the 
carrying out of a building is the scaflolding, 
and great care ought to be taken in selecting 
the men that are to do it, for upon their 
care and foresight often depends the lives of the 
other men engaged on the work. Scaffold- 
ing in general use for brickwork consists of 
standards, ledgers, putlogs, and boards. The 
standards and ledgers are of fir, and of various 
lengths up to 50 feet, and are about 7 inches 
diameter at the butt end. Foreign poles are 
much better adapted for scaffolding than English, 
on account of their freedom from knots, and 
their being thinner according to the length. 
Putlogs are usually made of birch 4 inches square 
by 6 feet in length. Cords and wedges are used 
to fasten the standards, ledgers, and putlogs in 
their proper places. Standards are placed up- 
right about 5 feet from the wall and 10 feet 
apart throughout the length of the building. 

The ledgers are tied up horizontally to the 
standards to support the putlogs; these are 
placed crossways with one end resting on the 
ledger, and the other in the wall, and upon these 
putlogs the boards are laid to complete the 
scaffold ; the latter are of diflerent lengths up to 



I'AVING, TILING, USE OF MATERIALS, ETC. 61 

14 or] 6 feet; in no case should scaffolding be 
used if it is rotten, or likely to break ; it some- 
limes happens that the butts are decayed a little 
and the other parts of the pole perfectly sound ; 
in this case it is best to cut off the bad part. 
The standards should be let into the ground about 
two feet, and the earth firmly rammed round 
them, to keep them upright ; and where the soil 
is soft, pieces of brick or stones should first be 
rammed in the bottom of the hole, to keep the 
pole from settling down when the scaffold is 
loaded ; for should the poles sink the putlogs will 
act as levers and overturn the wall. 

When one length of poles is not sufficient, two 
are lashed together, top and butt, and diagonal 
braces are then fixed, to prevent the scaffold from 
moving in auy way. 

Relieving Arches. 

All openings in walls for doorways, windows, 
&c., where wood lintels are used as attachments 
for internal fittings, should be arched over with 
relieving arches throughout the whole thickness 
of the wall. And the springing of such arches 
ought always to be beyond the end of the lintel. 
If beams of any kind or joists are to be built into 
the walls, it is best to leave recesses for the timber, 
so that the brickwork is not built upon it, as it is 
liable to lead to settlements, and frequently the 
cause of the fronts of houses being bulged out just 
where the joist runs into the inside of the wall. 

When iron girders enter brick walls to support 



62 BRICKLAYING. 

fireproof floors, iron bressummers (to support the 
other \^ork over shop fronts, &c.), York stone 
templates are bedded in the wall for the ends of 
the girders to rest upon, so as to distribute the 
weight over as large a bearing-area as possible. 

Bakers' Ovens. 

To construct a baker's oven to heat with coals : 
the size of the base having been arranged, it should 
be carried up to the height of the furnace door, 
and the ashpit left according to the width of the 
door and the length of the furnace-bars, allowing 
for the door being set 4^ inches from the face of 
the brickwork. Let the frame and door be about 
a foot square, like the fumace-door of a copper, and 
the bars about 20 inches long, and level with the 
bottom of the oven and of the door. Let the flue 
be about 16 inches square, for the fire to shoot into 
the oven from the shoulder where the furnace is 
straight across to the opposite angle of the OTen, 
and by the fire catching the crown in its course 
it will spread all round. Let a register be fixed 
in the flue, aud the copper five or six inches above 
the furnace, not so as to get too hot, for it is 
usually tcarm water only that is required in a 
bakehouse. A register should be fixed within a 
little of where the flue enters the oven, and rise 
slanting ; which, being stopped when the oven is 
hot enough, leads into the chimney flue. The 
general rise of the crown above the floor is from 
18 to 20 inches. Sometimes the oven is con- 
structed without the copper. And perhaps it is 



PAVING, TILING, USE OF MATERIALS, ETC. 63 

the best plan ; for it is certain the two will act 
better apart than they do together ; but of course 
the latter is a little the cheapest as regards fuel. 

But in building ovens, as well as many other 
things, the work is done according to the situa- 
tion and the owner's convenience. At all events, 
the side walls, from which the crown of the oven 
springs, ought not to be less than 2|^ bricks thick, 
and the crown sj)ringing from about 9 inches 
above the floor. The angles should all intersect, 
and all be laid with as close joint as possible. 

When the oven is " domed," spread some sand 
on the top, so that when the work gets dry the 
sand may fill up any cracks. 

Smoky Chimneys. 

The causes of these are so various, that it is 
impossible to lay down any general rule as a cure. 
But perhaps the following remarks may be found 
useful : — 

The evil is generally in the construction. The 
flues are often too large or too small, or 
otherwise the chimney-shaft is not carried up 
high enough to prevent the wind from blowing 
over the roofs adjoining, and so the smoke is 
prevented from rising. And again, it is not 
unfrequently we see pots placed upon the chimneys 
of a house all of a uniform size and shape. It 
matters not whether the flue leads from a draw- 
ing-room fire or a kitchen, while perhaps the 
latter produces nearly double the smoke of the 
former ; the result is, the kitchen chimnej 



64 BRICKLAYING. 

smokes, owing to tlie flue being cramped up at 
the top. Another cause of kitchen chimneys 
smoking, is when other flues are connected with 
them ; lor instance, when cooking apparatus is 
fixed in a kitchen, it is thought well to connect the 
flue with the flue from the kitchen-rano-e : and this 
is usually done about 2 or 3 feet above the fire- 
place. This may answer very well if the two are 
always in use at the same time. But, should the 
kitchen fire alone be required, it is very likely 
the cold air from the flue of the apparatus will 
enter straight into the kitchen-flue, just at the 
entrauce of the shaft, and prevent the smoke from 
rising. 

The author has proved the whole of these evils, 
and therefore knows them to exist. 

No chimney-flue of a dweUiug-house ought to 
be less than 9 inches by 14 ; and the kitchen flue 
ought to be 14 inches square throughout the 
entire length of the chimney. 

The shaft ought to be carried up above the 
highest part of the roof; and if chimney-pots 
are used, they ought to be all of one height, and 
the area of the end of the pot equal the top of the 
fine. In building the flues, turn them first one 
way and then the other, so as to prevent the rain 
Irom falling down the chimney, and also to give 
it a sharper draught. But care must be taken 
that the flues have the same tt£K)m for the smok& 



PAVING, TILING, USE OF MATERIALS. ETC. 65 



To Proportio:n "Windows to Rooms. 

To give the proper light, neither too much nor 
too little, multiply the length of the room by the 
breadth, and that product by the height, and out 
of this extract the square root, which root will be 
the space to give the proper light for the room, 
and may be divided into as many windows as the 
room will allow. 

Suppose the room to be 22 feet long by 18 feet 
wide, the product will be 396, and multiplied by 
the height, 11 feet, the product will be 4,356, 
whose square root is 66, which will be the area 
of light space of the room, and may be divided 
iuto 3 windows of 22 feet each. This is thought 
to be the best rule for the purpose. 

Materials, their Use, etc. 

A rod of brickwork laid 4 courses to 11| 
inches requires 4,530 stock bricks. 

A rod of brickwork laid 4 courses to the foot, 
4,350 bricks. 

N.B. — 420 stocks weigh about 1 ton, and 460 
go to a cubic yard. Sometimes the number of 
bricks to a rod of brickwork will be 4,500 allow- 
ing for waste, and the amount of lime and sand to 
equal the above would be about 22 bushels of the 
former to 77 of the latter. 

But, of course, this is beyond what it really 
takes for ordinary buildings ; but some require a 
great deal more cutting, and so a greater quantity 



G6 BRICKLAYING. 

of bricks are spoiled. For dwelling-houses, &c., 
4,300 to a rod is sufficient. 

If laid dr}', 5,370 bricks to tke rod. 

And in wells and circular cesspools, 4,900. 

Should there be any odd feet in the calculations 
for buildings in general, it is usual to reckon 16 
bricks to the foot standard thickness. 

A rod of brickwork, laid 4 courses to the foot, 
contains 235 cubic feet of bricks and 71 cubic feet 
of mortar, and weighs about 14| tons ; but, of 
course, this depends upon the bricks, whether 
they are wet or dry. 

A rod of brickwork measures 16^ feet square, 
1| bricks thick (which is called the reduced or 
standard thickness), or 272 feet 3 inches super- 
ficial; or 306 cubic feet, or II5 cubic yards. 
These are the measurements in general use. But 
sometimes 18 feet are allowed to the rod, that is, 
324 square feet ; and also the rod of 21 feet long 
and 3 feet high, that is 63 square feet. In this 
case no regard is paid to the thickness of the wall 
in measuring. But the price is regulated accord- 
ing to the thickness. 

Nevertheless, all calculations in this little work 
will be to the rod of 272 feet 3 inches. 

A rod of brickwork requires 1^ cubic yards of 
chalk lime and 3 single loads of sand, or one 
cubic yard of grey lime and 3| loads of sand, or 
24 bushels of Portland cement and 48 bushels of 
sharp sand. 

A cubic yard of mortar requires 7 bushels of 
grey lime and 23 bushels of sand. 



PAVING, TILING, USE OF MATERIALS, 1-TC. 67 

Lime and sand and also cement and sand lose 
one-third of their bulk when made up into 
mortar ; therefore the proportion of mortar or 
cement when made up is to the lime and sand 
or cement and sand, as when dry, 2 to 3. 

Lime or cement and sand to make mortar require 
as much water as equals one- third of their bulk. 

A standard yard of brickwork laid 4 courses to 
the foot, requires f bushel of cement and I5 
bushel of sand and 150 bricks. 

One barrel of cement, containing 5 bushels, 
cask included, weighs about 3f hundreds. 

A yard of 9-inch wall requires ^ bushel 
of cement, 1 bushel of sand, and 100 stock 
bricks. 

4|-inch facing requires 7 bricks per superficial 
foot. 

45-inch gauged-work requires 10 bricks per 
superficial foot. 

Brick noggin g per yard superficial requires 
30 bricks on edge, or 47 laid flat. 

30 hods of mortar equal one load. 

A measure of lime is 27 cubic feet, and contains 
21 striked bushels. 

27 cubic feet, or one cubic yard, is called 
a single load ; and two cubic yards a double 
load. 

A hundred of lime is 25 bushels. 

The weight of a bushel of well-burnt chalk 
lime is from 36 to 38 lbs. ; and grey stone lime 
from 46 to 59 lbs. 

Paving with bricks or tiles requires 1 yard of 



68 



BRICKLAYING. 



sand to every 12 yards, or if laid and grouted in 
with mortar, 1| bushels of lime and 4 bushels of 
sand to 12 yards. 

Stock brick, flat paving, requires 36 per yard super. 



„ ou edge 




52 


ji 


Paving bricks, laid flat 




36 


n 


„ on edge 
Dutch clinkers, laid iiat 




82 
70 


» 

>9 


„ on edge 
12- inch paving tiles 
lO-iiich „ 
6-inch „ 




140 

9 

13 

36 


1» 


Tiling. 
Description. 
With pantiles . . 


Gaupe in 

inches. 

. 12 . 


Number required 
persqiuixe. 
. 150 


99 • • 


. 11 




. 160 




. 10 




. ISO 


With plain tiles . 
» 


. 4 
. 3 
. 3 


\'- 


. 600 
. 700 
. 800 



N.B. — These figures are quite near enough as regards quan- 
tities ; but as a rule the tiles are tried before the roof is laihed, 
to find the correct gauge, as they are of various shapes and sizes. 

A square of pan tiling requires 2 bundles of 5 ft. 
laths, and 1,000 of sixpenny nails, if small lathed. 

A square of plain tiling requires about 1 bundle 
of oak laths, 5 score to the bundle, 5 feet long — if 
4 feet long there is 6 score, and if 3 feet long, 
8 score, to the bundle; 450 nails ; 3 hods of mortar, 
or lime and hair ; and, if the tiles are hung with 
pins, between half a peck and a peck will be 
required ; oak j^ins are those usually used. 

All pantiling is executed by working from the 
eaves to the ridge each course, and from the 
right-hand end of the roof to the left. But plain 
tiles are hung in horizontal courses the whole 
length of the roof from right to left. 

Flat plain tiling for floors, flat roofs, &c., if 



PAVING, TILING, USE OF MATERIALS, ETC. 6P 

two courses thick, 420 tiles, 3 bushels of Portland 
cement, and 6 bushels of sharp washed sand for a 
square superficial; and 210 tiles, 1| bushels of 
cement, and 3 bushels of sand for every extra 
course. 

A measure, yard, or load, of lime, sand, or earth 
is 27 cubic feet or 21 striked bushels. 

A chaldron is 41 cubic feet, and contains 
32 bushels. 

A labourer's hod measures 1 foot 4 inches by 
9 inches by 9, and will hold 14 bricks, or three- 
quarters of a cubic foot of mortar or cement. 

The following is a table of sizes and weights of 
various articles used by the bricklayer : — 



Description. 


Length. 


Breadth. 


Thick- 
ness. 


Weight. 




ft. 


in. 


ft. 


in. 


ft. 


in. 


lbs. 0Z8. 


Siock bricks, each . . 





9 





H 





H 


4 


Paving „ „ . . 





9 





H 





H 


4 


Dutch clinkers, each . 





ll| 





3 





n 


1 8 


r2-in. paving tiles, each 








111 





H 


13 


10-in. „ „ 





H 





H 





H 


9 


9-in. „ ,, 





H 





H 





H 


7 5 


Pantiles, each . . . 


1 


2| 





H 





Of 


5 4 


Plain tiles, each . . . 





11 





6i 





H 


2 5 


Pantile laths per 10 ft. ^ 
bundle j 


120 








H 





1 


4 6 


Ditto per 12 ft. bundle 


144 








H 





1 





(N.B. — A bundle con- 
















tains 12 laths.) 
















Plain tile laths per ) 
bundle | 


500 








1 





H 


12 


(30 bundles 1 load.) 

















A square of pantiling requires 1 bundle of 
pantile laths 12 feet long, and 144 2- inch nails. 



70 BRICKLAYING. 

SECTION V. 

SLATER AND TLASTEEER'S WORK. 

Ix many parts of the country the slater's business, 
&c., is done by the bricklayer. And where such is 
the case, all materials for shelves, cisterns, baths, 
lavatories, &c., are worked by the stone mason ; 
for, as a rule, there is not suflBcient work in small 
towns to keep a slater exclusively for that busi- 
ness, and in many country towns and villages 
slates are not used for anything but the covering 
of roofs. As a general rule, all men in the build- 
ing trade understand what tools the slater uses, 
and also what they are used for ; therefore it is 
quite unnecessary to describe them. 

It is best in all cases, if possible, that the quan- 
tity of slates required for the roof should be 
brought to the building before the slater begins 
to woi'k ; then he will see the whole of them, and 
sort them out accordingly : this is done by divid- 
ing the slates into three thicknesses, — these are 
thicks, middlings, and thins ; this is done so that 
the thickest slates should be at the bottom, the 
middling ones next, and the thinnest nearest the 
ridge ; it is also essential to the soundness as well 
as the appearance of slating. After this they are 
all dressed to one size, and the edges trimmed 
perfectlj'' straight, gauged, and the holes made. 

The upper surface of a slate is called its back ; 
the under surface the bed; the top edge the head; 



SLATER AND PLASTEREIl's WORIi. 



71 



and the bottom the tail ; that part of the slate 
which is exposed to view when hung, the " mar- 
gin " of the course ; and the width of the margin 
is the gauge ; the " lap " is that distance by 
which the tail of the third course overlaps the 
head of the first, as shown in Fig, 37. In some 




Fig.37. 

cases the slate Is fastened with the nails driven as 
near the head as possible ; but it will be found 
much better, both for the soundness and also 
appearance, if the nails for the second course are 
driven in just above the head of the first, because 
if the slate is fastened with the nails near the 
middle, it is evident the wind cannot have the 
leverage that it would if it were fastened at the 
head. The gauge of all kinds of slates used for 
covering roof will be equal to half the distance 
from the tail to the head, less the lap. For 
instance, suppose the lap to be 2 inches, and a 
countess slate 20 inches from tail to head, first 
deduct 2 inches, the lap, from 20 inches, the length, 
of the slate, this leaves 18 inches ; half 18 inches 
is therefore the gauge of a countess slate with a 
2-inch lap. 



72 BRICKLAYING. 

After the slates are gauged, perhaps it would 
be best to lay one of them on the roof at the 
eaves, letting it project over for the drip, according 
to arrangement — this is generally about 3 inches ; 
and by so doing it will easily be seen where the 
first lath should be nailed on the rafters, and from 
the top of the first lath to the top of the second, 
and so on, is the gauge. The first lath at the 
eaves ought to be a little thicker than the others, 
80 as to give the first course of slates its springing ; 
and the ends of the lath, at the gables, ought also 
to be raised up about three-eighths of an inch to 
throw the water off; if not, it will frequently soak 
between the cement fillets or under the lead 
flushing and so enter the roof. 

All slating laths should be from two to three 
inches wide and five-eighths of an inch thick. 
The nails used should be either copper or zinc. 
Iron nails are sometimes used, but they are very 
liable to rust, and so after a short time become of 
no use. All slates ought to be fastened with two 
nails. Doubles and Ladies are sometimes fastened 
with only one, on account of their smallness, but 
it is inferior work. 

The TVelsh slates are generally considered the 
best, and are of a light sky-blue colour. West- 
moreland slates are of a greenish hue. It fre- 
quently happens, when roofs are covered with 
these slates, that the slater has to deal with those 
of various sizes, and of course this requires more 
skill, for he not only has to arrange them so that 
they shall break joint one with another, but the 



SLATER AND PLASTERETl S WORK. 



73 



latliiDg must also be gauged accordingly. In 
this case the largest and thickest slates are hung 
at the bottom, and the smallest and thinnest at 
the top, nearest the ridge ; and a great deal of 
care must be taken in trimming and sorting 
them. 

The gauge is taken in the same way as other 
kinds of slating, that is, according to the length. 

The following is a table of sizes and gauges of 
roofing slates : — 





Size. 


Gauge 


Weight 


Number per 
Squaie. 


Names. 




m 
Inclies. 


per 
Squaie. 




Len^h. 


Breadth 


Slates. 


Nails. 




ft. in. 


ft. in. 




lbs. 






Doubles . . 


1 1 


6 


5h 


672 


480 


9G0 


Ladies . . . 


1 4 


8 


7 


886 


300 


600 


Countesses 


1 8 


10 


8^ 


6o7 


180 


300 


Duchesses, . 


2 


1 


Wh 


712 


130 


2G0 


EagSjQunens "i 








and West- | 








morelands, 1- 


A square of these we 


ighs abo 


ut half a ton. 


of various 1 
sizes . . J 















Thr methods of hanging slates vary according 
to the different situations and also the slates that 
are used. But in all plain work it is best, if pos- 
sible, to strain a line for the eaves* course, and so 
fix the slates to it ; also, to run each course hori- 
zontally throughout the length of the roof. This 
is done by gauging the margin of the course at 
each end upon the first course, and straining a 
chalked line from end to end, so making a mark 

E 



74 BRICKLAYING, 

for a guide to get the second course perfectly 
straight and parallel with the first. 

^yhen the roof is slated as high up as it is pos- 
sible to reach from the eavt-.s, a scafibld is erected. 
This is sometimes done with a scaffold-pole, or a 
piece of quartering being hung from the ridge- 
tree with scaffold-cords. But it is much better to 
make it with hano'ing trestles in the form of an 
equal-sided triangle, with an iron hook at the 
top, so as to fasten it to the ridge with cords ; 
after which scaffold-boards are laid upon them. 
This will be a much more convenient scaffold 
than the previous one, and is easily raised or 
lowered as required. For all hips and valleys it 
is usual to fix the trimming-block to one of the 
rafters or somewhere convenient, so that each slate 
can be cut according to the shape required with- 
out the necessity of going off the roof. 

It is sometimes thought best to point slating 
inside with lime and hair ; but, certainly, if the 
slating is properly executed, this is unnecessary ; 
and if it is to keep out the little wind that would 
otherwise pass between them one would think they 
would be belter without it, for we all know how 
very hot buildings that are slated usually are, 
particularly in summer time. 

Plasterer. 

The business of the plasterer chiefly consists in 
covering walls, ceilings, brick or wood partitions, 
floors, &c., with cements, limes, and plaster, in 
order to bring them to a uniform surface to re- 



SLATER AND PLASTERERS WORK. iO 

ceive the painting, paper-hanging, or distemper- 
ing. This part is usually done by the bricklayer 
in small towns and villages, but in London it 
forms a separate trade. But the decorative por- 
tions of the finishing of buildings, such as run- 
ning cornices, mouldings, making and fixing 
centre flowers, &c., is almost exclusively done by 
the plasterer. All internal plastering, as a rule, 
is done with chalk lime, hair, plaster of Paris, 
and Keen's and Martin's cements. The following 
are the different methods of mixing them : — 

Li))ie and Hair, or Coarse Stuff. — For this pur- 
pose the sand should be clean, sharp, and screened. 
Then form a pan to receive the lime. This is 
slacked in a tub, and sufiicient water is afterwards 
added to bring it to the consistence of cream, and 
is then run through a fine oieve into the pan 
formed with the sand. After a sufficient quantity 
is run out to carry the sand, the hair is thrown 
into the lime, and thoroughly raked about with a 
two-pronged rake, so as to part the hair and mix 
it well with the mortar ; but it would be better 
to run the lime into putty, as for fine stuff, and 
when cold mix the hair with it ; this will not be 
so apt to rot the hair, and so add to the stability 
of the work 

For this purpose bullocks' hair is generally 
used, and this should be well beaten with small 
laths, or else laid in water a day or two before it 
is mixed with the lime. The whole is then 
mixed, and allowed to lie for a short time. 

Fine Stuff', or Putty, is made of pure lime, and 



76 BRICKLAYING. 

is mixed in the same way as lime used for coarse 
stuff; but instead of running it into a pan of 
sand, this is run into a " putty bin," built with 
bricks according to the size required, and allowed 
to remain there until the evaporation of the water 
has brought it to a proper thickness for use : if 
the water rise to the top, it can be drawn off if 
required, and the putty will get dry the sooner. 

For lime stucco the sand is mixed with the 
putty according to the quantity required. This 
stucco, when left for painting, is left smooth from 
the trowel. AVhen plaster of Paris is to be used 
for the purpose of setting either coarse or fine 
stuff, the mortar or putty is made into a little 
pan in the banker. The water is poured in, and 
afterwards the plaster, so that the latter is well 
soaked before it is rais:"! with the mortar. This 
is called gauged stuff, and is used for running 
cornices, mouldings, and in fact all kinds of work 
which ought to be finished by one operation. 

The various cements and other compositions 
made use of by the plasterer are very numerous ; 
but those principally used for inside decorations, 
are Keen's, Martin's, and Parian cements ; these 
are well adapted for plastering where hardness 
and beautiful finish are required ; Keen's 
cement is used for skirtings, dados, angle beads, 
&c., because of its extreme hardness. 

Portland, Roman, and lias cements are those 
generally in use for all external plastering ; and 
as regards quality and cheapness, Portland ia 
decidedly the best. 



SLATER AXD PLASTERERS "WORK. it 

All enrichments, such as flowers or fruit 
cornices, centre flowers, &c., are first moulded in 
clay and afterwards cast in plaster of Paris, or 
made oi papier-mache. 

The Operations of Plastering. — Almost the first 
thing the plasterer does is the lathing, so he 
can get all the woodwork rendered first, as this 
takes longer to dry than the brickwork. And 
for this purpose he uses single, one and a half, and 
double laths. These names denote the different 
thicknesses. The laths are generally of fir. 
Care ought to be taken that the thickest laths are 
used for the ceilings, on account of there being a 
greater strain when in an horizontal position than 
when upright. The first coat of plastering of 
coarse stufi" upon the laths of ceilings is called 
pricking tip, and is used very stifi", to prevent its 
dropping ofi" again. 

But the first coat on walls is the rendering; the 
second the screeding, or floating, from its being 
brought to a level surface with the screeding rule 
and hand-float ; and the third or last is called 
the setting ov fining ojf. 

The first coat is laid on rough, and afterwards 
scratched with a piece of lath, to form a key for 
the second coat. The operation of floating walls 
is perform* d by fixing upright stripes of plastering 
about 6 or 8 inches wide, and about 6 feet apart, 
if only one man is to work upon them ; these 
form the screeds : and the method of obtaining 
them is by setting small pieces of plaster at each 
angle of the wall that is to be plastered. These 



78 BRICKLAYING. 

are called " dots," and the dot nearest the ceiling 
should be plumb with that nearest the floor ; 
after this a line is drawn along the ceiling from 
one to the other, and the intermediate ones fixed 
to it. Then repeat the operation with those dots 
nearest the floor ; these ought to be gauged with 
a little plaster of Paris, so as to make them set 
quicker ; the screeds maj^ then be filled up, and 
floated level with these dots. The bays formed by 
the screeds may then be plastered with coarse 
stuS!, and floated perfectly level with the floating 
rule. The second coating of ceilings is performed 
in the same way, only one is upright and the 
other is level. 

In two-coat work the rendering and screeding 
are performed at one time upon brickwork. After 
the work has been brought to a level surface with 
the floating-rule, should there be any deficiencies 
caused by stones or knots of hair, they are made 
good with the hand-float. 

Sometimes it is thought best to either sweep 
the floated work, or else put a nail through the 
float, so as to project a little on the face of it, and 
then rub it over the work, and so give it a key 
for the fine stufl". The floating should be allowed 
to get hard, but not too dry, before the fine stuff 
is laid on ; at all events, unless the wall is in a 
damp situation, it ought to be sprinkled with 
water from the stock-brush. Fine stuff is some- 
times laid on with the lajang-on trowel, and 
sometimes with the hand- float, at all events the 
latter is used to bring: the fine stuff to a rejrular 



SLATER AND PLASTETIEr's W(>RK. 79 

surface before it is trowelled off. This is done by 
well rubbing it, either with the laying-on oi 
gauging trowel, alternately wetting it with thfe 
stock-brush until a fine and smooth surface is 
obtained. Stucco, which is left smooth on the 
face, and gauge stuff, are treated in the same way. 

All work left from the trowel ought to be watched 
for a day or two, and if any small cracks are seen, 
they ought to be well wetted and trowelled over ; 
but these are seldom seen in stucco work, the sand 
preventing this to a great extent. 

Rough Stucco is sometimes used for halls, stair- 
cases, passages, &c. ; this is left from the float, 
und sometimes a little extra sand is put with the 
finishing coat ; but in other respects it is 
executed in the same way as smooth stucco. 

Laid Work. — This is simply a coat of coarse 
stuff laid upon brickwork, or lathing, to receive 
limewhiting or colouring, and is often done in 
cellars, outhouses, &c., where a better kind of 
plastering is thought unnecessary. If cellar 
ceilings are covered with this rough plastering, 
it prevents the wind from passing through the. 
floor-boards to the rooms above, which is often 
very uncomfortable. But of late years it has 
become the practice to mnke the floors fireproof 
as well as airproof ; and this is sometimes done 
by "pugging," that is, lining the spaces between 
the floor-joist with concrete two or three inches 
thick ; and to receive this, fillets are nailed on 
each side of the joists, and a rough boarding iq 
laid upon them. 



80 BRICKLAYING. 

Portland cement is used by the plasterer to a 
great extent for making floors, and there is little 
doubt of its answering that purpose if it is laid 
sufficiently thick, and the materials are gauged 
in a proper manner. For this purpose (as well as 
all others) the cement ought to be gauged with 
sharp sand, free from clay, in equal quantities, 
both for the first coat and also for the second j for 
if the first coat is gauged with a greater quantity 
of sand than the second, they will not bind 
together ; besides pure cement swells more in 
setting than cement and sand does when mixed 
up together ; therefore if the finishing coat is 
made finer than the first, it will be very liable to 
blister, and so destroy the floor. The sand for 
the last coat ought to be well washed, and the 
two coats need not exceed an inch in thickness. 
In many parts of England, where there are plaster 
mills in the vicinity, it is usual to lay floors of 
that material. But this plaster is of a much 
rougher kind than that which is generally used ; 
in fact it is a sort of dross from the mills. These 
floors arc laid about 2 inches or 25 inches in 
thickness, and finished at one operation. A 
plaster floor of "Welsh lime is thought to be 
equally as good as grey plaster, and can be done 
for one-third less. 

In some of the eastern counties the fronts of 
houses are plastei'cd with a rough stucco, and 
while it is damp well dashed with small stones ; 
this answers very well for renewing old fronts, 
where they have previously been plastered, for by 



SLATER AND PLASTERER's WORK. 81 

pulling off the old mortar, and replastering and 
dashing it, the front will be well repaired and 
still retain its original appearance. 

Plastering may be summed up as follows : — 
The commonest kind of work consists of only one 
coat, this is called rendering on. brickwork, and 
laying, if on laths ; when a second coat is added , 
it becomes two-coat woi'k, as render set, or lath hy 
and set ; and when the work is floated, it is three- 
coat work, and is laf/i lay float and set for ceilings 
and partitions, and render float and set for brick- 
work. 

The following remarks may be found useful : — 

100 yards of lathing require 20 bundles of 
laths and 7,600 nails. 

' 100 yards of rendering, or laying, 20 bushels of 
chalk lime, 40 bushels of sand, and 3 bushels of 
hair, 

100 yards of floating requires about half as 
much as rendering. 

And setting requires 10 bushels of lime, 2 
bushels of white hair and a little sand if 
required. 

Bender set requires per 100 yards, 30 bushels 
of lime, 42 bushels of sand, and 5 bushels of 
hair. 

Render float and set, 40 bushels of lime, G2 
bushels of sand, and 7 bushels of hair, to 100 
yards. 

A bushel and a half of Portland cement will 
plaster two yards superficial three-quarters of an 
inch thick. 

e3 



82 rrickjatixg- 

Artificial Stoxe. 

The following may be found very useful, both 
on account of its cheapness, simplicity, and 
durability : — 

Take 7 parts of coke dust, screened through a 
quarter bar screen, to 1 part of Portland cement, 
for all kinds of ornamental purposes, such as small 
columns, capitals, balustrades, mouldings for 
cornices, chimney-pieces, &c. But for pavement, 
steps, window-sills, hearth-stones, or any rougher 
kind of work, o parts of coke dust, and 3 parts of 
any hard substance, such as burnt earth, broken 
brick, &c. ; but these also should be screened 
before they are mixed with the cement. Moulds 
are then made of wood, or in some cases iron, to 
the shape required, care being taken that they are 
a little smaller at the bottom than they are at the 
top, so that the moulded work shall turn out of 
the mould freely when set ; the moulds should be 
well greased first, and a little pure cement mixed 
up very thin thrown into them ; the cement and 
coke dust, or cement, coke dust, and broken bricks, 
are then mixed with water to form a sort of con- 
crete, and gently put into the moulds ; if this is 
done properly the soft, pure cement will flow all 
round the inside of the mould, and so give a 
facing to the coarser stuflf; the top is finished ofi" 
level with the mould with the trowel. This work 
should be left until it is perfectly hard, which will 
take two or three days. There is one fault attached 
to this composition, that ie, when it is used for 



SLATER AND PLASTER EIl's WORK. 83 

steps, stair-cases, or pavement, it is liable to get 
very smooth and slippery ; but in otber respects it 
answers very well. 

Distempering of Ceilings, Walis, Etc. 

For this purpose the work should be well washed 
with clean water and scraped with the trowel, so 
as to thoroughly clean off all old whitening. Of 
course, if the walls and ceilings are new they do 
not require this. After they are dry they should 
be clear-cokd, that is, sized over with clear size, 
taking care in melting the size that it does not 
boil, but only heated sufficient to melt it. If glue is 
used instead of size, put 1| pints of water to each 
pound of glue. When this is done, the work is 
ready to receive the whitewash. To mix this, 
break the whitening into a vessel containing suffi- 
cient water to cover it, and let it soak well, and 
if any water remains on the top, pour it off, and 
mix the size with the whitening, which will be 
about 4 lbs. to the ball, more or less as required ; 
and strain a little blue-black or ultramarine blue 
into the vessel containing them, and w^ell mix the 
whole together. This mixing is usually done the 
day before the whitening is required for use; 
then the size will get set, and by stirring well 
before using it, the whole will work up into a 
jelly. Should there be any water stains in the 
ceilings, they should be well washed with strong 
soft soap and water, and if this fail, paint them 
previous to white-washing the ceiling. All work 
ou^ht to receive two coats. 



84 BRICKLAYING. 

SECTION YI. 

PRACTICAL GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION. 

The problems here given are those only which 
it is absolutely necessary for the bricklayer to 
understand before he can be considered a pro- 
ficient tradesinan. 

1. A solid is a figure, or a body having three 
dimensions, viz., length, breadth, and thickness. 
The boundaries of a solid are surfices or super- 
ficies. 

2. A superficies, or surfice, has length and 
breadth only ; the boundaries of a surfice are lines. 

3. A line is length without breadth, and is 
formed by the motion of a point. The extremities 
of a line are points. 

5. A point is that which has no parts or 
magnitude; it is indivisible; it has no length, 
breadth, nor thickness. 

6. When a straight lino, b d, standing on 
another, a C, makes the 
angle i) b a equal to the 
angle d b c, each of these 
angles is called a right 
angle ; the measure of the 
angle d b a is 90 degrees, 

or the fourth part of 3G0 
degrees. 

7. An acute angle is less than a right angle, as 

D B O. 




PRACTICAL GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION. 85 



8. An obtiis. angle is greater than aright angle, 
as c B o. 

9. A plane triangle is the space in- 
closed by three straight lines, and has 
three angles, as b. 

10. A right-angled triangle is 
that which has one of its angles 
right as A B c ; the side a c opposite 
the right angle is called the hypo- 
thenuse, the side b c the perpen- 
dicular, and b a the base. 

11. An obtuse-angled triangle has 
one of its angles obtuse, as the tri- 
angle c. 

12. An acute-angled triangle has 
all its three angles acute, as shown 
in figure b. 

13. An equilateral triangle has 
all its sides and angles equal as u. 

14. An isosceles triangle is that which 
has two of its sides equal, as e. 

15. A scaline triangle is that which 
has all its sides unequal, as r. 

16. A square is a four-sided 
figure having all its sides equal 
and all its anj^les riffht. 

17. An oblong, or rectangle, is a 
right angled parallelogram, whose 
length exceeds its breadth, as g. 

18. A rhombus is a parallelogram 
having all its sides equal, but its 
angles are not right angles, as h. 





86 



BRTC-KLAYING. 




/" 



z 



r 19. A rhomboid is a parallelo- 

\ / \ grain having its opposite sides 

\ A equal, but its angles are not 

right-angles, and its length ex- 
ceeds its breadth, as I. 

20. A trapezium is a figure in- 
cluded by four straight lines, no 
two of which are parallel to each 
other, asK. Aline connecting any 
two of its opposite angles is called 
a diagonal. 

21. A trapezoid is a four- sided 
figure having two of its opposite 
sides parallel, as m. 
22. Polygons are those which have more than 
four sides. Thej^ receive particular names from 
the number of their sides ; thus a pentagon has 
five sides, a hexagon has six sides, a heptagon seven, 
an octagon eight, a nonagon nine, a decagon ten, 
an undecagon eleven, and a dodecagon has twelve 
sides. 

If all the sides of each figure are equal, it is 
called a regular polygon ; but if unequal, an 
irregular polygon. 

23. A circle is a plane figure 
contained by one line, called its 
circumference, which is every- 
where equally distant from a 
point within it called its centre, 
as o ; and an arc of a circle is any 
part of its circumference, as a b. 
24. The diameter of a circle is a stiaight line 




PRACTICAL GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION. 87 




passing through the centre and terminated both 

ways by the circumference ; thus 

A B is the diameter of the circle ; 

the diameter divides the circle 

into two equal parts, each of 

which is called a semicircle : 

the diameter also divides the 

circumference into two equal 

parts each containing 180 degrees. 

Any line drawn from the centre perpendicular 
to A B, it divides the semicircle into two equal 
parts, AGS and bos, each of which is called a 
quadrant, or one-fourth of a circle ; and the arcs 
A s and B s contain each 90 degrees ; and they 
are said to be the measure of the angles a g s and 

BOS. 

25. A chord of an arc is a straight line joining 
its extremities, and is less than the diameter ; c b 
is the chord of the arc c d b, or of the arc c a s b. 

26. A segment of a circle is that part of the 
circle contained between the chord and the cir- 
cumference, and may be greater or less than a 
semicircle. 



^ 



Problem I. 

From a given point, p, in a 
straight line, a b, to erect a 
perpendicular. 

1. On each side of the point, __, 

p, take equal portions, P x, p/; 

and from the centres, x/, with any radius greater 



88 



BRICKLAYING. 




than p X, describe two arcs, cutting each other at 
D ; then the line joining d p will be perpen- 
dicular to A B. 

When the point, P, is at the end of the line. 

2. From any centre, c, 
out of the line, and with the 
distance, c b, as radius, de- 
scribe a circle, cutting a b 
in D, draw d c o, and the 
line joining the points o b 
will be perpendicular to a b. 

Or thus : 

Set one leg of the com- 
passes on B, and with any 
extent, b p, describe an arc, 
p X ; set off the same extent 
from T to q ; join p q ; from q 
as centre with the extent, p q, 
as radius describe an arc r, 
and the line joining r b will be 
perpendicular to a b. 

Problem II. 

Upon a given right line to describe an equilateral 
trianqle. 

liCt A B be the given right line. 
From the centres a and b, with the 
given line a b as radius, describe 
two arcs cutting each other at c ; 
then the line drawn from the point c to the points 





PRACTICAL GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION. 89 




A and B will form with the Hue A b the triangle 
required. 

Problem III. 

To describe a triangle, hnmng the length of the three 
sides given. 

Let A B, c D, e F, be the given lines, of which 
A B is the base line. 
From B as centre with 
c D as radius describe an 
arc, and from a as centre 
with e F as radius de- 
scribe another arc, cut- c 1 

ting the first at o ; join ^ '' 

A G, G B : this will give the triangle required. 

Problem IV. 

To find the centre of a given circle. 

Draw any two chords A b, 
B c, and divide each into two 
equal parts, as shown at e and 
D ; draw the lines e o and o d 
at right angles to a b and b c, 
and where these lines intersect 
at o will be the centre of the given circle a b c. 

Problem V. 

I'o describe a regular pentagon upon a given line. 

Let A B be the given line. With b as centre 

and B A as radius describe the semicircle a c d; 

then with a as centre, with same radius, describe 




90 



BRICKT.AYING. 




an arc cutting the semicircle in c ; bisect a b at e, 
join c E, bisect the arc c b in f, join e f; then 

with D as centre, E f for 
radius, cut the semicircle 
in G, and with o as 
centre, with same radius, 
cut the semicircle in h; 
draw the line h b and 
bisect it at i, and at 
this j)oint erect a perpendicular cutting the line 
E c in X ; this will be the centre of the circum- 
scribing circle. 

Problem VI. 

To describe a regular hexagon upon a given line. 

Let A B be the given line. "VTith a as centre 
and A B as radius describe an arc, 
and with b as centre with same 
radius describe a second arc, cut- 
ting the first in c ; this point of 
intersection is the centre of the 
circumscribing circle. 

TABLE OF POLYGONS. 




No. of Sides. 


^xme of Polygon. 


Multiplier or Divisor. 


5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 


Pentagon 

Hexagon 

Heptagon 

Octagon 

Nonagon 

Decagon 

TJndecagon 

Dodecagon 


1 — 7 decimals ] 

2 — or radius 

2—3 

2—62 

2—9 

3—247 

3 — 00 

3—84 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY AND MEXSURATIOX. 



91 



The preceding Table may be found useful in 
describing regular polygons of any number of 
sides, from five to twelve inclusive. 

Description of the above Tahle. 

In the left-hand column will be found the 
number of sides of any polygon having from five 
to twelve sides. In the second column will be 
found the name of the polygon corresponding 
with the number in the first column. And the 
third column contains those figures by which the 
length of the side must be multiplied for the 
diameter of the circumscribing circle; or by 
which the length of the diameter of a given circle 
must be divided to give the length of the side of 
each polygon in a line with it in the opposite 
column. 

Examples. 

"What is the length of each side of a regular 
pentagon, the diameter of the circumscribing 
circle being 4 feet ? 

Divisor . . 1-7) 4-0 (2-35 Ausm-pt, in feet nnd 
3 4 decimal parts. 

•6-0 

5 1 



90 



•5 Rem. 

Or thus : — 
'What is the diameter of the circumscribing 



92 BRICKIAYIXG. 

circle of a nonagon, each side being 2 feet in 
length ? 

2 feet length of side. 
2-9 multiplier. 

18 

4 

5-8 Answer. 

Therefore the diameter of the circle is 5 feet 
and 8-lOths of a foot, -svhich is equal to 5 feet 
9 inches and 5-8ths of an inch. 

Problem YII. 

To describe an ellipsis, having the longest diameter 
given. 

Let A B be the given diameter. Erect the per- 
pendicular c D, and divide a b into four equal 




parts at 1, 2, 3 ; then with 1 2 3 as centres, with 
radius 1 2, describe the three circles as shown ; 
then from f as centre with f e as radius describe 
the arc c, and with n as centre with same radius 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION. 93 



describe the arc d. This will complete the 
ellipsis. 

Another method of describing an ellipse. 

Let A B, D, be the given diameters drawn at 
right angles with each other. Then with c as 




centre with a o as radius describe an arc cutting 
A B at e and/; then take a j)iece of string or very 
■tine wire the length of a b, fix one end at e and 
the other at/; then draw the ellipse by running 
the pencil along the string, taking care the string 
is kept tight with the pencil. 

Problem VIII. 

To describe a circle about any triangle. 

Bisect any two sides as 
shown at a and b, and 
draw perpendicular lines 
intersecting at c. This 
point of intersection is 
the centre from which 
the circle is drawn. 




94 



BRICKLAYIKG. 




Problem IX. 

To inscribe a circle within a triangle. 

From A as centre with 
any radius describe an 
arc B c ; bisect it, and 
through the point of bi- 
section draw the line a o; 
bisect the angle deb, 
and draw the line o e. 
^here the lines a o and 
E intersect is the centre of the circl 

Problem X. 
In a given circle to inscribe a square. 

Draw any two diameters, a b, 
C D, at right angles to each 
other, then join their extremi- 
ties, and the figure thus formed 
will be a square inscribed in a 
given circle. And if a line be 
drawn from the centre o, bisect- 
ing A D, and produced to f, f d will be the length 
of one side of an octagon inscribed in the circle. 




Problem XI. 

In a gif^en circle, to inscribe any regular polygon ; 
or, to dicide the circumference of a given circle 
into any number of equal part^. 

Divide the diameter a b into as many equal 
parts as the figure has sides; erect the perpen- 



PRACTICAL GEOMETliY AND MENSURATION. 95 




dicular o s from the centre o ; divide the ra- 
dius of into four equal parts, 
and set off three of these 
parts from /to s ; draw a 
line from s to the second 
division h of the diameter 
A B, and produce it to cut 
the circumference at c ; join 
A c, and it will be the side 
of the polygon required. 

Problem XII. 

To draw a straight line equal to any given arc of a 
circle. 

Let A c B be the given arc of 
a circle ; divide the chord a b 
into four equal parts, and set 
off one of these parts from b to c ; join d c, and it 
will be the length of half the given arc, suffi- 
ciently near enough for practice. 

Problem XIII. 

To make a square equal in area to a gicen circle. 

Divide the diameter a b into 
fourteen equal parts, and set off 
eleven of them from a to c ; 
from c erect the perpendicular 
c D and join a d, the square of 
which will be very nearly equal 
to the area of the given circle 
of which a D K is the half. 




96 BRICKLAYING. 

The foregoing geometrical problems arc those 
generally used by the bricklayer ; but for those 
who are anxious to proceed farther, there are 
many excellent manuals of instruction. 



A FEW REilAravS (.»X ilENSURATION OF 
BKICKLAYERS' WORK. 
The area of any plane figure is the space con- 
tained within its boundaries, and is estimated bj' 
the number of square miles, yards, feet, inches, 
and parts which it contains. This squaring is 
generally estimated by the following rules of 
arithmetic, viz. : duodecimals, or cross multiplica- 
tion, decimals, and practice. 

DUODECTMALS. 

Rule 1. "Write the multiplier under the multi- 
plicand in such a manner that feet shall be under 
feet, inches under inches, and parts under parts. 

2. Multiply each term of the multiplicand 
(beginning at the lowest) by the number of feet 
in the multiplier, and write each result under its 
respective term, taking care to carry one for 
every 12 from each lower denomination to its 
next superior, and sot down the remainder under 
the term last multiplied. 

3. Next multiply the terms of the multiplicand 
by the number under the denomination of inches 
in the multiplier ; carry 1 for every 12, as before. 
But set down each remainder one place further to 
the right than as if multiplied by a number under 
the deromination of feet. 



PR.\CTICAL GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION. 97 

4. Proceed in the same manner with the 
second in the multiplier, setting each result one 
more place further to the right hand, and so on 
with thirds, fourths, &c. 

5. Add the partial products thus obtained up, 
and their sum will be the product. 

E.ramplcs. 
1. Multiply 4 feet 7 inches by 3 feet 10 inches 





37 

ft. 
7 
9 
7 

57 
75 


ft. in. 
4 7 
3 10 






13 9 
3 9-10 






17 6-10 




2. Multiply 
5 parts. 


feet 9 inches 3 parts by 7 feet 6 

ft. in. ptg. 

37 9 3 

7 6 5 


inches an(3 




264 4 9 
18 10 7-6 
1 3 8 • • 3 






284 7 1 • 4-3 




3. Multij.ly 

4. Multiply 
6. Multiply 

6. Multiply 

7. Multiply 


in. ft. in. ft. 
6 X 6 9 An.swer 43 
8X76 „ 72 
5 • 9 X 3 5 • 3 „ 25 
9 X 9 5 .,643 
9 X 17 7 „ 13^1 


in. pte, 
1 6 
6 

8 6 • 2 • 3 

9 9 
9 3 



Decimal Fractions. 
In decimal fractions the intesrer or whole 
thing, as one yard, one foot, &c., is supposed to 
be divided into ten equal parts, and these parts 
into tenths, and so on without end. 

F 



98 BRICKLAYING. 

These parts are distinguished from the wholo 
numbers by a point prefixed : thus — 0, which 
stands for 5-10th8, or half a whole number ; '26, 
which stands for 25-lOOths, or one-quarter of a 
whole number ; or '75, which stands for 75-lOOths, 
or three-quarters of a whole number. 

"Whole numbers increase in ten-fold proportion 
to the left hand ; decimal parts decrease in ten- 
fold proportion to the right hand ; so that ciphers 
placed before decimal parts decrease their value 
by removing them further from the point ; or 
units placed thus — -5, is 5-lOths ; -05, is 5-lOOths ; 
and -005, is 5-lOOOths. But ciphers after 
decimal parts do not alter their value ; for '5, "50, 
•500 are each but 5-lOths, or half a whole 
number. 

Huk. — In addition of decimals great care must 
be taken in setting down the figures to be added 
up, so that each figure shall come under another 
of the same value, whether this be a mixed 
number or pure decimal parts. And, iu order to 
do this, there must be a due regard had to the 
separating points, which ought always to stand 
in a direct line one with another; and, to the 
right hand of these, carefully place the decimal 
parts according to their respective values, and 
add them as in whole numbers. 

To add 5 ft. 9 in., 7 ft. 6 in., 3 ft. 3 in., and 
7 ft. 10 in. together. 



PUACTICAI. GEOMETRY A>iD MENSURATION. 99 

„. Decimal 
^^- parts. 

6-75 Equal 5 ft. 9 in. 

7-6 „ 7 ft. 6 in. 

8-25 ,. 3 ft. 3 in. 

7-835 ,. 7 ft. 10 in. 

24-335 Ans-wer, equal 24 ft. 4 in. 



Subtraction of Decimals. 

This differs but very little from whole numbers, 
only in placing the numbers, which must be 
carefully observed, as in addition. 

Examples. 

Subtract 2 395 from 7-62, and 5 ft. 9 in. from 
27 ft. 3 in. 

7-620 27-25 

2-395 6-75 



o"22o Answer. 21-50 = 21 ft. 6 in. 



1. From -769 take -543 Answer -220 

2. From 1-743 take -339 Answer 1-404 

3. From 3-975 take 1-243 Answer 2-732 

4. From 407-2 take 40-362 Answer 357-838 



MriTlPLTCATlON OF DECIMALS. 

Eule. — Place the decimal parts, and multiply 
them as in whole numbers ; and from the product 
cut off as many figures towards the right hand as 
there are figures representing decimal parts, both 
in the multiplier and multiplicand together; but 
should there not be so many places in the product, 
f2' 



100 BRICKLAYING. 

make up the defect by adding ciphers towards the 
left hand. 



ETampks. 

Srultiplf 3-795 Multiply 5 ft. 6 in. X 8 ft. 10 in. 

By 2-43 5 



8-S35 



113S5 

15180 275 

7590 165 



440 

9-221 So 440 



48-5925 . = 48 ft. '\ in. 

Multiply 3074 X 25-93 Answer 79-70882 
JIultiply 25-15 X 72-04 Answer 1S11-S060 
Multiply -07 X 1"02 Answer -0714 



Division of Decimals. 

This is worked in the same way as whole 
numbers, the only difficulty is in valuing the 
quotient. 

Biih 1. — The first figure in the quotient is 
always of the same value with that figure of the 
dividend which answers or stands over the place 
of units in the divisor. 

Ruk 2. — The quotient should always have as 
many decimals as the dividend has more than the 
divisor. 

Notf 1. — If the divisor and dividend have both 
the same number of decimal parts, the quotient 
will be a whole number. 

Note 2. — If the dividend has not so mir.y 
places of decimnls as there are in the divisor, 



niACriCAL GEOMETRY AXD MEXSURATIOX. 101 

then so many ciphers must be added to the 
dividend as will make them equal, and the quo- 
tient will then be a whole number. 

Kote 3. — And if, when the sum is done, the 
quotient has not so many figures as it should have 
places of decimals, then so many ciphers must be 
added as there are places wanting. 

Brickwork is estimated at the rate of a brick 
and a half thick ; this is called the standard thick- 
ness, so that if a wall is either more or less than 
this thickness it must be reduced to it ; thus : — 
Multiply the superficial contents of the wall by 
the number of half-bricks in thickness, and 
divide the product by 3. 

"When a piece of brickwork is to be measured, 
the first thing to be done is to ascertain what 
measures are to be employed : then, having mul- 
tiplied the length and breadth together, if the 
dimensions are feet, the product is divided by the 
divisor agreed upon, this is generally 272^ feet 
to the rod standard thickness, and the quotient 
will be the number of rods and feet contained 
within the dimensions taken. 

In measuring work by the rod of 272^ feet, it 
is very seldom the odd quarter is used, owing to 
its taking more labour in figuring for a mere 
trifle. 

Examples. 

IIow many rods of brickwork (standard thick- 
ness) are there in a wall 34 feet 6 inches long by 
23 feet 9 inches high, at 1| bricks thick ? 



102 







BKICKLAYINO 






DCOUECIMAIS. 


ft. 


in. 




34 


6 




23 


9 




102 







68 







11 


6 




25 


10 ■ 


6 



272) 819 4-6 (3 rds. 3 ft. 4} in. Answer. 
816 



Decimaia- 

ft. 

34 • 5 
23 • 75 

1725 
2415 
1"35 

600 

272) 819 • 375 (3 • 0124* rds. Anawei. 
816 

337 
272 

655 
544 



1110 

1088 



22 



If the area of a wall be 3,700 feet, and the 
thickness 2} bricks, how many rods and feet does 
it contain ? 

* lliis decimal fraction equals 3 ft. 4^ io. 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION. 103 



Example. 



3700 feet the area, by 
5 half-bricks thick. 



Standard divisor 3) 18500 



272) 6166 (22 rds. 
544 



726 
544 



182 feet. 



Chimney Shafts. 

In measuring chimney breasts, when standing 
against any party wall, it is usual to take the 
width of the middle for the breadth, and the 
height of the story for the length : the thickness 
should be the same as the depth of the jambs ; 
and if the chimney is carried up square to the 
ceiling no deductions are made for the fire-place 
on account of the extra labour in gathering the 
with walls over to prepare for the hearth in the 
room above. 

The chimney-shaft, or that portion which is above 
the roof, is measured by multiplying the height, 
width, and depth together. But in cases where 
t here is a greater amount of labour than usual, the 
quality of the work is taken into consideration, 
and the price allowed according to its class. 

Chimney Shafts in the Form of a Circle. — In 
order to measure these it is necessary to obtain the 
diameter of the shaft midway between the base 



104 BRICKLAYING. 

and the top as they are usually battering. Square 
this diameter, and multiply the product by the 
decimal •7854* ; this will give the area of the 
circle, after cutting off the four fingers from the 
right hand ; and this area multiplied by the 
height will give the contents in cubic feet. 

Example, 

AVhat is the cubic contents of a shaft the mean 

diameter of which is 4 feet and the height GO feet ? 

4 diameter. 

4 



16 
• 7854 


square of diameter, 
decimal fraclioo. 


64 
80 
128 
112 




12 • 5664 
CO 


area of circle. 

height. 


753 • 0840 


cubic contenta. 



The diameter of a circle is to its circumference 
as 7 is to 22 ; therefore, if the diameter is not to 
be obtained by any other means, take the girth or 
circumference of the shaft, and as 22 is to 7, so is 
the circumference to the diameter. 

Example. 
Let the girth of a circular shaft be 10 feet, then, 
\)y proportion, the diameter will be obtained in 
the following manner : — 

• This decimal fraction equals the area of any circle whose 
diameter id 1, i.e. if the liiameter of the circle u I foot, thid 
fraction of a foot i^ the area. 



rUACTICAL GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION. 105 



ft. ft. 

22 : 7 : : 
10 


ft. 
10 




22) 70 (3 
66 


• 18 Answer in 


feet and part3. 


40 
22 






180 
176 


Eemainder. 




4 





When the shaft is in the form of a regular 
polygon, the following table may be found useful 
i'or the purpose of ascertaining its area in feet 
or inches : — 

Rule. — Square the length of the side of the 
polygon, and multiply the product by those 
figures in a line with the figure in the first 
column denoting the number of sides of the given 
polygon ; the product thus obtained will be the 
area. And this multiplied by the height of the 
chimney will give the cubic contents. And to 
bring this into rods, divide by 306 feet. 



Number of 
Sides. 


Multiplier. 


3 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 


■433 
1-72 
2- .98 
3-634 
4-828 
6182 
7-694 
9 3G6 
11-190 



V '\ 



106 



IJRICKI.AYIXG. 



Vaulting. — In measuring circular, elliptical, 
or Gothic vaulting, the rule is to find the super- 
ficial contents of one end, and multiply it by the 
length of the vault ; or, take a piece of string or 
the tape, and ply it close to the soflBt from one 
side of the vavdt to the other, and this length by 
the length of the vault will give the superficial 
contents of soffit ; then multiply by the thickness 
for standard or cubic contents. But if this 
method is employed, the outside surface ought to 
be taken as well as the soffit. Add the two areas 
together, and divide by 2 for the exact superficial 
contents, and then multiply by the thickness for 
standard or cubic contents, as before explained. 

Groim are generally measured by taking the 
length and breadth of the base and multiplying 
ihem together, and that product by the height. 
But sometimes one-tenth is deducted from the 
solidity thus found, and the remainder is reck- 
oned as the solid contents. 

But if measuring for labour only, the groin- 
points are measured by running measures, the 
price being so much per foot. 

Bakers' Orens. — It is usual in measuring these 
to cube the whole and divide by 306 to bring it 
to rods. 

A T\Bi.E OF Brickwork, 

Showing how many rods, feet, and inches are 
contained in any number of superficial feet, from 
1 foot to 10,000 feet, and so on as far as required ; 



PR-^CrnCAL GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION. 107 

and from half a brick to two bricks, and, by 
addition, to any thickness. 

This table also shows how many bricks are 
required to build a piece of brickwork, from 1 foot 
to 10,000 feet, from half a brick to two bricks, and 
this also, by addition only, to any thickness or 
number of feet required, at the rate of 16544 
bricks to the foot standard thickness, or 4500 to 
the rod. 

Explanation of the following Table. 

At the head of this table, over each separate 
column, is stated the thickness of any wall from 
half a brick to two bricks, and beneath each of 
these is a double column, one for giving the rods, 
teet, and inches, contained in the wall, and the 
other the number of bricks contained in these 
rods, feet, and inches, standard measurement; 
and in the first column towards the left hand will 
be found the number of feet the wall contains by 
superficial measurement. 



108 



r.llICKIATTXG. 





. 








c 








^•3 


<Mi»>«=ocoe^-«»>««o — 


■fl-wXc^J-<j>©ao 


ii 


W'vwac^iMtci^csi^-* 


«oaccccici-c; — 


O 


ETS 


r^ ^ „ _ ^ C^) Ol 


e4NP:«iMccrj'* 


E 


In 






H 


iz; 






t£ 














O 








s 


5 


•*ao©T*<ooOTCccO'*oc 


©■«<«©'^0C©'* 


n 








! ° 


$4 


i-ic^-^icccoccsoraw-* 


ttJ^OCO — C^Tj-lC 




_i i-i .— 1 .-1 


— »-"MMiMe*e< 


BD 








§ 


ooococccoco 


0©©©0©©0 


a 


-^ 






g 


o 






— 




owcsoMCiiorJCiis — 


sc»e — oc-r- — !>-•«« 


H 


i-iCO'VWOCOi^M'WCSW 


C5 — rTTT-racr: — 


w 


E-E 


^^ 1-^ 1-^ f-H 1-^ 


r^D>C*IMMC^r<CO 


o 


|n 






zi 


fc 






IL. 
























H 


oooocoooscc 


©©©©©oo© 


•< 
c 


d 


^c<icoTj<ia«t~ooC50-H 


(Mro-*>c«t-ac© 


^^ ^^ 




< 


J 






O 


■S 


ccoocc==soc 


©o©©©©©© 


« 








'*- 








o 








11 

E"= 


^lNTO->*'«JC3t^aCCiC — 


CS5<5-^iS©t^aO» 




i^CSWiJ<«5®1^00Oi^!N 


ec-'j'iciist-x©© 


1 

id 


^« 












O 






1 




i 


00-*O«-<J.OaC^CXi'*O0C-* = aC'9'C00 


H 

a 


d 


O'^c^c^eo'*''<*<«so®t^acac:c:oo — !No« 


o 










1 


©coooccoooc 


©_©©©©©© 




». 








c 








l^ 


CO — trrat^pOac-*C5«c — 


OMt^MOCp;©-* 


w 


— — C^MWCC-«--«-0-.C 


© j^ t^ ac oc ci C5 © 


o 


11 




'^ 


H 


fc 






c 












1 




_a 


■woC'0-«'or_0'<roco-«"ac 


©•va©'*x©-* 


•< 


d 


©o — r-.-c>c^Mroc^rs 


•^■^'■•rOO'C©© 


R 










1 


occccccoocc 


©©©©©wOO 


"1 ^ 


•a 


— N«'*»o«ot^eo»o-" 


NeC'»s>u5©t^aoo» 


^i 


'= 





rRACTICAL GEOMETRY AND MENSL RATION. 109 



" 


^ 






o . 






r 5 


0-MTt--0«tr(M-<J.c030 — C<li.-?500C'MTj<or~ 




0, ^ 


Tr.i::3coc^u-3t^05 — co«cocc-o<-^i-c-. — ^5 


Ti<-q<'<)<ia>0>0>0>0<0<0;COt>-»<-t-t~t— OCOC 


B 


iz; 




M 

o 
3 








1 


.a 


OCO-*300-<1>000-*000-<*"OCOt(<000-<*<00 


n 






o 


d 


?OOOOSOC^e<3Tj<5Dt^OOO'-iC<l'*>OCC00050 


^ 




C^C^(MCOMMPSe>3WeO->5.-<»<-^-*-*-»><Tj<-.}<lo 


H 


s 








osocoooocoocoooscoo 


M 


<>-l 




O 


o . 




s 


fcl 


Ot^Tj<Ot^CC05CMCitDC^Oi«3<N05«3(MOO 




COTj<;c=CCi^r^-r — t^C2— •c^-^or-Oi"— iM 


il 


e'OcoMCQc3'<r-v-<p-<Ti-^-via>a>0'C«i>c;co 


U 


— r*i 




3 


;?; 














^ 


fl 




■< 

H 

•< 




ooooooocooooooooooo 


««-l 


0-H<MCO-*>OWt^OOO>O^C<ICO-*«350r~=0 


a 

2 




(N(N(NC^<M(N(NC«<M(NCOMC<SC<3CO«ieO?CM 


•< 


-a 


ooooooooooooooooooo 


Z 


p^ 




O 








VI 






o 






^ s 


0'-lMec•<*•u5«D^^ooal^-'--lMeo-*«^eooooi 






C^?3^ iOOr-OC050.— M-*wtcCt^CCC-. O-H 


M 


-« 


e<>c4c^c^c^c<c-)c><wwwc<5:ocococTcc-<i''* 


O 


— ^ 




B 






B 


i^ 




c 


.a 


■<j.o«-*ooo-*c=c-»oao-<j<ooo->jtooo-<j< 


si 


eo-*-«>iC5Dcor^ooocooo^!Mc^ec-*-*«5 


a 


*M 


"rt;z;;i;^^^^^r-ic^(N(N(Nuc^c^<NN 




y^ 


oooocooocoooooocooo 




«-i 






o . 






- " 


o«£-Ht--c^t~Moo-*c:>c^«C'Mr~«co-fc-. 






i—--'>4'MMM-^'r>c'Ccrt^i^=cacc; c. oo 






;z; 




O 




1 


s 


.9 


0CG;-<t<00C-fl>0CO'*0CO-V3CO-«»0CO-«l<00 


a 

< 


^ 


5Ct^t^i^3sooocc50JC3Coo — ^-<■^'c^■^^ 






1 


ooooooooooooooooooo 


1 o 


3 -a 

-'3 


O — C^eO^iOCOt^OCOO — (NM— >O50j2=g 


i-)C^p»c^c^c>»nino^c^coweoc<3coc<3eocoeo 


1 ^ 





11 'J 



liRlCKLAYIXG. 





<- 




o 

a 

i 


si 
■2-- 
= a 
is 




.S 


o-*c»o-^ooo-<f<ooO'*«oooeo©'*oo 


p 

H 


a 


(Mco-<*<ot^ooo>^'M-*>oeocooe>s«>oe<50 

»— 1 i-H ^H C^ 




M 


©oooooooooooooooooo 


H 


^S 




3 
n 


si 

-2-2 
5(3 


l-H i-H 1— t r-H CO 








a 


ooooooooooooooooooo 


a 

5 


d 


C50--C^eO-*«5<©t^00050i-IOOOOOO 


H 

O 


S 


ooooooooooooooooooo 


"s 








OOC-J'M'i<>f5Ot^0C0»3 — i(Mi-(C^iMlM'M'l5 

CO-f>OCOI~00050 — C'J-JiiOOOt^OOOSOO 

1-1 <>» 


H 


^ 






.g 


OOO'^OOO'^OOO'^OOO'^OOOO^OaO'* 


O 


d 


eoco^^ooooo500-^c<^(Ne<^•<i^O«OM00^3 

(MiMIM(N(MWCCC«3eOe<3eoco«l-*'<li«0«DOCO 




S 


ooooooooooooooooooo 




<w 




u 
o 

3 




lOOO-Ht^cioccoos-^OuS'-'-'Or-i'r'i-ic-i 

« C^ C-l C3 CO Tf ■* lO 'O O 1^ t^ CO CO 00 Tf C5 'O O 

1 


•g 


o-*ooo-»*«ooO'<*'»o-*<aooO'^ooo-*oo 


•< 

M 


a 


00KlC0-*Tf.l<.C«0«5<0e0«>t^OC0C0Oe0«D 




•a 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


^5 




00'-<MCO-*i>0«3t-0000-<000000 

co-»r'*il<Tt<-*'<*<-<*<-«»<T(<-^u3i05D»--aoo>oo 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY AM) MENSURATION. Ill 







*< 








° . 


CCr53C-*<0«SCCOcr-0'.-JOTj<OT}<'NO 






fc« 30 


— n t^ ;c -*< "*• -c '-•5 — t- M C5 lo — ' t^ ec CO 




M 

O 




,r oc o c-i 'i" ^ CO o — — c<i !M ^t ^ -S- >-■: o 




;C3C— 1?3 ~i^c:^'<i<O00OC<<-<i'5CCCO 




i^ 


_,^_Hr-Hr-ci<i'<j.a3ao^c<5»or~C5r> 






.-1 .— — — ^ i<l 




E-. 

9) 


^ 


1 






.3 


=;-*xs-?<xo-?wc--t3:s'*x = -* 




« 








O 


^ 


ac — c* w t^ o c^ lo » n «s 00 c-i «o 00 ■?» >o 




> 




c^ ^ -N •■; •-< ■-■T .-1 ■«< — ' C5 'o CO -- X 'o eo 




H 


» 








r^ 


-<-HC<lMCCC0-*-*r;-*iO5-*O5-*iO5^OS 






A 


— — (N<MWe<3'J<'r 




^ 








g 


o . 


r? t^ CQ ;= o >o C5 ^ X fi -o o -*| cc ci -o o 




5 


c 3 


O ^ 1~ -M X CC X -:< CC r^ t^ t<I w O '-•; C2 f 




H 


C; -O ■M C; W5 7^ X >.1 O -O -- t^ 'M 30 M X -J< 




M 


■*-^x=;--2"*2"'^^^^2^^-"'^ 








"J 


l-l ^ l-« -H 




a 


^ 












< 


a 


00000 = 000 = 0000000 




■< 


^ 


XXX:00 = -i<^cr»'MT)<OOM— 00 


• 






c<i'Mc^>0'0>-oaoxci mo — o^iqo 


1 




.-1^ r-IJvl —1 .-<.-l c->— < c^ 




H 


i 


,_lrtrtI<^^-1^^^3co^--H^oo<NlC!Ci«c^ 


.s 


a 


^^„e<is^?i«)eo 


1 




4-( 






o . 


O-^-^t-OCOOOXXt-iOt— >Ct^5DTO 








O -J ^ — ' cq ->! r-l "N '■? X — -^ t~ O ^f CC 33 


S 




CC-:t>>C0t-XC300O— '-- — C-^'M'M'M 


M 


co■>f<-1«3^~XC:'^•^)^o — Lf^^t^xr-. o 


o 


15 

12; 


rt M ^3 TI. i.-S = t^ X o ^ 


P? 


a 




< 


H 




H 


O 








1 


.a 


OX'*OX-^OX'*<OMtJ<OX-^O00 




z 
O 


^ 


O -O -- X Tl) — < -O C<I >0 O X C5 n CO 'O CO » 






O-O;D'MC513>0<M'TiC5^C0C5^cn-^?3 






MCO ^^0<1 r-IC'l C<l ^ ^ -< 






•5 


OO-Hn^rt^nM-fl^05C>l-i>t^G5'M-»< 






^ 


^ ^ rt rt o< C^ 






Ck4 


coot^xo — cj-^o^qicoxcjxcc-o 






,a.2 






w 


tc c^ i-^ ro X "^ o '."^ o '-'^ o '-"^ o *-o ^^ o -^ 




o 


^<M<NC0C0-*l'l^>O-HO•^ll~^tXTj.c•. o 




B 


= 5 


rtrt(MC0COCO^^>O 




H 


» 






M 








o 








2 








=3 


.a 


O-*<XO'*<00O-*00O-*XO-*XO-# 




3 


d 


oc«3;r:ocoox-^cO'<*i«S'*cot--xxcs 








o^;cooM;2cool^^x-?<coc5^r^— < o 






— •— '--c^c^ic-i ---<e<i -H!M 






1 


OOOOOO-- — COrSTCOt^XCJ — <N 






r^ rl 




*. t 


11 


oooooocoooooooooo 




s 1 


ooooocooc-oooooooo 




^ ; 


""o 


ec-i<>c-ot-xc:oooooooooo 




S 


« 


— CO r? -r ■•■; -.O t^ X c: O 



112 KRICKLAVIXO. 

Example 1st. 

llow many rods and feet of standard work are 
there in a wall 59 feet in length and 12 feet 6 
nches in height, and I5 bricks thick ? 

KCLE. 



ft 

69 
12 


in. 



6 


the lengtli. 
the height 


708 
29 



6 




737 


6 


Area. 



So by these figures we find the superficial area of 
the wall to be 737 feet 6 inches. Look in the 
first column towards the left hand for 700, and 
opposite that in the sixth column will be found 
2 rods 156 feet ; look again in the first column for 
37 feet, and opposite this, in the sixth column, is 
37 feet ; add the 6 inches, and the product will be 
as follows : — 

todB ft. in. 
2 156 
37 6 



2 193 6 Answer. 



Examjile 2itd. 

How many rods, feet, and inches are there in a 
wall 95 feet long by 17 feet high, at 2 bricks thick ? 

95 X 15 = 1015 ; this is the superficial con- 
tents of the wall. Look in the first column for 
the following numbers — 1000 feet, GOO feet, and 
15 feet ; and opposite these respectively, under 
the heading " Two bricks thick," will be found 



PRACTICAL GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION. 113 

the following figures, which added up together 
will give the standard contents of the wall. 

rods ft. in. 

4 245 4 

2 256 

20 



6 521 4 = 7rd8. 249 ft. 4 in. 



The quantity of bricks required to build a wall 
containing any given number of superficial feet is 
taken in almost the same way. 

Example ^rd. 

llow many bricks are required to build a wall 
SO feet long by 27 feet high, at I5 bricks thick ? 

80 X 27 = 2160 feet, the area. Look in the 

first column for 2000 feet, 100 feet, and 60 feet, 

and against these respectively, in the column 

headed " One and a half bricks thick," will be 

luu^nd the following figures, which, by addition 

u>nl/, give the number of bricks that will build 

the wall. 

33088 

1654 

992 



35734 Answer. 



The superficial areas of the walls of a house 
amount to 2649 feet. Now 1200 feet is 2 bricks 
thick, 900 feet is 1^ brick thick, and 549 is one 
brick thick : how many bricks did tlie builder 
require to build the house? 

Answer, by table, 47403. 



114 BRICKLAYING. 

All gauge-work is measured by superficial 
nieasureraeut (unless otherwise specified) ; and 
every part that is exposed to view ft taken in the 
dimensions. 

Skewbacks, birds'-mouths, splays, beads, &c., are 
generally measured by the run. But if measured 
as gauge-work, it is usual to ply the tape, or a 
piece of string, close to every part of the brick 
that is moulded, and afterwards measure it to get 
the whole of the girth of the work, and this is 
multiplied by the length for the contents. 

Arches are also measured by the girth multiplied 
by the length. 

1000 new stock bricks stacked in bolts measure 
50 feet cubic. 

1000 old bricks cleaned and stacked in bolts 
measure 72 cubic feet. 

Short axd TTseftl Tablb. 

277i Clinic inches 1 gallon of water. 

1 cubic foot contains 6 gallons 1 j pints. 

144 square inches equal I square foot. 

172S cubic inches „ 1 cubic foot. 

9 square feet ,. 1 square yard. 

27 cubic feet „ 1 culiic yard or load. 

100 superficial feet „ 1 square. 

Tiling and Slating is measured by the square of 
loo feet, and in many country places double 
measure is allowed for cutting hips and valleys, 
i.e. for valleys take the length of the ridge for one 
dimension and the depth from ridge to eaves for 
the other, and multiply one by the other for the 
superficial area ; and for hips take the length of 
the eaves and multiply the depth as before. This 



TRACTICAL GEOMETRY AXD MENSURATION. 115 

is SO allowed to pay for the amount of waste iu 
labour and material in cutting them. 

But in London slating is not measured in this 
way, but for all hips, valleys, eaves, cuttings to 
skew gables, cheeks of dormers, &c., the length of 
the cutting is taken, and 1 foot allowed for the 
hips and valleys, and 6 inches allowed for eaves 
and the other cuttings above named. All plain 
work is measured net. 

When the space taken up by sky-lights, chim- 
ney-shafts, &c., do not exceed 4 feet in area, no 
deductions are made on account of the extra 
labour in cutting round them. 

The ridge is always taken separately at per 
running foot. 

Where soakers are used they are reckoned by 
the dozen. 

All plain or pantiling for roofs is measured by 
the square, and cutting and eaves are allowed for 
in the same way as slating. 

Plain and ornamental tiling for floors, walls, 
ceilings, &c., is measured by the yard square, and 
all cufling per foot run. 

Pludcring is either measured by the foot, yard, 
or square of 100 feet, and any surface under 
1 foot (in taking revcils, &c.) is usually called a 
foot. 

Cornices, beads, chamfers, and all mouldings 
arc taken b}' the foot run. 

Mitres, stop, &c., are taken sepai-ately and priced 
at so much each. 

Doorways, windows, fireplaces, &c., are de- 



116 BRICKLAYING. 

ducted, and ceiling and walls are measured sepa 
rately. 

Trhite\vasliiug and colouring are measured in 
the same way as plain plastering — mostly by the 
yard square — and where this is done between 
principals, rafters, joists, &c., the tape must be 
applied to the whole of the surface covered by the 
brush. 

This work is specified to be one, two, or three 
coat work. 



THE END. 



pmiXTtD BT J. 8. nuTTi Am '^o., I rurr^D tttt ro4o, u>!tr««>«. 



THE 

PRACTICAL BRICK AND TILE BOOK 



PART III. 

BKICKWOEK 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON 

BRICKLAYING, CUTTING, AND SETTING 

By F. WALKEE 



BRICKWORK; 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE 

EMBODYING THE GENEEAL AND HIGHER PRINCIPLES OF 

BEICKLAnNCi, CUTTING, AND SETTING 

■WITH 

THE APPLICATION OF GEOMETRY TO ROOF TILING, 

REMARKS ON THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF POINTING, 

A DESCRIPTION OF THE MATERIALS USED BY THE BRICKLAYER 

AND 

A SERIES OF PROBLEMS IN APPLIED GEOMETRY 
By F. walker 

CBRTIFICiTRD BY THE SCIEKCE AND ART DEPARTMENT IN BUILDIKO COXSTRtTCTIOK, 
PRACTICAL, PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY, ETC. 

ILLUSTRATED WITH NINETY-OXE WOODCUTS 

^cconb Cebition, glcbbrb nnb (Enlnrgtb 



(2|)iom][u.i 




LONDON 

CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND CO. 

7, STATIONERS' HALL COLTIT, LUDGATE HILL 
1885 

\_All rights reserved.] 



LONDON' : 

PRFNTED BY J. S. VIBTUE AXD CO., LIMITED, 

CITT EOAD. 



PEEFACE. 



The object of this little work is to give tlie young 
artisan a general and practical insight into his 
trade, and to inspire him with a wish to become 
a useful and successful workman ; which means 
that he must work with his head as well as with 
his hands. The greater portion of the matter 
contained herein is such as to he indispensable 
to the proficient -workman. Though the work 
does not profess to be in any way an exhaustive 
treatise on a trade so varied as that of the brick- 
layer, yet the writer hopes that it may be a help 
to those who, through the division of labour or 
otherwise, have had their practice confined to one 
branch only of their trade ; and that it may not 
be considered altogether unworthy the notice of 
professional men, being to some extent the out- 
come of twenty-two years of practical experience 
iu building operations. It is, however, intended 



IV PREFACE. 

chiefly for that large majority of young men who 
enter the trade of the bricklayer (and all other 
trades in house-building) without any previous 
training or instruction to fit them for the calling, 
depending entirely upon the manipulatiye skill 
they may or may not acquire in the handling 
of their tools. The book commences with the site 
of a building, and goes through the successive 
stages of the bricklayer's trade, including roof 
tiling ; and concludes with a section on Applied 
Geometry, containing problems that may be 
useful in every-day practice. 

Lo2n)OS, Sfjjfemicr, 18S4. 



XOTE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

The very rapid and gratifying sale of the first 
edition, and the favourable manner in which it 
has been received by the various technical journals, 
have led the author to make several additions 
and a few alterations to the work, with a view to 
increasing its usefulness not only to the operative 
student, but also to those who may be preparing 
for the Science Examination in Building Con- 
struction. 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION I. 

MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF 
CONSTRUCTION. 

PAOB 

Site 1 

Establishing a Level or Datum 2 

Setting out Building 2 

Concrete 5 

Cement 10 

Drains 11 

Mortar 14 

Red Brickwork 14 

Bricks 16 

Characteristics of Good Bricks . . . . .19 

Bond of Brickwork . 20 

Old English Bond 21 

Bond of Footings and Walls 22 

Setting out the Bond 26 

Heading Bond 28 

Templates and Strings 30 

Bats 30 

Flemish Bond ........ 31 

Various Bonds 34 

Herring-bone Bond ....... 36 

Dutch Bond 37 



VI 

Keeping the Perpends 

Toothings 

Grouting 

Flues 



CONTENTS. 



PAOB 

39 
39 
40 
41 



SECTION II. 

ARCHES IN GENERAL. 

Arches 46 

Relie\-ing Arches 48 

Plain Arches 49 

The Skew or Oblique Arch 49 

Skew Arch at Brondeshury 52 

Water Conduit .56 

Groined Vaulting: 58 



SECTION III. 
GAUGED-WORK AND ARCH-CUTTING. 



Gauged Work 










61 


Setting 








63 


Drawing and Cutting Arches . 










64 


The Bulls-eye 










65 


Semi and Segmental Arches 










66 


The Camber Ai-ch . 










67 


The Gothic Arch 










69 


The Ellipse Gothic Arcli . 










72 


The Semi-Ellipse Arch 










72 


The Venetian Arch . 










74 


The Scheme Arch 










7.5 


The Semi-Gothic Arch 










76 


Gothic on Circle Arch 










77 


To Find the Soffit Mould . 










78 



CONTENTS. Vll 

SECTION lY. 
ORNAMENTAL BRICKWORK. 

PAQE 

The Niche 79 

The Niche Mould 83 

Moulded Courses 83 

Ornamental Arches 84 

The Oriel Window 85 

Ornamental Gable or Pediment 87 

Gothic Window . 88 



SECTION V. 
ROOF-TILING, POINTING, ETC. 

Tiling 92 

Roofs having different Pitches 94 

To obtain the necessary Angle of Hip or Valley Tiles . 96 

Pointing 97 

Flat-Joint Pointing 98 

Burning Clay into Ballast 100 

Building Additions to Old Work 102 

Fire-proof Floors 102 



SECTION VI. 
APPLIED GEOMETRY. 



To draw a square •whose superficial area shall equal the 

sum of two squares whose sides are given . . .103 

To draw a right-angled triangle, base H inches, height 

J- inch 104 

To draw an arc by cross-sectional lines . . . .105 

To describe a flat arc (camber for instance) by mechani- 
cal means 106 



YUl CONTENTS. 

PAOR 

To find the joints of a flat arch without using the centre 

of the circle of which the arc is a part . . . 106 

To draw the joints of a semi-ellipse arch with mathemati- 
cal accuracy 107 

To find the invisible arch contained in a camber . .108 

Any two straight lines given to determine a curve by 

■which they shall be connected 109 

To find the form or curvature of a raking moulding that 

shall unite correctlj' with a level one . . .111 

To describe an ellipse by means of a carpenter's square 

and a piece of notched lath 112 

To draw a Gothic of any given height and span: or. 

in other words, an Ellipse Gothic . . . .113 

To draw the arch bricks of a Gothic arch, that is for the 

cuivc in the previous problem 114 

To find the ladius of any arc or arch, the rise and span 

being given . . . 11 J 



BRICKWORK. 



SECTION I. 

MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF 

CONSTRUCTION. 

Site. 

Though the bricklayer is very seldom called 
upon to choose the site of a proposed building, 
he should nevertheless make himself acquainted 
with the essentials of a good foundation, and the 
characteristics of a bad one, as a subject not alto- 
gether foreign to his calling. The workman who 
rests satisfied with just the manipulative know- 
ledge of his own trade is not likely to realise the 
value of the word prof/rcss, and must of necessity 
be content to remain in the position in which he 
found himself placed as a workman. Though the 
bricklayer has no voice in the choice of site, he 
maj', as foreman or clerk of works, have to a great 
extent the power of minimising the evil effects of 
a bad one, if he be possessed of the necessary 
knowledge. For be it remembered that a good 
foundation is as necessary to the stability of a 
building, as good flues and drains are to the 
health and comfort of its occupants. The best 
sites to build upon are hard gravel, igneous and 



iJ BRTCKWOKK. 

metamorpliic rocks, limestones, sandstones, and 
chalk. A clay foundation should be well drained, 
as clay by its impervious nature retains moisture, 
and the whole area of the site covered with 6 
inches of surface concrete, made up with Portland 
cement or ground blue lias lime, to keep back 
ground-damp, which will otherwise be attracted by 
the warm air within the building. "When building 
on a clay or sand foundation the building should 
be kept level throughout, as by building up one 
portion of the building and leaving down another, 
ugly fractures sometimes occur in the walls, 
caused by one portion of the work settling at one 
time, and other portions at another, which greatly 
mar the appearance of the structure. 

Establishing a Level or Daixm. 

Before excavating trenches to receive concrete 
for footings, a level, or datum as it is technically 
called, should be established. To do this, drive a 
large stake well into the ground where it will not 
be likeh' to get disturbed, and let the top of it be 
the ground-floor level, which must be taken off 
the drawings if not otherwise determined. To 
avoid the possibility of mistakes, all levels for 
excavations, concrete, and brickwork should be 
taken from this only. 

Settixg git Building. 

In setting out a building, one or other of 
the following methods is generally adopted. 
Either the extreme side walls are squared from 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 



the line of frontage, wticli is given, and the posi- 
tions of the intermediate walls established by 
parallels ; or, two centre lines are drawn at right 
angles, right through the plan of the building, 
and the walls set out at parallel distances from 
them ; taking all measurements from the centre 
lines. The positions of walls should not be laid 
down by measuring the distance of one wall from 
another in succession ; for if an error be made in 
the setting out of the first wall, it will, in this 
way, be perpetuated from one wall to another 
throughout the building. But by measuring 
from the centre line, an error would be confined 
to that particular wall in connection with which 
it was made, and would be readily discovered when 
checking the distances between the respective 
walls. In both methods we have assumed the 
building to be square. If the setting out is to be 
c 




Fif?. 1. 



done by means of a large square, which is generally 
the case, it should be tested or proved before use. 
To do this, draw a line a h along a straight 
b2 



BRICKWORK. 



edge (Fig. 1), not less than twice the length of 
the base of the square. Adjust the base of the 
square along this line from b, and draw a line c 
along the perpendicular blade until it meets the 
base line a h ; now reverse the square along the 
base line from a, and if the square be true its 
perpendicular will coincide with the perpendicu- 
lar line c. Another way of setting out the side 
walls from a given line of frontage is by means 
of a 10-feet rod. Having drawn a line tighth^ 
to represent the front of the building, along this 
line measure G feet from the quoin (French coin, 
a corner), and push through the line at the 6- 
feet point an ordinary brass pin. Draw another 
line in the same way as the first, approximately 
at right angles to it, and from the quoin again 
measure off 8 feet along this line, fixing 
another pin as before at the 8-feet point. 
"With one end fixed at the 
quoin, the other end of the line 
must be moved until there be 
a distance of 10 feet between 
the two pins measured across 
the angle. Tlie lines will then 
be square one with the other. 
Instead of G, 8, and 10, we 
could have taken 12, 16, and 
20 ; but whatever figures be 
used must stand in the same 
ratio or proportion to each 
other as the above, and shown in Fig. 2. 

Another Method. — From point B (Fig. 3), with 




Fi?. 2. 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES. O 

steel measuring tape set off 30 feet, or more or less 
as conyenient, at an approximate angle of 45 
degrees witli the given line a b. From d mea- 




rig. 3. 

sure off the same distance to a; from a draw 
a line through d, measuring from d to c 30 feet. 
A line drawn from b through c will be at right 
angles to the given line a b, the line of front- 
age ; B would be the quoin of building. This 
depends upon the principle that all triangles in 
a semicircle are right-angled triangles, and all 
the angles in the same segment of a circle are 
equal {Euclid, bk. iii. prob. 21). 

Concrete. 

The thickness for concrete varies from 1 to 3 
feet, according to the nature of the subsoil upon 
which the building will stand ; but in some cases 
it is very much thicker, as in made-up ground, 
where, to ensure a good foundation, it is necessary 



6 BRICKWORK. 

to go down to the London clay, or some other firm 
substratum, depending upon the nature of the 
ground. The Metropolitan Building Act requires 
that the concrete shall not be less than 9 inches 
in depth, nor have a margin of less than 4 inches 
outside the first course of footings ; G inches is 
the usual margin in good work. 

The following is a specification to govern the 
suppl}^ of materials, the mixing, and the putting 
into place of cement concrete. The whole of the 
cement to be Portland of the very best quality, 
very finely ground, weighing not less than 
110 lbs. to the striked bushel, of which 90 per 
cent, must pass through a sieve of 2,500 meshes 
to the square inch, and it must be capable of 
maintaining a breaking weight of 350 lbs. per 
square inch, after being made in a bronze mould 
immersed in water during an interval of seven 
days. 

The mixing to be carried on upon a clean plat- 
form made of 9 inch X 3 inch deals, bedded solidly 
on sand, that the cement may not run off through 
the joints in the pi'ocess of mixing. The concrete 
to be composed of four parts of broken bricks, 
broken porous stone, or Thames ballast ; two parts 
sharp clean sand, free from loam or other impuri- 
ties ; and one of cement of the specified quality. 
The parts to be measured in a half-yard cubic box 
(3 feet X 2 feet X 2| feet), and thoroughly mixed 
together in a dry state. The ballast or broken 
bricks to be capable of passing through a 2-inch 
mesh. The dry concrete to be heaped up and 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRTNCirLES. / 

turned over at least twice before wetting. The 
water to be applied through a rose, not more to 
be iised than is necessary to mix the whole very 
thoroughly. While the water is being sprinkled 
on, the mixture should be drawn down by " picks," 
while two or more other men turn it over, after 
being so drawn down, to another part of the 
platform, from which it must be again turned 
over until the parts are thoroughly incorporated. 
The concrete to be tipped from a height not ex- 
ceeding 4 feet, and to be steadily rammed or 
struck with the back of a shovel until the cement 
or matrix flushes to the surface. The whole to be 
left solid and clean. 

In the treatment of concrete much depends 
upon experience and judgment, and it is there- 
fore the more difficult to lay down hard and fast 
rules to govern the proportion of the ingredients 
and the mixing of them. The one thing to be 
aimed at in the apportionment of the ingredients 
is homogeneity ; where this does not exist, strength 
will be wanting. 

As regards "packing," or the practice of 
placing stones or other suitable material larger 
than the aggregate, in the mass of the con- 
crete, it is objectionable under certain condi- 
tions. In a thoroughly good Portland cement 
concrete, if properly treated, there will neither 
be contraction nor expansion to any perceptible 
degree in the setting ; and in such there is no 
objection to packing, if the stones or other material 
be uniformly distributed and solidly bedded in 



5 BRICKWORK. 

the mass. But in an inferior concrete subject to 
contraction or expansion, packing is decidedly 
objectionable, and likely to lead to injurious 
results; more especially if the packing be not 
evenly distributed throughout the concrete. This 
consideration has led engineers and architects to 
adopt in their specifications the precautionary 
clause that the aggregate shall be of an uniform 
size — generally, to pass through a 2 -inch or 
2|-inch ring. 

The quantity of water to be used depends almost 
entirely upon the nature of the aggregate ; ballast 
or any siliceous aggregate requiring only enough 
to thoroughly mix the cement, while that of a 
porous nature, such as broken bricks, would 
require more. The proportion of cement must be 
governed by circumstances, for while the Metro- 
politan Main Drainage "Works adopted one of 
cement to five and a-half of aggregate, we are 
informed by Mr. Picid On Concrete, that in the 
sea forts of Copenhagen the concrete was made in 
the following proportions: — 

Portland cement .... 1 

Sand 4 

Fragments of stone . . . IG 

and the concrete for filling in the terra-cotta at 
St. Paul's School, Kensington, consisted of one of 
Portland cement and ten of aggregate. 

In Portland cement concrete, " a rotten or fri- 
able material is to be avoided, except where un- 
avoidable, and in that case only in combination 
with a large quantity of cement, so as to neutralise 



MATERIALS AND GENEHAL PRINCIPLES. 9 

as far as possible any tendency to weakness. 
Sand, where a clioice exists, should be as rough, 
and coarse as possible, and that made by the 
various natural or physical influences from sand- 
stone, limestone, or other similar rocky forma- 
tions, is to be preferred over those from flint or 
volcanic rocks. The former sands or shingles are 
more porous than the latter, and consequently 
better able to absorb the silicates of the cement 
when being mixed. For this reason it is advisable 
not to have the sand, gravel, or shingle too fully 
saturated with water ; if this is so, the matrix is 
unable to imbibe the fluid portion of the mixture, 
and consequently it is thrown off as waste from 
the concrete. This observation equally applies to 
the mischievous practice of over- wetting bricks in 
building with cement mortar. A dry brick is 
bad enough, but when saturation is carried to 
excess equally faulty results ensue. With regard 
to the acting properties of Portland cement when 
used with salt sand, or salt water, an experiment 
proved the use of salt water and salt sand per- 
fectly satisfactory, both with Portland cement and 
lias lime, but there was no question as to their 
setting being retarded by their use." — Brunei. 

"When blue lias is used for concrete, the pro- 
portion of parts and the mixing is the same as 
described in cement concrete. 

Burnt ballast is frequently used as an aggre- 
gate for concrete, but care should be taken that it 
be thoroughly burnt free from clay. Burnt bal- 
last concrete should be made rather sloppy on ac- 
r3 



10 BRICKWORK. 

count of its absorbent nature, or it will quickly 
absorb tbc moisture from the cement or lime with, 
which, it is mixed, to the injury of its setting pro- 
perties and ultimate strength. 

Mixed with one- third of Thames ballast and 
a fair proportion of lime it will yield a good 
concrete for footings to walls. 

Cemext. 

Adie's No. 1 cement testing machine is very 
generally used for testing cements, but where one 
of these is not at hand they may be 
r -"^A roughly tested in the following man- 
)c^ ~~^ ner. Having mounted a briquette 
Fig. 4. (Fig. 4), whose sectional area is one 
square inch, or more as the case may be, after seven 
days' immersion let it be suspended from one 
end, and from the other end suspend a cement 
barrel containing sand, increasing the quantity 
until the briquette breaks or its power of resistance 
be overcome. The sand should not be thrown 
into the barrel, but slid into it by means of an 
inclined plane, and in small quantities. The 
weight of the cask with its contents will repre- 
sent the breaking weight. "With Adie's machine 
the briquette in the making is subjected to a 
slight pressure, which adds considerably to its 
tensile strength, so that the resistance to breaking 
of a briquette made by the machine •\^•ill be greater 
than that of a briquette of the same cement made 
by hand and not subjected to pressure. Another 
way : bed two bricks together (Fig. 5), and after 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 11 

a few days' immersion let them be suspended and 
treated in the same way as the briquette. This 
plan is suitable for ascertain- 
ing the comparative strength of 
cements, but in so doing the 
same kind of bricks, sand (if any 
used), and even water should be 
used, and the exact proportions 
maintained in the mixing, or, 
in other words, the conditions should be exactly 
the same. Bricks having a smooth impervious 
bed will be found to have less adhesion than those 
of a hard but comparatively porous nature — 
pressed bricks and hard stocks, for instance. 

The bricklayer should make himself acquainted 
with the various limes and cements, and the in- 
gredients used in combination wath them ; also 
with concrete, as subjects belonging particularly 
to his trade, and which by reason of his occu- 
pation he has a better opportunity of doing than 
any other class of operatives. In large and im- 
portant public works these are generally subject 
to the inspection of a bricklayer. 

Drains. 

The laying of drains, at once the most impor- 
tant and too frequently the most neglected part of 
a building, should never be intrusted to unskilled 
workmen. The fall having been determined, 
which should not be less than one in sixty or one 
inch in five feet, the flange of each pipe should 
rest upon a bedded brick, that the joints may be 



12 BRICKWORK. 

caulked all round •v^•ith gaskin or oakum previ- 
ously to being made up with Portland cement. 
The object of caulking is to prevent the cement 
squeezing through into the pipe, a very common 
cause of stoppage in drains. They can now be 
bedded half way up in fine concrete, so as to form 
a cradle, care being taken not to disturb the 
joints. The inside joint of each length of pipe 
as it is laid should be stopped with Portland 
cement, and left solid and clean, free from any- 
thing approaching to burrs. The drains should be 
laid down air and water-tight, free from " dips," 
with no right-angled junctions nor sharp bends, 
and kept, if at all possible, outside the building, 
with inspection holes large enough for a man 
to work forcing-rods in ease of a stoppage. A 
length of pipe in the man-hole should have 
a movable top. This kind of pipe is called an 
operculum or " channel " pipe- In many in- 
stances only the invert half of the pipe is used 
in that portion of the drain passing through the 
man-hole, which is ventilated by a current of 
fresh air entering the man-hole, passing through 
the entire length of the drains, and finding an 
outlet through the open soil-pipe above the roof. 
In such an arrangement a trap shovdd intervene 
between the sewer and the man-hole, to prevent 
the possibility of sewer gas escaping through the 
fresh air inlet. But where fresh air is not intro- 
duced, the trap may be dispensed with, the soil- 
pipe serving as a ventilator both for the sewer 
and the drains. 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 



13 



Six-inch pipes will be found large enough, for 
most buildings. As the subject of trapping, dis- 
connecting, and ventilating drains belongs to 
sanitar)^ science, it cannot be further noticed here 
beyond giving a plan and section of a dip-trap 
(Figs. 6 and 7) which the bricklayer is sometimes 















Flap. 








-* 





Pi?. 6. 




Pig. 7. 



called upon to build. This trap should be used 
only where there is a copious and frequent supply 
of water (but not in connection with soil), as by 
its size and construction a greater quantity of 
water is required to trap it than the earthenware 
traps now more generally and preferably used. 



14 brickwork. 

Mortar. 

Mortar used by the bricklayer is made either 
from stone lime, lias, or Portland cement, mixed 
with a proper proportion of sand. Chalk lime 
should not be used, as the only setting that takes 
place in it is the formation of a surface crust, 
bearing a small proportion to the bulk. Stone, or 
gray chalk lime, as it is sometimes called, is 
generally used ; it possesses slight hydraulic 
power, and will set if secluded from the air 
or in damp situations, and is capable of bearing 
three parts of sand to one of lime. For damp 
situations blue lias will be found to make the 
best lime-mortar. It is eminently hydraulic, and 
becomes very hard, especially in damp places ; but 
it will not bear so much sand as stone lime. The 
amount of sand should not exceed twice that of 
lime. Lump lias is used for mortar ; it should 
be well wetted, coTcred over with sand, and 
allowed a day to slack before being ground in 
the mortar mill. The sand used for all mortars 
should be a clean, sharp, angular grit. Cement 
has been already spoken of in connection with 
concrete, and elsewhere. 

Red Brickwork. 

Owing to the revival of the Queen Anne stylo 
of architecture, brickwork now occupies the fore- 
most position in building construction, of which 
very good samples may bo seen at Westwood 
House, Sydenham ; Fitz- John Avenue, llamp- 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL TRINCIPLES. 15 

Stead ; the Chelsea Embankment, and many other 
places in and about London. Our popular archi- 
tects delight to revel and indulge their fancies in 
red brickwork, as evidenced in several public 
buildings of recent erection. The Victorian age, 
from an architectural point of view, will be con- 
spicuous for its stuccoed buildings and its red 
brickwork— the former an expressionless imita- 
tion, the offspring of the speculator, and the 
Caliban of architecture. But Truth in architec- 
ture, as in all things, will assert herself; she 
breathes into the nostrils of a second Adam, and 
lo ! we have " a thing of beauty." 
_ We can remember, in our experience, when the 
life of the bricklayer was often made " bitter with 
hard bondage in mortar and in brick," by reason 
of the reign of stucco; but, thanks to the able 
advocacy of Mr. Tvuskin and the late Mr. E. Street, 
such rapid strides have been made in brickwork 
that one is almost surprised to see the amount of 
art-workmanship wrought in red-brick designs. 

These will be found mostly in retired out-of-the- 
way streets, relieving, both by colour and detail, 
the dull monotony of the unbroken line of our 
vista-like old street architecture. 

Some years ago the Philological School, St. 
Marylebone Eoad, was pointed out as a sample of 
ornamental brickwork. The ornamental features 
m this structure are made up of a judicious use 
and arrangement of polychrome bricks, and stone 
dressings. The building is, undoubtedly, a good 
one, possessing that repose almost peculiar to 



16 BRICKWORK. 

ecclesiastical architecture. But the term orna- 
mental brickwork is so closely associated in these 
days with the idea of form, that we are accustomed 
to exclude from the meaning of that term all 
brick designs characterized bj" an absence of pro- 
jection. 

We know no better samples of red brickwork 
than St. Paul's Schools, and the City Guilds 
Technical Institute, Kensington ; and the Mid- 
land Hotel, St. Pancras Station. 

Bricks. 

In dealing with brickwork it is necessary that 
something should be said about bricks, though it 
is not intended to go into the chemical properties 
or other scientific matters connected with them, as 
we are^'presumably writing for persons in or con- 
nected with the trade of a bricklayer, but will 
just take a passing glance at the bricks commonly 
used in and about London, and state the purposes 
for which they are best adapted. 

Stock bricks are divided into "picked " stocks 
(picked for colour and hardness), " washed " 
stocks, " grizzles," " place," and " shuffs." 
" Shuffs " are worthless, " place " are little 
better ; " grizzles " are those bricks which haye 
a good face or end with the other face or end 
underburnt, and similar in appearance to " place/* 
which are of a reddish colour. " Picked " are 
those which are suitable for good exterior facing. 
" "Washed " stocks, on account of their softness, 
are fit only for interior facing. The best stock 



MATERIALS AND GENEllAL PRINCIPLES. 17 

bricks for general facing purposes are those called 
"stippers," whicli, as their name implies, are 
sorted for shipping. 

INEalms are a superior kind of stock bricks, made 
of washed clay and chalk, and are used for 
superior facing and for " cutting " purposes, but 
are not suitable for " gauged-Avork" on account of 
the numerous small air-cells contained in the 
bricks, which make it impossible to rub them 
up to an arris, which is indispensable to good 
setting. 

Of red building bricks there are a great yariety 
in the London market, the best of which for 
colour and weathering properties arc Fareham 
reds, though rather irregular in shape. St. 
Thomas's Hospital, and the Nurses' Training 
Home, Queen Anne's Gate, St. James's Park, are 
faced with these. Sometimes they are rubbed 
down to obtain true faces ; but this should be 
avoided for the sake of preserving the deep red 
colour, which constitutes the beauty of these 
bricks. Fareham rubbers for " gauged-work " 
also stand first in quality, though they are not 
extensively used, as they are dearer than the 
other varieties in the market. 

Next in quality come the Berkshire Builders 
and T. L. B. Rubbers, made by T. Lawrance, 
Bracknell, Berks. The Teynham bricks, stamped 
G. Richardson, Teynham, are good bricks, pos- 
sessing in a large degree the qualities that recom- 
mend the Farehams, and with the additional 
advantage of a fairly good shape. Gault bricks 



18 BRICKWORK. 

arc mucli used for facing ; they are much harder 
than stocks, and also dearer. Of ■white bricks 
Suffolks are the very best. They are a close, 
firm brick, suitable for first-class facing, either 
exterior or interior, or for " gauged- work." They 
are of a soft nature, but harden very much by 
exposure to the action of the atmosphere. 

A very nice piece of work — three-light geo- 
metrical windows — executed in these bricks, and 
designed by Messrs. II. Saxon Snell and Sons, 
22, Southampton Buildings, W.C, mny be seen in 
the chapel attached to the Rackham Street In- 
firmary, Netting Hill, "W. Staffordshire blue 
.bricks are the most suitable for external bases, 
plinths, and dwarf-walls for palisading, or wher- 
ever there is much trafRc. 

Enamelled bricks are now very extensively 
used instead of tiles ; they can be obtained in 
various colours, and are suitable for facing dairies, 
&c., and areas where reflected or borrowed light is 
required. They are obtainable in double headers, 

^ J viz. two ends enamelled for 9- 

inch Avails, and double stretchers 
for 4 3 -inch walls, single headers 



Fig. 8. ^^^^ stretchers for fticing, and 

buUnose and chamfered bricks 
(Fig. 8) for jambs or reveals. The best kind are 
those bearing the stamp, " Cliff, "Wortlcy, Leeds." 
Firebricks should be used for all places exposed 
to the action of fire or intense heat. They are 
made of fireclay, and should be set with close 
joints in a mortar made of the same material, 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 19 

wetting the bricks before setting them. The 
mortar under the action of the fire will Titrify, 
and form one body with the bricks. In lining 
boiler furnaces, &c., bricklayers frequently use 
fireclay only with that portion of the work that 
will be subjected to the flame, but it may be set 
down as a rule that wherever it is necessary to 
use firebricks, it is also necessary to w&ejireclaij to 
bed them in. Nevertheless, when it is not readily 
obtainable, plaster of Paris and sand may be used 
as a very good substitute for small jobs, but on 
no account should cement be used, for being non- 
elastic it will fracture under the action of intense 
heat. Stourbridge bricks are much used as the 
best kind of ordinary fire-bricks, but Dr. Siemens 
has shown the Dinas firebricks to be the best, and 
to be capable of resisting the temperature of 4,000° 
to 5,000- Fahr.* 

Characteristics of Good Bricks. 

Soundness, freedom from flaws, cracks, or stones 
of any kind. They should contain no lumps of lime 
or limestone, however small; should be regular in 
shape and uniform in size, their length exceeding 
twice their breadth by the thickness of a mortar 
joint. They should not absorb at most more 
water than is equal to one-sixth of their dry 
weight. They should be hard, and burnt so 
thoroughly that there is incipient vitrification all 
through the brick. When struck together they 
should yield a clear metallic ring. (This last- 
* Dr. Siemena' "Chemical Society," 7th May, 1868. 



20 BRlCKWOlUv. 

mentioned characteristic belongs more to stocks 
and the harder kind of bricks.) Their texture 
should be homogeneous and compact. They should 
be regular in colour, with their arrises square, 
sharp, and well-defined. Pressed bricks, such as 
those from the midland counties and Ruabon, are 
almost non-absorbent, and for all practical pur- 
poses impervious to water. The nearer bricks 
approach to imperviousness the better will they be. 
The following is an analysis of the clay worked 
by Messrs. Monk, Is^ewell, and Bryon — Euabon — 



Moisture . 






lo4 


Combined water 






3-. 54 


Silica 






63-00 


Alumina . 






18-0 


Sesquioxide of iron . 






6-70 


Protoxide of iron 






1-9.5 


Potash 






2-37 


Soda 






3-10 



100-20 

Bricks and terra-cotta, manufactured from this 
clay, may be seen at the Northern Ilospital, 
Winchmore Hill, London, now in course of 
erection by Messrs. Wall Brothers, of London. 

Bond of Brickwork. 

We will now enter into what might be termed 
the scientific part of bricklaying, and it will not 
be out of place to repeat what Smeaton wrote 
half a century ago with reference to this sub- 
ject, and which is equally true to-day : " As the 
art of bricklaying is generally supposed to be 
so simple as to require little or no attention, it 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 21 

will be necessary to remove this false impression 
by a somewhat particuhir detfiil of the facts which 
relate to it. There are many persons, and even 
some workmen, who suppose that nothing more 
is required than that the bricks should be properly 
bedded and the work level and perpendicular. But 
the workman who would attain perfection in his 
business should acquaint himself with the different 
arrangements made use of in placing [bonding] 
the bricks, so that one part of the work shall 
strengthen another, and thus prevent one portion 
from a greater liabilitj' to give way than another." 
So much for the statement of an eminent engi- 
neer, than whom none knew better the value of 
bonding, as evidenced in the old Eddystone Light- 
house, which was so thoroughly bonded, one stone 
into another, and each into the whole, that nothing 
but the wearing away of the rock upon which it 
stood led (or was likely to lead) to its demolition. 

Old English Bond. 

Old English bond consists of alternate courses 
of headers and stretchers, while Flemish bond 
consists of alternate headers and stretchers in 
each course. Old English is the only true bond, 
the other bonds (and there are several) being 
merely arrangements to please the eye. Gwilt, 
referring to bond, remarks, in his " Encyclopedia 
of Architecture," that " previous to the reign of 
"William and !Mary all the brick buildings in the 
island were constructed in what is called English 
bond ; and subsequent to the reign in question, 



22 BRICKWORK. 

when in buildings as in many other eases Dutch 
fashions were introduced, we regret to say much 
to the injury of our houses' strength, the work- 
men have become so infatuated with what is called 
Flemish bond that it is difficult to drive them out 
of it. To the introduction of the latter has been 
attributed (in many cases with justice) the splitting 
of walls into two thicknesses ; to prevent which 
expedients have been adopted which would be 
altogether unnecessary if a return to the general 
use of English bond could be established." 

Bond of Footixgs and Walls. 

• The Metropolitan Building Act requires that 
the footings of all walls shall not be less than 
twice the thickness of the super- 
incumbent wall, or, as brick- 
layers call it, " the neat work." 
Fig. 9 represents the footing for 
a brick-and-a-half wall. A two- 
brick wall would require a four- 
brick footing, and so on, according to the size of 
the wall, setting back 2^ inches on each course of 
footings until the wall be brought into its proper 
size. Where a "bat " occurs in the footings, as 
in the second course, it 




A should always be kept in 



^ the centre. Fig. 10 shows 



3 



in elevation the footings 
and three courses of a 
14-inch wall. It will be 



Tig. 10. 

seen that the " closer " is not used until the 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 



23 



setting out of the bond for the " neat work." 
Figs. 11 and 12 are the plans of two successive 
courses of a one-and-a-half brick wall, showing 
the sectional bond. It will be seen by this that 
there are no two joints in the wall immediately 
one above the other, but that in the direction of 
the length of the wall there is a lap or bond of 
2j inches of each brick over the two immediately 
below it in the next course, and a lap of 4^ inches 
in the width of the wall. This result is obtained 
by running the transverse joints right through tlie 
















































Fig. 11. 



Fig. 12. 



wall from one side to the other. A simple prin- 
ciple, but seldom carried out even by bricklayers. 
The method in general practice is shown in 
Figs. 13 and 14. It will be seen that the trans- 
verse or "cross" joints do not run through the 
wall, but that the ends of the stretchers come 
in the middle of the headers, consequently the 
cross joints in the middle 4| inches of the wall 
are one over the other from the bottom to the 
top of the wall. This is caused by showing full 
"stretchers," a and h, in the internal angle, instead 
of letting them pass 2;^ inches into the return 



24 



BRICKWOBK, 



wall, as in Figs. 11 and 12. Many bricklayers 
insist upon showing a whole "stretcher" in the 
angle in all cases ; but he who insists upon this has 







— 


61 





Fig. 13. 



Fis. 14. 



yet to learn the bond of brickwork. The reader 
would be greatly helped to an understanding of 
bond by haying a few model bricks, and arranging 











> 


- 1 


i 



Fig. 15. Fig. IC. 

them as shown in these figures. Figs. 15 and 16 
represent a straight jamb in a 14-inch wall. Here 
again, that the " cross " joints may run straight 
through the wall, it is necessary to introduce a 



Fi3 



Fit". IS. 



three-quarter "stretcher" a, and to omit the 
"closer" in the next course above. Figs. 17 and 
18 are the plans of two consecutive courses of a 



MATERIALS AND GENEUAL rillNCIPLE? 



25 



pier 14 inches on the face and 18 inches deep. 
The face bond is made up of two three-quarter 
"stretchers" on one course,and of three " headers" 



on the other. 



Figs. 



19 and 20 are two courses of 



Fig. 19. rig. 20. 

a wall two and a half bricks thick. In all walls 
of such a size as to take an odd half brick (two 
bricks and a half, three bricks and a half, &c.),the 
" stretcher " is always laid on the outside face in 
one course and on the inside face in the next course. 















\ 


D 





zu 



Fig. 21. 



Fig. 22. 



Figs. 21 and 22 show the " king closer," which in 
practice, owing to the trouble of cutting and the 
probability of breaking in the cutting, is seldom 
used. In this case two bricks are cut in 



their whole length from 2j inches to 4j 
inches, but it is more frequently cut out ^*^- ^^■ 
of one brick, as in Fig. 23, and an adjoining 
" bat " is cut to fit it. 

A great many instances of bond in diifcrcnt 
c 



26 



BRICKWORK. 



sized walls and piers might be given, but as 
a thorough, knowledge of "bonding" can be 
obtained only by practice, we will not multiply 
examples. 

If the bricklayer adhere to the principle of 
keeping the " cross " joints immediately opposite 
each other, and laying the bricks in one course 
quarter bond with the bricks in the course below 
it, he will experience little difficulty with any 
sized wall or pier. 

Setting Out the Bond. 

The chief thing in connection with brickwork 
is setting out the bond, for which a good brick- 
layer should be selected. This will be more 
readily conceded when we consider the strains to 
which a building is subject. The bond should be 



r . . I, , I , 1. 3 



1 i n II 



1:^5 



r^ 



T^ 



I I ! ,1 I 



:iL 



3 



I? 



Fig. 24. 

set out at least one course below the ground line, 
anl the positions of doors, windows, panels, or 
large apertures taken off the drawings. This is best 
don3 in a stretching course, setting a "perpend " 
for every reveal or jamb, and working the 



MATEKIALS A>'D GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 



27 



1-L 



u 



7 



" broken bond " under eacb window, or other 
aperture, as tbe case may be, as in Fig 24, a and 
b. Eeveals and jambs in point of bond should be 
treated as " quoins." Where a base occurs the 
" bond " should be so arranged that a whole brick 
will work in the internal angle above the plinth. 

In Fig. 25 (plan and elevation) we have a 
2i-inch plinth ; a "perpend " or vertical joint in 
the stretching course is 

started 6| inches from , ' i I i ' ' 1 ( 

the angle at the base ; 
this joint " plumbed " 
up will be 9 inches, or 
a brick, from the angle 
above the plinth, and 
work proper or con- 
ventional "bond." In 
many cases the base is 
treated by bricklayers 
as if it were a detached 
part of the building, 
and the consequence is that " closers " are to be 
seen in the internal angles of many good buildings 
where whole bricks should be found. Such things, 
though small in themselves, go a long way to 
make up or to detract from the general effect and 
appearance of brickwork. 

"Broken Bond " is the result of badly propor- 
tioned piers ; thus, in a pier 3 feet 2i inches long, 
the bricklayer would have to work four bricks 
and a quarter, but to do away with the quarter 
or " closer," a header and a three-quarter 
c 2 




28 BRIC-KWORK. 

" stretcher " are substituted for a " stretclier " 
aud the " closer," the three-quarter and " header " 
making up the " broken bond," and are kept as 
near as possible in the middle of the pier. 

The work once above the ground, the building 
should be levelled all round, and a piece of hoop- 
iron fixed in a joint at each corner or angle to 
gauge or measure from, taking care that they are 
all in the same level course. A " gauge-rod," 
reaching from floor to floor, with all the courses 
and stone strings (if there be any) and heights of 
window sills and heads marked on it, should be 
given to the bricklaj-er to work to, by which 
means he can at any time see how his work 
is rising, which in London should not exceed nor 
be less than four courses to a foot ; and the care- 
less or inferior workman will then have no ex- 
cuse for not keeping his work level and to the 
gauge. Not working to a gauge- rod is the chief 
cause of thick and thin joints, though any compe- 
tent workman with a 2-feet rule should be able 
to keep his work right. The bricks in building 
should be wetted, but not to saturation, and the 
mortar of such a consistency that the "cross" joints 
between the bricks can be drawn up as the bricks 
are laid ; any open or partiallj' filled joints can then 
be filled by " flushing," which is to be preferred to 
" grouting," and shoidd be done on every course. 

Heading Bond 

is the name given to that arrangement in which the 
bricks are laid all " headers." This bond is used 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 



29 



in circular and curved "walls of a short radius, and 
in round chimney stacks, so as to keep the wall 
within the " sweep," or arc, for if " stretchers" be 
used, every 9 inches of the wall will be a straight 
line, and when built will consist of projections and 
hollows, and will be in that state described by 
bricklayers as ''hatching and grinning." Heading 
bond should never be used on straight walls or 
where it can be avoided, as very little longitudi- 
nal strength is obtained, as will be seen by refer- 




Fig. 27. 

ence to Figs. 26 and 27, showing the angles 
of strain in two walls, one in heading bond and 
the other in English. The thick lines show the 
direction a fracture would take in the event of a 
settlement. They also show the space over which 
any given weight resting on either a or b would 
be distributed ; and this idea leads us to the 
consideration of the use of stone templates and 
strings in connection with brickwork. 



30 brickwork. 

Templates axd Strings. 
Templates under girders, principals, beams, 
&c., should always be of York, never of Portland 
or any similar stone, and should be at least 
14 inches long — 18 inches would be better, but 
the length must be regulated by the weight which 
it has to carry. There is little doubt that " string 
courses " in the shape of a flush band were first 
introduced to impart strength to walls whose 
component parts were of diminutive dimensions 
(the Roman tile for instance, used in Roman 
walling), and that their ornamental feature was a 
secondary idea and an outgrowth of the former. 
String courses and bands are still used very ex- 
tensively for this purpose, and are placed gene- 
rally at the floor line, the window sill level, or 
the window head or springing line, and in some 
buildings in each and all of these positions. 

Bats. 
A consideration of the previous remarks will 
have illustrated the evil attending the use of 
" bats." The greatest evil in connection with them 
is that workmen when walling, instead of fairly 
distributing them amongst the whole bricks, gene- 
rally allow them to accumulate on the scafibld, and 
when they have a quantity put them in the wall 
all together, much to its injury. Good work 
may be done with a fair proportion of " bats " if 
they be used with discretion ; and it is only fair 
to the builder that he be allowed to use the bats 
made on the job. 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 



31 



Flemish Bond. 

Having already pronounced upon the merits of 
this bond and given the opinion of an eminent 
authority (Gwilt), little remains to be said on this 
subject beyond explaining a few examples in 
diflEerent sized walls and piers. 

Fiffs. 28 and 29 show a 14-inch wall with a 






\n 



Tig. 2S. 



ri2 



straight jamb, both sides Flemish bond, showing 
the way such a wall is generally bonded in prac- 
tice. The rule laid down to keep the " cross " 
joints straight through the wall is departed from 
in this example, consequently the joints in the 
middle of the wall are one over the other in the 
entire height of the wall. The proper method is 
showli in Figs. 30 and 31, in which the " closer " 



a 










h 






















1 


















1 
















' ^ 1 











Fig. 30. 



Fig. 31. 



is dispensed with, and two " headers," a, in one 
course and a three-quarter " stretcher," b, in the 
other are used. A heading and stretching course 
are obtained by laying whole headers on one face 
and "snapped headers" on the other. A still 
better bond would be obtained by laying the 



32 



BRICKWORK. 



headers on each face, alternately "header" and 
" snap ; " but to prevent all " snaps " coming 
over each other and all whole headers over each 
other they (the ''snap headers" and the whole 
"headers") should be alternated in the height as 
well as on the level. 

Figs. 32 and 33, the same wall, with the face 



rig. 32. Fig. S3. 

in Flemish and the back in English bond. A 
good strong wall can be obtained in this way, and 
where the inside has to be plastered it should 
always be so built. 

Figs. 34 and 35, a two-brick wall, Flemish 
bond both sides. By snapping the headers in 



riff. 34. 



Fig. 35. 



one course, 34, and putting them whole in the 
other, 35, a heading and a stretching course are 
obtained, Avhich gives a much better bond through 
the wall than if all whole headers were used. 
Fig. 3G, a quoin in isometric projection, showing the 
internal and external angle, and a perfect bond as 
far as obtainable in Flemish bonding with the in- 
side face built in Old English bond. Fig. 37 gives 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 33 

the bond of a two-and-a-half brick pier projecting 
from a wall. At r/ is shown a broken bond — two 
" stretchers" in one course and three "headers " 




Fig. 36. 



in the next course above them, which frequently 
occurs, and is the only legitimate " broken " bond 
in Flemish. Where a three-quarter " stretcher" 



"Mil II 


1 1 


II II 


II M 


1 1 1 1 II 


1 1 


\ 1 1 II 


1 1 II 


) 1 1 1 1 II 


1 1 


- i 


M . II 




Fig. 37. 

occurs as "broken" bond, it can be obviated or 
done away with by " reversing " the bond on one 
end of the pier or wall. Thus for a "stretcher" 
substitute a "header" and "closer." 
c 3 



34 brickwork. 

Yarious Bonds. 

Chimney bond is a term applied only to 4|-inch 
external walls to chimney stacks. In this arrange- 
ment the disposition of the bricks is such as to 
obtain the greatest possible strength by bonding 
in the " withes " on every second course, and 
aToiding the use of bats as far as practicable. 

Stacks of 4i-inch walls should never be built 
in Old English bond, for the reason that brick- 
layers, when cutting the half bricks to form " snap 
headers," will sometimes cut them 3J inches in 
depth instead of 4i inches, depending upon the par- 
getting or mortar to make up the thickness of the 
wall, which when the flue comes into use will 
shrink and crack, and falling away from the 
brickwork leave a stack, in many cases, built 
partly of closers. English bond is also objection- 
able on account of the numerous bats. Another 
practice in 45-inch stack building, and which 
cannot be too severely condemned, is that of 
"buttering" the cross joints with the point of 
the trowel; or, in plainer words, putting a mortar 
joint between the ends of the bricks, extending 
in about 1 inch from the face, the remaining 
85 inches being left open, excepting what little 
may be filled up in the process of pargetting. 

We believe this practice, together with that of 
plugging into 45 -inch chimney walls for fixing 
skirtings, to be a fruitful source of many fires, 
with accounts of which we are occasionally startled. 
The mortar or cement joints should be put n'^ht 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 35 

through the width of the bricks, and drawn up 
solid and tight. Stacks with 4|-inch walls may 
often be built with advantage in Flemish bond ; 
but the main thing to be attained is strength, 
which is to be obtained only by bonding in the 
"withes" or divisions between the flues. Another 
reason the author would advance in objection to 
4|-inch walls for chimney stacks is that plumbers, 
in "flashing" roimd the base, cut out the joints 
for the purpose of turning in the lead ; and when 
wedging the same, thoughtless of the power 
exerted by the wedge, often break the bond of 
adhesion between the mortar and the course above 
the " flashing," leaving the stack in this condi- 
tion to withstand a wind pressure of from 40 to 
50 lbs. on the square foot during a hurricane, 
often resulting in a coroner's inquest. Zinc 
"soakers" maybe used with much advantage in 
connection with stacks built with 4;^ inch walls, 
and the angles formed by the junction of the 
stack and the slating filled in with a small cement 
fillet, triangular in section, making a perfectly 
sound and water-tight job, doing away with the 
necessity of flashings, and preventing the evils 
that sometimes attend them. 

English garden -wall bond consists of three 
courses of " stretchers" to one course of "headers." 
This bond may be said to have grown into disuse, 
excepting in the north of England, where five 
courses of "stretchers" to one course of "headers" 
are frequently used in general building. Flemish 
garden- wall bond consists of three " stretchers " 



36 



BRICKWOKK. 



to one " header " in every course, as in Fig. 38. 
Garden-wall bond is used only, as its name implies, 
for 9-incli garden walls that have to be kept fair 



I ,11 



1 T 



J , I I- 



Fig. OS. 

or smooth on both sides. The bricks vary most 
in their lengths ; the more ** headers" that are put 
through the wall will, therefore, add to the diflS- 
culty of keeping it straight. 

Herring-bone Bond. 

Figs. 39 and 40 represent a panel filled in with 
bricks laid " herring-bone." The former is gene- 





Fig. 39. 



Fig. 40. 



rally the method used in paving, where the bricka 
are laid on their beds, 4| by 9 inches, in sand, 
and " grouted " up with cement or mortar. The 
latter is used for filliug in panels under windows 
and for tympana of arches, and are laid four 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL r-RlNCIPLES. 37 

courses to the foot. When a large area of paving 
has to be done in this way, the simplest way will 
be to work from a centre line, and lay the middle 
course first and at an angle of 45 degrees, the other 
courses will then follow, and the points may be 
kept right by means of a line drawn parallel to 
the centre line. 

In a panel, the first brick starting from the 
corner should be set to a small set square, forming 
a right angle and two angles of 45 degrees, and 
measuring from the base to the apex 3 inches, or 
whatever the bricks will work. 



Dutch Bond. 

arrangement cs 
It is a modification of English bond, the " closer " 



Fig. 41 is an arrangement called Dutch bond. 



-izi~rTT:rT~in'7rT-] 

' 1 I I I . I I III T' Tl 



1 .1 ' L II , I I : I Vi 



Fig. 4] . 

being omitted and a three-quarter " stretcher " 
used on the " quoin." In every third stretching 
course a "Flemish header" is introduced next 
to the " quoin " brick, by which means the 
" stretchers " in that course arc pushed forward, 
and overlap the " stretchers " below 4| inches, 
instead of being " plumb " over them as in other 



38 BRICKWORK. 

bonds. The advantage of this bond is that addi- 
tional strength is imparted to the wall in the di- 
rection of its length, and that without diminishing 
its transverse strength. A writer in the Builder, 
from which Fig. 41 is taken, speaking of this sub- 
ject says : " As regards construction in common 
English and Flemish bonds, no greater tie in 
the direction of the wall is obtained than 2^ 
inches which one brick overlaps another. If, 
therefore, a fracture takes place, the crack runs 
down the wall, following the joint with only that 
small deviation from a perpendicular line ; but by 
the Dutch method a crack would have to follow 
4 1 inches to the right or left in the courses 
containing the 'Flemish 
header,' or else break 
through the bricks. 
Clearly, therefore, wo 
have some additional 
strength, the lap between 
the courses of 'stretchers' 
being as much as 4 J 
inches." 

The adjoining Fig. 42 
shows the way in which 
buttresses and chimney 
^^^' ^' stacks are reduced. They 

are generally " tumbled in " at an angle of about 
60 or 70 degrees. The beds of the bricks should 
always be at right angles to the " tumbling in." 
The bond on the " battering " jamb will be the 
same as on the upright jamb below. 




materials and general principle?. 39 

" Keeping the Perpends." 

Architects usually specify that the " perpends " 
shall be kept, or, in other words, the yertical 
joints are to fall in plumb lines from top to 
bottom. Owing to the difference in the sizes 
of bricks, this cannot be done with bricks as 
they come to hand ; they must be sorted to a 
length, or cut where necessary, by the bricklayer 
as he proceeds with his work. This would add to 
the cost of the work, and, as cost has to be con- 
sidered in most buildings, it is seldom done. But 
if the bricklayer carry up a plumb line in the 
middle of large piers, and work his bricks between 
that and the plumb reveals or jambs, he will be 
able to keep his " perpends " tolerably regular. 
The " closers " should be cut to a 2i-inch gauge. 

Toothings. 

Toothings should not be allowed in a building 
where they can possibly be avoided ; they are a 
source of weakness, and very often a disfigurement 
to a building. When building into toothings, 
the bricklayer seldom takes the time or trouble to 
make solid work ; and where they have been can 
very often be traced in buildings that have been 
up but a short time by the pointing having 
fallen out right down the line of toothings. This 
is caused in frosty weather, by the expansion of 
moisture which has got into the hollow parts of 
the toothings, forcing the pointing from the 
brickwork, to be washed off by the first heavy 



40 URICKWORK. 

rainfall. Where toothings arc unavoidable, they 
should not be carried up in a straight line from 
bottom to top, as they usually are, but should be 
stepped back everj' few courses, so that the new 
work may be bedded solidly here and there. 
When building new work into old, a chase is 
preferable to a toothing, as the new work is left 
free to settle. But in a front where new work 
has to be built into an old toothing there should 
be no mortar used in the toothing ; the new work 
should be kept a trifle high above the old, and the 
joints of the toothing filled in after the building 
is up. Among the characteristics of good brick- 
work are solidity, perpendicularity, smoothness ; 
the vertical joints carrj- a plumb line from top to 
bottom; the "cross" joints of the "stretchers" 
fall immediately in the centre of the "headers," 
and the bed joints arc neither too thick nor too 
thin. 

Grouting. 

" Grouting " is the practice of using mortar or 
cement in a semi-liquid state to fill up the open 
joints in the work, the result of careless or bad 
workmanship. In some works every course is 
" grouted" in ; in others every four courses. 

"Grouting " is not the best way to obtain solid 
walls, for the mortar being in a serai-fluid state, 
the excess water is absorbed into the bricks of 
which the work is composed, and, as a conse- 
quence, the "grouting" shrinks or subsides, leav- 
ing the joints or interstices only partially filled. A 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 41 

better process is tliat oi" lan'yinrj-up,'' wMcli is, 
after having laid a course of bricks on eacb side 
or face of the wall, to put a proper amount of 
mortar in the wall, and by the addition of water, 
and the use of trowels, shovels, or a larry, to 
reduce it to such a consistency as to be able to 
swim in the bricks solidly. Even in this practice 
there is a subsidence or shrinkage of the mortar, 
with the same effect, though in a less degree, as 
described in "grouting." But the best and proper 
plan is undoubtedly that of putting up the joints 
solidly through each brick as it is laid, and 
having the mortar of such a consistency as to be 
able to draw the joints up solidly when filling in 
the middle of the wall. 

Flues. 

Of the abominations of a bad building, bad 
flues are second only to bad drains. The causes of 
smoky flues are as follows. The sectional area of 
the flue is either too large or too small. Its sec- 
tiono.l area is cramped, the ** cramp" generally oc- 
curring in sharp bends, close to a floor, where the 
bricklayer has to make room for another fire- 
place. The flue is too short, or is not carried up 
high enough to be above some adjoining building 
or contiguous wall. There is too much air-space 
below the throat of the flue, or, in bricklayers' 
phraseology, the wing gatherings are not brought 
over fast enough. In considering the scientific 
principle of flues, we should remember that the 
properties of air in their action are very similar to 



42 BRICKWORK. 

those of water. A stream with a straight smooth 
course flows swiftly and regularly, while one with 
a rugged winding course is full of eddies and 
whirls, and flows with a retarded velocity. So it 
is with flues. An unused flue contains a column 
of cold air in equilibrium with the surrounding 
air. This column of cold air must be rarefied or 
heated before a good draught can be obtained, 
when the denser air rushes in, pushing the lighter 
up. This will account for the fact that a flue 
never draws so well when the fire is first started 
as it does some little time after. 

Where the flue is unnecessarily large, a larger 
volume of air has to be rarefied, and it also admits 
of a possible down draught, or in other words an 
ascending and a descending column, inconsequence 
of the heated air not filling the flue. Where the 
flue is " cramped " somewhere in its length, the 
cause of smoking is that the smoke is checked in 
its ascent just were the "cramp" occurs, the 
smoke escaping with a retarded instead of an 
increasing velocity. Sharp bends have the same 
efi'ect, though in a less degree, as " cramps." Yet 
it is a common thing to hear bricklayers advocat- 
ing sharp bends in flues to increase their draught. 

Every flue should be formed with sufiicient 
bend to prevent the daylight and rain falling upon 
the fire. 

Where a flue terminates below an adjoining 
wall, it will often smoke in consequence of a 
down draught, caused by the wind striking 
against the wall and in its rebound passing 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 43 

down the flue, or at least obstructing for a time 
the passage of the smoke from the flue, which in 
efiect is similar to a down draught. "Where the 
throat of the flue is formed high up above the 
chimney bar there is a large volume of cold air 
collected which has to be heated or rarefied to get 
a proper draught ; until this takes place the smoke 
is obstructed in its ascent, and driven back into 
the room. 

To cure these evils, innumerable contrivances 
have been invented, of various forms and difierent 
degrees of ugliness, and it is almost rare to see a 
house in the metropolis that is not surmoimted 
with one or more of these articles, each advertised 
as a panacea for smoky flues. These so-called 
remedies are (with the exception of the " blower ") 
always applied to the top of the flue, when in fact 
the remedy is generally required at the bottom or 
somewhere in the length of the flue. We would 
give the following advice for flue building. 
Form the throat of the flue as low down as 
possible, and let the sectional area be the same 
throughout its entire length, avoiding all bends 
beyond what is necessary to hide light. "NATiere 
bends cannot be avoided let them be as easy as 
possible, and carry the flue well up above con- 
tiguous structures, and let it be pargetted 
smoothly inside. In building flues " coring 
holes," 12 X 14 inches, should be left out on 
every floor, or at least where every bend occurs, 
and a piece of board put in to catch the mortar 
and brick rubbish that fall while in erection. By 



44 



BRICKWORK. 



this method the flues may be easily " cored " or 
cleared without the aid of a chimney sweep. Flues 
for dwelling-houses arc generally for registers, 
9 X 14 inches, and for kitchens 14 X 14 inches. 
Fig. 43 is the plan of a fireplace and flue for a 
register stove, which we insert by permission of 
the originator, H. Saxon Snell, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. 




Fig. 43. 

The peculiarity and advantage of this fireplace 
is that the sectional area or throat of the flue 
commences immediately on the chimney bar, 
doing away with the necessity of wing gather- 
ings and the possibility of cold air collecting 
round the base of the flue. This for its economy 
of construction and efficiency of action recom- 
mends itself for general use. 

All chimney stacks from the part where they 
pass through a roof, or from the point where 
they separate from a wall with which they 
have been in junction, to their tops, should be 
built in cement and sand instead of with lime 
mortar. 

Where several flues are grouped together in 



MATERIALS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 45 

one stack, instead of dividing them with the 
usual 4|-inch brick " withes," Boyd's flue-plates 
(iron plates | inch thick, and about 12 inches 
square, fitting into each other with a tonguedand 
grooved joint, and built into the sides of the 
stack) are often introduced to economise space. 

To ensure that flues shall have the same sectional 
area in their entirety, they are sometimes built 
round a wooden section-box, open at both ends 
and with a wooden " strap " to take hold of, that 
the box may be pulled up from time to time as the 
work progresses. The box is placed in the space 
intended to be occupied by the flue, and the bricks 
carefully laid with full joints against the box, 
which is drawn up about every two or three feet. 
In some cases the pargetting is dispensed with, 
and the joints struck instead. Good flues are 
undoubtedly obtained in this way. The same end 
is obtained by the use of Doulton's terra-cotta 
flue-pipes ; but when built in small detached piers 
(as they sometimes are), they prove a source of 
weakness by interfering with the bond of the 
work. Where they are grouped in stacks there 
should be a space of 4 J inches between each pipe, 
to admit of bonding the stack in the direction of 
its width. 



46 BRICKWORK. 



SECTION II. 

AKCHES IX GENERAL. 

Arches. 

Arches are of various kinds, but those wliicli 
the bricklayer has to deal with are either circular, 
segmental, scheme, elliptic, or Gothic. To the 
young operative, and in many cases to the aged 
workman, they are veiled in mystery, though a 
little application and determination to understand 
.them would soon make them clear to the opera- 
tive who would be master of his trade. Time was 
when the arch-cutter would box himself up and 
carefully tack strips over the chinks between the 
boards that prying eyes might not penetrate into 
his cutting-shed and discover the craft by which 
he held himself superior to his fellow-workmen. 
This jealousy and exclusiveness is still alive, 
though it is being slowly trampled under by 
means of the flood of light that is spread abroad, 
and is still spreading, from technical classes and 
technical publications. If the young workman 
will but set to work in earnest, there is every 
facility to acquire technical knowledge, and to 
make himself, as a workman, superior to those 
who have gone before, and who, 

" By geometric scale, 
Did gpauge the si/e of pots of ale." 

Let him but catch that spirit breathed forth in 



ARCHES IN GENERAL. 47 

Longfellow's lines to Strasburg Cathedral, and 
success will surely be bis : — 

" A great master of his craft, 
Edwin von Steinbach ; but not he alone, 
For many generations labour'd with him. 
Children that came to see these saints in stone, 
As day by day out of the blocks they rose. 
Grew old and died, and still the work went on, 
And on, and on, and is not yet completed. 

The architect 
Built his great heart into these sculptured stones. 
And with him toil'd his children, and their lives 
"Were buUded with his own into these walls, 
As offerings to God." 

The word arch implies an arrangement of 
bricks or other material in which all its parts — 
we might with equal propriety say particles — are 
in equilibrium ; or, in other words, that the pres- 
sure or thrust to which it is subjected is trans- 
mitted from one course to the other, and distri- 
buted throughout the whole of the arch, each 
course or voussoir taking its share. . Every brick- 
layer who has turned an arch will have noticed 
that this condition is not obtained by simply 
turning the arch on its centre and keying it in, 
the tendency being for the arch, by reason of its 
own weight, to spread out at the springing, or if 
this be prevented to buckle up at the haunches, 
to prevent which and bring about equilibrium, 
calculations have to be made so as to apportion 
the weight at the haunches to resist or counteract 
the thrust from the crown. Such mathematicians 
as Dr. Ilooke, Huygens, Leibnitz, and many 
others, devoted much time and attention to the 
solution of the principle of the arch under the 



48 BRICKWORK. 

name of the catenary curve (Latin catena, a chain) ; 
and the conclusion they arrived at was, that the 
true shape of an arch is that into which a chain 
would arrange itself if freely suspended from two 
points whose distance apart is equal to the span 
of the intended arch. We have mentioned these 
things because, considering the way in which 
arches are often thrown together, it is well that 
the artisan should know there is a principle 
involved in their construction. 

Eelieving Arche?. 

Relieving arches should be turned over all 
lintols where practicable, and should spring clear 
of their ends. They should not be built, as they 
generally are, solid on the brick " core," whereby 
the weight of the wall above is transmitted from 
the arch to the " core," from the " core " to the 
lintol, and from the lintol to the frame, very often 
to the great injury of the latter ; but should be 
built at least f inch clear of the " core." This 
can bo done by putting a layer of sand f inch 
thick on the core, and raking it out with a 
trowel or piece of hoop iron when the arch is 
turned, that it may take its own bearing. They 
should be turned in compo. 

The above remarks apply to where the window 
and door frames are built into the brickwork 
during erection ; and more particularly to arches 
intended to relieve free-stone rectangular door 
and window heads. It is not an uncommon thing 
to see such heads fractured right through their 



AKCHES IN GENERAL. 49 

depth in about the middle of the openings which, 
they span, and kept from falling only by the 
weight of brickwork upon their ends ; though the 
architect has been careful to provide against 
superincumbent weight by the use of relieving 
arches, but which, through inexperience or want of 
judgment, or some other cause, have been built 
upon a solid " core." 

Plain Akches. 

All arches put in with bricks as they come from 
the brickfield come under the term plain arches, 
and are built in concentric rings of 4| inches 
laid as "headers" on edge, instead of bonding 
by " stretchers," to avoid the large joints that 
would unavoidably occur at the extrados, thereby 
decreasing the strength of the arch unless it 
were built with cement, or a strong hydraulic 
mortar, as lias. 

The Skew or Oblique Arch. 

This arch is used in the construction of bridges 
over roads or waterways where the bridge is not 
at right angles to the road passing under it. 

Two very remarkable arches of this kind may 
be seen on the Metropolitan District Eailway at 
Brondesbury, and which the writer believes to be 
the only bridges so constructed. Of these we will 
speak hereafter. 

To set out and understand drawings of the 
skew arch, a knowledge of solid or descriptive 
geometry is indispensable ; but as the setting out 

D 



50 



BRICKWORK. 



is generally performed by the engineer or in- 
spector of works, we will confine our remarks to 
that portion of the work which properly belongs 



to the operative bricklayer. 
F 



A B c D, Fig. 44, 




Fig. U. 

represents the plan of a skew arch of which e f c 
would be a section cut square with the abut- 
ments. E c A is called the angle of skew, for it 
shows how much out of square the face of the 
arch is with the road, a c is the face of the 
arch, and as the "bed" joints (called by engi- 
neers "coursing" joints) start square from the 
face, they must run in a diagonal direction across 
the centre, as seen in c d « b, which is a develop- 
ment of the soffit of the arch. To make this 
clear, we will suppose the courses to be pencilled 
on the centre, and a sheet of white paper folded 
round the centre and rubbed until the pencil 
marks be transferred to the paper. If the paper — 



ARCHES IN GENERAL. 



61 



fastened at c d, the abutment line — be now un- 
folded from tbe centre and spread out on a level 
surface as in Fig. 44, we shall have a develop- 
ment of the soffit of the arch, c a is the length 
of the line on the centre from c to a. d 6 is the 
length of the line on the centre from d b, and is 




Fig. 45. 

parallel with ca. cb is the length of a line on 
the centre from c to b. 

In long skew arches the bricks, instead of 
being laid on the skew all through the arch, are 
D 2 



52 



BRICKWORK. 



arranged as iu Fig, 45, wliere the skew courses 
are intersected by courses laid parallel "svith tlie 
abutments. The skew courses are marked on 
the centre by means of a " coursing mould," 
which should be supplied by the engineer or 
inspector in charge of the work, a b is the plan 
of a line on the centre from a to b. All the 
courses on the centre will be so many spirals or 
screws parallel to each other. Each brick on the 
face of the arch will require a different bevel, 
but by far the easiest and the best way to get 
these will be to let the bricks stand well out in 
front of the face line, and cut them off to the line 
of work when the centre is struck. But when 
the bricks used are too hard to be cut, such as 
Staffordshire blue bricks, they must be moulded 
to the required bevels. 




Tig. 4o. 



Skew Arch at Brondesbury. 

The remarkableness of this arch or skew is not 
alone in its construction, but in the angle that it 
makes with the roadway that it spans, the angle 



ARCHES IN GENERAL. 



53 



being so acute as to cause tlie abutment line or 
skew-back of one side to fall without the abut- 
ment line of the other side. This is shown by 
the line a b at right angles to c c, d d, Fig. 46. 




Fig. 47. 



Let us imagine that across a given road we 
have to construct a bridge whose angle of skew 



54 BRICKWORK. 

shall be equal to that on the accompanying 




rip. 4S. Fiff. 49, 



Fig. 46. It is clear that we cannot construct it 
on the principle of the ordinary skew arch, viz. 



ARCHES IN GENERAL. 65 

to take tlie courses (starting square with tlie face 
of the arcla) as so many spirals across the centre, 
finding their abutment in the line c c, and as 
we have explained at page 60. An arch so con- 
structed could not stand, for the lines of force, 
or thrust, acting at right angles to the abut- 
ments, would find no resistance, and consequently 
collapse. But the engineer who designed the 
bridge in question, seeing this, fell back on the 
principle that should regulate the construction of 
all arches where strength is required, that the 
heel joints shall ho in the line of radii, and on the 
soffit parallel with the ahutment, and thus in the 
simplest, yet most eflPective manner, solved the 
otherwise difficult problem. Fig. 47 shows the 
sectional elevation on the line e f in plan. Fig. 48 
the plan, and Fig. 49 the face arch in elevation 
of a bridge somewhat similar to that at Brondes- 
bury, constructed in the same way, and involving 
the same principles. 

The plan of the abutments and skew-backs are 
shown by dotted line (Fig. 48). 

The following are approximate dimensions of 
this bridge, which we have taken by step mea- 
surement : distance between abutments, 45 feet ; 
depth of bridge, measured along the abut- 
ment, 26 feet ; rise of arch from cord line to 
crown of soffit, 20 feet ; projection of one abut- 
ment beyond the other (d beyond a, for instance, 
Fig. 46), 36 feet. The arch is made up of twelve 
4j-inch concentric rings of brickwork. 



56 



BRICKWORK. 



Water Conduit. 

Fig. 50, a section of a water conduit in Massa- 
chusetts, U.S.A., upon whieli the author was 
engaged as inspector of works, is worthy of 
notice, as showing the construction resorted to 
where a bad bottom occurs. In this case a large 




Fig. 50. 

portion of the work (which was eighteen miles in 
length) ran through very swampy ground, a 
natural watercourse that di'ained a large tract of 
the adjacent country, and at times so great was 
the pressure of the water as to cause it to rise in 
a natural fountain 6 or 7 feet above the exca- 
vations. When this occurred, stones of sizes 
similar to those of which the retaining walls were 



ARCHES IN GENERAL. 67 

built were shot into the hole until the water 
subsided or found an easier outlet elsewhere. It 
was also necessary to keep pumps working night 
and day. 

The bottom consisted of 6 X 6 inch transoms, 
18 inches apart, to which were spiked 2-inch 
planks, and these in turn were covered with 1-inch 
boards, with joints properly broken, as in floor- 
ing. The invert, when the side walls were built, 
was formed with concrete ready to receive the 
brickwork. The whole of the work, including 
concrete, was built in Rosendale cement, manu- 
factured in Hosendale, New York, from a stone 
found in that locality, which when manufactured 
is in colour very similar to Roman cement, but less 
quick in setting, and attaining a greater ultimate 
strength. It will be noticed that the sides of 
the invert are struck from the springing line a, 
and the bottom from h, and that to get the requi- 
site skew-back for the top and bottom beds, a 
pio'pose made brick is introduced, whose beds arc 
in the line of radii from a and h. 

Sewers are constructed on the same principle 
as water conduits, with this difierence, that while 
strength and sound work suiSice for the latter, to 
these must be added smoothness for sewers, avoid- 
ing all " shoulders," " lips," protuberances, or 
other irregularities likely to increase friction, or 
in any way retard the velocity of the sewage. 
"Where the flow is intermittent they are generally 
built egg-shaped, to minimise the frictional area. 

d3 



58 BRICKWOKK. 

Groined YArLTiyc. 

Brick groin-Taulting (a very neat sample of 
which may be seen at the entrance to Winchester 
Flats, "Winchester Terrace. Chelsea Embankment) 
was at one time very much in practice, but 
moulded stone ribs finishing at the apex with a 
carved boss now generally take the places of the 
brick groins. Samples of this kind of work may 
be seen at St. Augustine's, Kilbum ; St. John's, 
Auckland Road, Upper Norwood, and the red 
brick church adjoining the Croydon railway 
station, all designed in that style known as the 
thirteenth century, or Early English, by John L. 
Pearson, E,.A. Some good Gothic vaulting in 
red brickwork may also be seen at the New Law 
Courts, London. In executing the groin the 
bricks must be cut so as to form a return on the 
intersecting arch or vault ; but a proper bond, as 
in square angles, cannot always be obtained, for, 
instead of the bricks returning from right to left 
and from left to right every other course, it will 
be found necessary to sometimes return several 
courses in succession, all from one side, before 
getting what bricklayers would call "a tie." 
This is caused by the groin not getting away fast 
enough from an imaginary line drawn across the 
arch from e to g Fig. 51. It is also impossible 
to keep the perpends regular near the groin, but 
they should be kept as regular as practicable with 
a good bond on the groin. 

Before the bricklayer can cut his bricks, the 



ARCHES IN GENERAL. 



59 



centres must be placed m position, and the bricks 
can then be cut to fit the intersection, which they 
should very accurately, and when the centres 
are " struck " present clean and well-defined 
arrises. Fig. 51 is the plan of two semi- 
cylindrical vaults, intersecting in the groins e f 




Fig. 51. 

and G H. The curve formed by the groin is an 
ellipse shown in angular elevation on e f 
by dotted curve. Sections of the vaults are 
shown on A B and c d. Sometimes instead of 
being as here shown, the intersecting arches are 
Gothics, or one Gothic and the other semi- cylin- 
drical ; but if what we have written be understood 
no difficulty will present itself. In all such cases 
the bricklayer must space his centre out into 
courses, and turn the arches as any other arch, 
with the exception of the groin, which must be 
treated as described. 

In Gothic vaulting, as described above, in 



60 BRICKWORK. 

^hich the spaces between the stone springers are 
filled in M'ith brickwork, the setting out of the 
courses is done by marking upward from the 
intersection, or springing of the ribs, an equal 
distance along the cross rib and the diagonal or 
converging rib, and connecting these two points 
with a line. Upon another line at right angles 
with this, the courses may be pricked in from 
springing to apex, and their beds shown by lines 
parallel with the first line, connecting the ribs. 
A sample of fan-groining, in red brickwork, may 
be seen at the subway to the Crystal Palace, 
Sydenham. 



GAUGED-WORK AND ARCH-CUTTING. 61 



SECTION III. 

GAUGED-WOEK AND AKCH-CUTTING, 
Gauged TTork. 

" Cutting " is divided into " axed work " and 
" gauged work." In the former the bricks are 
finished with the Scotch, with just a rub or two 
round the rubbing stone to take off the irregulari- 
ties of the beds, allowing -nr of an inch joint for 
tuck-pointing. This work is intended to represent 
" gauged work," and is supposed to be a trifle 
cheaper. " Gauged work " is a very superior 
kind of brickwork, executed in soft bricks set with 
a white putty joint, which should not exceed the 
thickness of a new sixpence. The bricks used 
are Fareham rubbers and T. L. B. rubbers for 
red work ; and malm-cutters and sometimes white 
Suffolks for malm or stock work. Of red bricks 
Fareham Rubbers are the best ; they are of a 
close, firm texture, will carry a sharp arris, and 
weather well ; in colour they are cherry red. 
No. ones T. L. B.'s are good bricks, though less 
firm than Farehams, but of an even texture ; 
they are divided by colour into two classes — 
cherry-red and orange tint. The orange is gene- 
rally used, as they contrast well with the red 
building bricks, but will not carry so sharp an 
arris or weather so well as the darker bricks. 

" Gauged work " is often objected to on the 
ground that it will not resist the action of the 
weather. This we can refute by our own ex- 



62 BRICKWORK. 

perience, for we have taken out old "gauged" 
arches in malms that have withstood for forty 
years the acids contained in London smoke, and 
have shown no signs of decay or disintegration. 
We can cite another instance of the indurating 
properties of " gauged work " in white Suflfolks 
when exposed to the action of the atmosphere. 
During the erection of the Rackham Street 
Marylebonc Infirmary, some geometrical win- 
dows in these bricks had to be cleaned down 
some three or four months after erection. This 
process had to be done by rasping the face of the 
brickwork, and so hard had become the bricks that 
it was with difficulty that an impression could be 
made at all, the rasps sliding ofi" the work and 
leaving a black mark ! Bricks in this condition 
are said by bricklayers to be case-hardened. 

This so-called case-hardening we attribute to 
the process of setting. In good setting the bricks 
are always soaked (not to saturation) in water, 
which in a building in course of erection always 
contains more or less lime in solution, which is 
taken up by the brick while soaking, and by 
exposure to the atmosphere becomes carbonised 
and forms a hard coating, as it were, upon the face 
of the brick. This case-hardening is also attri- 
buted to " the silicic acid in the clay acting upon 
the cbalk so as to form some of it into a silicate 
of lime." Rubbers are purposely made much 
larger than the ordinary building bricks to allow 
for cutting and gauging them four courses to the 
foot, though as a rule they will not hold out or 



GAUGED-WORK AND ARCH-CUTTING. 63 

bed more than 11| inches with close joints. 
T. L. B.'s as they come from the brickfield 
measure lOj X 4| X 3| inches. 

They are also obtainable 12 inches long, but 
bricks this length are only required for Camber 
arches, or Gothic arches whose bed joints radiate 
from the centre, as in Figs. 57 and 58, in which 
so much of the brick is cut away to form the long 
bevels on the soffit and crown, that the ordinary 
sized bricks will not " hold out " to the required 
lengths, and have therefore to be lengthened, 
where necessary, by forming the long ''stretchers" 
out of two three-quarter bricks (this will be best 
understood by examining a few actual camber 
arches) ; to obviate which, the 12 inch bricks 
are made. 

Setting. 

In setting "gauged work" the joint is taken 
up by absorption by holding the bed of the brick 
in contact with the putty, which must have the 
proper consistency and be kept in a small putty- 
box made with a level top, so that the setter can 
rest or steady his arm upon it while " dipping " 
his brick. Before putting the brick in place, the 
putty is scraped off the middle of the "bed," 
that it may set or joint more evenly. The joint 
should not be touched after the brick is "bed- 
ded," but should be left full like a small bead. 
Stone lime should be used for setting, as chalk 
lime is not fit for out-door work. Axed-work is 
generally set with putty and cement. If the 



64 BRICKWORK. 

work has to be carved deeply, it is best to build it all 
" headers," and " grout" it in solidly at back with 
Portland cement, that the bricks may not break 
up or get disturbed under the chisel of the carver. 
A composition of whitening and patent knotting 
is more frequently used than lime-putty for 
bedding or setting work intended to be carved, 
and for ornamental key-blocks made up of two or 
more bricks. It will be found most convenient 
to put such keys or blocks together in the cutting- 
shed, and take them upon the building to be set 
as one piece of work. These remarks apply 
equally well to the niche hood in every particular. 
Gauged work intended to be bedded in the above 
composition should be quite free from moisture ; 
but the bricks should not be placed round a fire 
for this purpose, as they often are, for by so doing 
they are made fragile and are easily broken. It 
is, therefore, very imperative that a good water- 
tight cutting-shed be made for the bricklayer and 
another shed for the bricks. 

Drawing and Cutting Arches. 

This forms a very important branch in the 
trade of the bricklayer, and a thorough knowledge 
of it is indispensable to the operative who would 
be master of his trade. In this section we will 
endeavour to make clear not only the setting out 
of the various arches, but how to take off the bevels 
and moulds, and apply them to arch-cutting. 

An understanding of this will not be so difficult 
as may at first sight appear. The tools required 



GAUGED-WORK AND ARCH-CDTTIXG. 65 

for this work are — the rubbing-stone (which should 
not exceed in diameter 14 inches), hammer, boaster, 
Scotch, scriber, and tin-saw. The scriber is a 
small tin saw, used for marking the beds and 
bevels on the bricks. 

The Bulls-Eye 

Should have four keys, a, b, c, d, which when 
possible should be " stretchers ;" but as this 
cannot always be done unless rz 

by very much reducing the 
size of the courses (techni- 
cally called roussoirs), they r{:^z=L. f-^-^^-^6 
are, therefore, frequently 
put in as in Fig. 52. The 
face mould for this arch is 
obtained by making a wooden Fig. 52. 

pattern, as at d, on which the actual length of 
the brick is marked, and also its bevel, which 
is taken off the drawing by placing the stock 
of the bevel along the bed joint, and moving 
the blade until it coincides or is in line with 
the soffit of that particular brick whose bevel 
is required. All the courses have the same 
bevel and the same length. It is usual to have 
two moulds made, so as to trace or traverse 
the courses round the arch, to ensure that 
the key brick will come in rightly (though one 
mould and two parallel straight edges would do 
equally as well) ; for if the mould be in the 
least inaccurate, the inaccuracy will be trans- 
mitted to each brick, and this multiplied by the 




66 BRICKWORK. 

number of courses in the arch (in this case 36), 
supposing the inaccuracy to be iV of an inch, 
would amount to 2j inches, in all probability 
the thickness of a course. Having proved 
the moulds, the pattern brick or soffit is marked 
lower down on the mould, that the brick when 
cut will be the thickness of a joint less than the 
brick shown on the setting out. The bevel of the 
thick end or c.rtrados, as it is named, is the same 
as that of the soffit. 

The arch cutter will find it most convenient to 
have a square piece of wood, 4| by 9 inches, with 
parallel sides, which held flush with the soffit 
will give the exact place and bevel of the cross 
joint, and held longwise the length of the brick 
and its end bevel. 

In cutting, the first operation is to square the 
bed and face of the brick, after which the soffit 
is bevelled. The brick is then placed on a bedding 
board (a piece of slate or wood with a straight 
even surface) in the same position that it will 
have in the arch. The face mould is applied to 
the brick with the soffit mark against the soffit of 
the brick, and the scriber drawn along the top 
edge of the mould marks the wedge shape which 
the brick will have when finished. The back of 
the brick is marked in the same way, and is then 
finished with theboaster, Scotch, and rubbing stone. 

Semi and Skgmknt.vl Arches. 

What has been said of the bulls-eye applies in 
every respect to the semi (Fig. 70) and the seg- 



GAUGED-WORK AND ARCH-CUTTING. 



67 




i^.'''' 






Tig. 53. 



ment arch. To draw the curve (Fig. 53), tlie 
span and rise being 
given, bisect the line 
a 1) with c d; join eb, 
and bisect this line 
•withih; a line drawn 
from ^ through b will 
give the line of skew- 
back. Taking the dis- 
tance i b in the com- 
pass, with one leg- 
fixed at /, the lower curve may be drawn from 
b to a. Nine inches measured along the skew- 
back from b will give the point from which to 
draw the outer curve. On the outer curve, with 
c d as centre line, set out 3 inches, or whatever 
a brick with its joint will hold out, and with the 
mould (shown by dotted lines) trace the courses 
down to the skewback, increasing or diminishing 
the thickness of the brick as may be required by 
raising or lowering the mould. 

The Camber Arch. 

Fig. 54 is a camber, 12 inches deep, in Flemish 
bond. The skewback is obtained by taking in 
the compass the distance a b, and from these 
points, with a b as radius, drawing the inverted 
Gothic ; a line from c through b will be the line 
of skewback, or springing. To draw this arch 
when the skewback is given — say 4i inches — from 
the centre line set off the distance between the 
reveals from a b; 12 inches above the springing. 



68 



BRICKWORK. 



draw the line d c, and from centre Kne along d e 
measure off a distance 4| inches beyond the reveal ; 
from this point draw a line through b, intersecting 
the central line in c. On d e measure off 1| inch 
each side of the centre line, or whatever a brick 
with its joint will measure. Lines drawn from 
these two points to e will represent the key, and 
also the face mould. Make two moulds 9 inches 




(4| inches at each end) longer than the key. 
With the mould, shown by dotted lines, upon 
the key, on one of its edges,/; where a h meets it, 
make a pencil mark. Put the other mould on top 
of this and transfer the mark to it. "With the 
two moulds, keeping the pencil mark always on 
the line a h, traverse the courses in down to the 
skewback as described in the bulls-eye. Take off 
the bevels, starting from the skewback, and pencil 



GAUGED- WORK AND ARCH-CUTTING. 69 

them upon the mould, 1, 2, 3, and so on, as shown 
in Fig. 00, a, which is a mould with the lengths 
and bevels of each course upon it. One-half only 
of the arch need be set out. The cross joints 
may be cut in the courses with the saw and 
parallel board, as previously described, always 
working from the soffit. For greater accuracy 
and distinctness, the bevels may be pencilled on 
the back of the mould, at the top end, keeping 
them some little distance apart, and numbering 
them as already described. The courses may be 
traversed in by working from the. top line d e, 
instead of from the soffit, marking on the mould, 




downward from the top mark, the length of each 
course. Having thoroughly understood the set- 
ting out and cutting of this arch, no difficulty will 
be experienced with any of the ordinary arches. 

The soffit generally cambers \ of an inch to the 
foot. 

The camber is not suited for large openings, or 
where any considerable weight has to be carried, 
as it is in reality not an arch at all, but simply 
an arrangement or scheme. 

The Gothic Arch. 

Bisect the line a b, Fig. 56, with c d, and draw 
ad; from these two points with the compass 



^0 



BRICKWORK. 



opened to more than half their distance draw the 
arcs s f. Through their intersections draw a line 
meeting « 6 in y, from which point with the 




compass opened to a, draw the curve a i d, and by 
extending the compass, its parallel curve. From 
h draw the curves on the right-hand side. The 
bed joints radiate from // and g, as shown by- 




Fig. 57. 



dotted lines. To do away with the very wedge- 
shaped key, the joints are sometimes radiated 
from the centre, as in Fig. 57. This key is also 



GAUGED- WORK AND ARCH-CUTTING. 7.1 

objected to by some on account of the oddness of 
its appearance at the key — a " stretcher" on one 
side and two "headers" on the other (this is what 
bricklayers call keying in with a joint), to pre- 
vent which a " birdsmouthed " key is used, Fig. 
58. In the last arrangement the arch has an odd 
number of bricks, in the two former an even 
number. Whatever objections may be urged 



riff. 5s. 

against the appearance of Figs. 56 and 57, the 
birdsmouthed key in Fig. 58 is decidedly wrong : — 

*' The essential character of the Gothic arch is 
derived from the absence of the key-stone, and 
from the presence of the perpendicular joint or 
opening in the centre where the archivolts rest 
against each other. Until we find this feature, 
Gothic architecture does not exist," — Normand)/ : 
Archifcctiirc of the Middle Ages. 

Fig. 56 is made up of two segments of a 
circle, and the mould is obtained in the same 
way as that for the segment. The moulds for 
Figs. 57 and 58 are obtained in the same way as 
that for the camber, the bricks being all of a 



72 



BRICKTVORK. 



different bevel and length. These like the cam- 
ber are schemes, not arches, as the bed joints do 
not fall -within the lines of radii. 

The Ellipse Gothic Arch. 
Divide the span a b, Fig. 59, into three equal 
parts ; take two parts in the compass, and with 
one leg fixed at a draw the arc d e, and from d 




Fig. 59. 

the arc a e. In the same way draw the arcs l f, 
cf. Through e and d draw the line eg; through 
c f the line / //. TTith d as centre, radius d b, 
draw the arc b i, and from e, radius e i, the arc 
ij. The points from which the joints radiate are 
shown by dotted lines. Two different face moulds 
are required for this arch. 

The Semi-Ellipse Arch. 

Divide the span a b, Fig. 60, into two equal 
parts, a c, c b, and a c, into six equal parts, 1, 2, 



GAUGED-WOKK AND AROH-CUTTINO. 



'3 



3, 4, &c. From c towards b measure off two of 
those parts, and with the distance 4 d in the com- 
pass, and one leg fixed at 4, draw an arc cutting- 
the centre line in e. Through e cl draw the line 
ef; with d as centre, radius d b, draw the arc 
b g, and from e Avith radius e g, the arc g h. Two 
ways are here shown of putting in the courses — 
one in which the joints radiate from their centres 




or foci d e, the other from c the centre of the 
opening. In the second method the lengths and 
bevels of each brick would be different. The first 
is an arch, the second a scheme, and is never 
adopted except in face work when, in the opinion 
of some people, it is desirable to have the courses 
all one thickness, even at the loss of strength. 
In the second method the mould, lengths, and 
bevels are taken off in the same way as those of 
the camber. 



74 



BRICKWORK. 



The Yexetian Arch. 

This so-called arch, Fig. 61, is made up of the 
camber and semi, and was a few years ago very 
much used in the construction of three-lig-ht 




Fi?.i:i. 



windows, sometimes with and sometimes nithout 
supporting muUions. Without mullions it is a 
very weak construction, and incapable of carrying 
much weight. But in this case it is generally 
allowed to have a bearing on the head of the 
solid window frame by showing less than 4^ inches 
on the soffit. It is sometimes relieved by a gauged 
discharging arch above it. Having drawn the 



GAUGED-WORK A^'D ARCH-CUTT1^■G. 



75 



semi, draw the parallel lines a b, e d, and through 
their points of intersection e f the line eg. A 
line from g through a will be the line of skew- 
back. This re]3eated on the opposite side will 
find /. Next draw the angle brick j, the joints in 
the semi radiating from //, and the joints in the 
camber from /. Two diflferent face moulds are 
required, which with the lengths and bevels of 
the courses must be taken off in the same way as 
described in the camber. 

The Scheme Arch. 

Fig. 62 is the same as the segment, with this 
di£terence, that instead of springing from its 




proper skewback c h, and its courses radiating 
from c, the curve is brought down to a level line 
or very near it, and the joints radiated from the 
centre of the opening in the level line. The 
scheme is the offspring of an antiquated and bad 
taste, and is not much used in the present day. 
One would think that its ugliness and want of 
truth would entirely forbid its use. It is treated 
by the cutter in the same way as the camber arch. 
e2 



BRICKWORK. 




Tic. 03. 



The Semi-Gothic Arch. 

To draw the semi- Gothic, Fig. 63, bisect (divide 

into two equal parts) 
1 the line a h with the 

perpendicular c d, and 
Laving determined the 
height of the apex d, 
from d draw the line 
d h, and from these 
two points the arcs 
through which the 
line € f passes, inter- 
secting the cord a l 
in e. Now with the distance e h in the compass 
draw the Gothic or outside curve. Repeat this 
operation on the other side and the outline of the 
arch will be drawn. To fill in the courses divide 
the sofiit or semi into equal parts, whatever a brick 
will work or " hold out," and from the centre c 
through these parts radiate the courses as shown. 
The moulds are taken off as described in the buUs- 
cve, and traversed from the key downward to the 
springing, taking care that the soffit mark on the 
mould always comes on the soffit of the arch. 
Having done this, mark on the mould the length 
of each course, which will also give the bevels of 
the top ends of the courses. The mould is shown 
on the springing course with the length and the 
outside bevel marked on it ; g is the soffit mark to 
cut to; allowance must be made for the joint. 



GAL'GED-AVORK AND ARCH-CUTTIXG. 



77 



Gothic on Circle Arch. 

rig. 64 shows the way to set out the moulds 

for a Gothic arch in a turret or bay that 

is circular in plan. Draw the elevation of the 

arch and the plan of the wall. A little considera- 




Fig. 64. 

tion will show that the face of each course has a 
different curvature or "sweep," that at the spring- 
ing having the greatest — equal to the wall itself 
— and the key the least, the curvature becoming 
less as the courses approach towards an upright 
position. A separate section mould must therefore 
be obtained for each course. Divide the bed 



78 BRICKWORK. 

joint of tlie course d whose curvature is required 
into a number of equal parts, from which drop 
lines square with ./■ ?/, and intersecting the outside 
curve in o, 1, 2, 3, 4 in plan. Draw o p parallel 
with X y, and transfer the distances 1, 2, 3, 4 
from p in plan to lines or ordinates square with 
the bed joint of the course whose curvature we 
are obtaining. A line drawn through these points 
will be the curvature of the section or soffit mould. 
By the same method the curvature of each course 
may be obtained. If all the soffit moulds were drawn 
connectedly, as a r., we should have what would 
be called a development of the soffit. The Gothic 
on circle is the same principle as circle on circle. 

To Find the Soffit Mould. 

From a drop down the two left-hand lines 
passing through the circular wall below x y. 
From their intersection with the two curves draw 
lines parallel with .>■ y. Take the thickness of 
the soffit in the compasses, and with one leg fixed 
anywhere in the upper line draw an arc cutting 
the lower line ; these four points connected will 
give the soffit mould a. Moulds for two course, 
a and h, are shown ; the others are obtained in 
the same way. This arch in practice is generally 
cut by rule of thumb, or what workmen call 
" near enough," and rubbed down to a suitable 
shape when the building is up, and its faults 
hidden with stopping of the colour of the bricks. 
But where perfect accuracy is required the moulds 
must be obtained as shown. 



ORNAMENTAL BRICKWOKK. 79 

SECTION IV. 

ORNAMENTAL BEICKWOEK. 

Ornamental brickwork in this coimtiy has 
reached its greatest height in connection with 
the Queen Anne style of architecture, as elabo- 
rated in the present day. The oriel windows of 
the Tudor, the ornamental gables and picturesque 
chimneys of the Elizabethan, are all merged into 
it, and with such a profusion of carving as to be 
unprecedented in any former age. Indeed, to 
such an extent is this being carried as to call forth 
from one of our most popular architects the asser- 
tion that we are fast departing from the yernacular 
of our street architecture. Let us rather say, if 
we may use the expression, that we have entered 
into the Augustan age of brickwork, in which 
the stuccoed front with its hidden carcass of 
"shuffs" and "place bricks" — often the refuse 
of the brick-field — is superseded by that which is 
what it appears to be, bearing on its face the 
unmistakable stamp of truth ! 

The Niche. 

Figs. 65, 66, and 67 are the elevation plan and 
section of a niche in Flemish bond. This is con- 
sidered by bricklayers to be one of the most artistic 
pieces of work in connection with their trade. 
There are two kinds of niches, the semi and the 



80 



BRICKWORF. 



elliptic. In tlie former it is circular in plan and 
elevation, in the latter it is elliptic in plan and 
circular in elevation. If that in our illustration be 
understood, no difficulty will be experienced with 




Tig. cc. 



the others. The back or upright part is built to a 
template forming a semicircle, and the bond set out 
as shown on plan Fig. G6, the joints of one course 
being shown by thick lines, and those of the 



ORNAMENTAL BRICKWORK. 



81 



course below by dotted lines. But ft is the hood, 
the more difficult part, that we wish to explain. 
To make the centre, two pieces of wood, each a 
semi of the same circle as the niche, are nailed 
together with brackets in the internal angle (Fig. 
68), and the space between the brackets filled in 
with core, pieces of bricks and mortar, and the 
surface finished with plaster of Paris, by means 
of a template a little more than a quarter of a 
circle (called the generating circle) fixed with a 
gimlet to the back of the bottom semi. The 




0. CcnJbre/ 



of (jbrdtrfj 



Fig. 68. 

template rotating upon the gimlet as an axis, 
with the other end of it carried round the edge 
of the upright semi, a quarter of a sphere will be 
described or generated. 

"We have now got the centre or turning piece. 

Next draw the front arch as an ordinary semi arch, 

and mark the same number of courses on the top 

of the centre to represent the soffits. Then with 

E 3 



82 



BRICKWORK. 



a plianth straiglit-edge or the rotating template, 
mark tlie courses on the plaster centre, all meet- 
ing in a needle-point where the gimlet entered ; 
but as the bricks cannot be so finely cut, a small 
semicircle or " boss " is introduced of such a size 
that the bricks at the points where they meet it will 
be in thickness about half an inch. The courses 
are all of the same length and bevel, and the 
soffits must be bevelled in the same way as those 




J^-..-.-- ; 



i — -''" 

1 
I 

Fig. 69. 

of an ordinary semi arch ; and by looking at the 
elevation and section we see that the hood is made 
up of a series of semies increasing in size from 
the " boss " to the face arch. 




ornamental brickwork. 83 

The Niche Mould. 

The lengtli of the course must be measured 
from where it meets the " boss " to the outside of 
the 9-inch face arch. From h, Fig. 69, draw a 
line square with c d, and on it mark a distance 
/ h equal to the arc a c, and from /a distance /gr 
equal to c e, making g k equal to r/' Ic in elevation 
(Fig. 65) ; connecting these two points with the 
circle h we obtain the 
mould. The length of c a 
is obtained by dividing it 
into small spaces and 
transfering them along 
the line h /; / g is the ^'s-^^- 

length of the key brick, and is shown turned up 
into its proper position c e. 

Moulded Courses. 

It is the work of the bricklayer to cut and form 
all kinds of mouldings, dentils, entasis columns, 
flutings, and such like members in gauged work, 
leaving the more intricate, such as design and 
foliage, to be executed by the carver. Fig. 71 
shows the kind of box that is used for cutting 
moulded bricks to any required section — in this 
case an ogee. The box is generally made to hold 
two headers or one stretcher. The brick or 
bricks, having been squared and rubbed down to 
the required thickness, are placed in this box and 
with the bow-saw roughly cut out, and then 
rubbed down to the section of the box with a 



84 



BRICKWORK. 



rasp, and sometimes a piece of straight gas-pipe 
to form the hollow members, the bricks being 




Fig. 71. 

very soft. Care must be taken that the bricks 
be not wedged up or cramped too tightly in the 
box so as to " flush " the edges ; and here we 
miffht mention that it is sometimes advisable to 
work the bricks a little wide, that in case of 
" flushing " they may be brought up to an arris 
by a rub or two on the stone. The cross piece or 
pieces on the top of the box are omitted for the 
sake of clearness. 



Ornamental Arches 

are those that have movdded soffits ; and in such 
as the semi and segment, and in fact all that 
have the courses to one bevel, the moulding 
may be worked square, and applying the face 
mould cut in every respect similar to an arch 
with a square soffit. In this case one bed (the 
bottom one) will be square with the soffit. 



ORNAMENTAL BRICKWORK. 85 

and the other very much wedge-shaped. The 
courses must be cut rights and lefts, but the key 
and two springing bricks must be wedge-shaped 
from both beds, otherwise they will want bedding 
up with large joints to fit the centre, and thus 
spoil the appearance of the arch. 

"When a camber, or any arch whose courses 
have different bevels, has to be moulded on the 
soffit, the bricks must first be bevelled and after- 
wards moulded, and, lastly cut to the required 
shape and length by the application of the face 
mould, as before described. 

The Oriel "Window 

belongs peculiarly to ornamental brickwork 
(stone constructions being entirely excluded from 
this work), and we may add red brickwork. 
The first thing to be considered in connection 
with the oriel is its counterbalance. In all 
heavy projections in brickwork York flagging 
stones are employed ; they are built into the 
main wall from which the projection starts, pro- 
jecting to a distance suitable for the work. The 
weight of the projection on the stones is counter- 
balanced by the greater weight of brickwork on 
the other ends of the York slabs. But in the 
present case a girder or rolled iron joist, running 
in the direction of the wall line, and entering 
some 12 inches into the brick wall forming the 
side jambs, would have to be placed sufficiently 
low to allow the floor boards to pass over it. The 
flags and the weight upon them would be counter- 



86 



BRICKWORK. 



balanced by tbe girder. Tbe principle of 
counterbalance is known to bricklayers by the 
name of " tailing down." 

The whole of the oriel (Fig. 72) as shown 




Fig. 72. 

would be in brickwork, " gauged " and set in putty. 
The projecting courses, as the moulded string h, 
and the window-sill would be covered with 5-lb. 
lead, slightly projecting to form a drip for the 
water or rain. 



ORNAMENTAI. BBICK"WORK. 87 

The base liere shown would be surmounted 
with mullions in brick or wood (most likely 
wood on account of its comparative lightness), 
and finished either with a semi-coned tiled roof 
or a balustrade. TVindows of this type may be 
seen at Carlyle House, Chelsea Embankment ; 
and the Agnew Picture Gallery, New Bond 
Street. 

The bricklayer when setting out the work 
must strike all the successive courses from one 
point, c, regulating the length of the radius-rod 
for each course. Each course must radiate from 
Cy as shown in plan, and the face of each brick be 
worked to the required sweep or curve. The 
bevels (which will be different for each and every 
course) will be obtained by placing the stock of 
the bevel on the line representing the bed, and 
bringing the blade to coincide with that portion 
of the curve representing the course we are about 
to cut. Let the bevel of the course marked a be 
required. Place the stock of the bevel on the 
third line below the moulded string h, and shift 
the blade \mtil it fit the curve of the course a. 
The bevels for each course must be obtained in 
the same way. The plan in this figure may be 
considered as a horizontal section just above 
the string course h. 

Orxa:mental Gable or Pediment. 

Figs. 73 and 74 are part front and end eleva- 
tions of an ornamental gable or pediment. The 
moulding is composed of the members known as 



88 



I3RICKAV0UK 



the ovolo, the cavetto, and the ogee. In orna- 
mental brick copings it is usual to form the top 
fillet with two courses of red tiles, well soaked 
and closely and neatly set in cement, with the 




1 1 




1 ! 




' 1 ' 1 




1 1 




1 1 




1 1 




1 1 


^^^^'^V^ 




Fig. 73. 

joints proj^erly broken, as here shown. Some- 
times lead is substituted for tiles. Here we have 
shown a gablet^ a, but in practice the tiles are 
more frequently brought down to the bottom of 
the coping, the gablet being dispensed with. 



Gothic 'WI^'DO"^v. 

Fig. 75 is a two-light ornamental Gothic 
window with 2-inch beaded or chamfered reveals. 
The whole of the work under the large arch 
would be recessed back from the general wall 
line. The side piers a and b for uniformity 
sake might be built in half bond, similar to that 



ORNAMENTAL BRICKWORK. 



89 



of the 9-inch inuUion ; but the proper bond 
would be to start from the reveal with a header 
and closer, the same as that shown on the reveal 
under the large arch. The tympanum is filled in 




with 45- inch work in 9-inch blocks, each block 
being made up of three bricks, and called 
"blocking courses." 

The label or dripstone, c e, enclosing the large 
arch, for the sake of contrast might be in Port- 
land stone. The whole of the work here shown, 
excepting the reveals of the large opening, might 
be in "gauged" work or in " axed " work ; or the 



90 BRICKWORK. 

arches alone miglit be "gauged" or axed, with 
the tympanum filled in with good building bricks, 
selected for colour and shape and neatly pointed, 
making a Tery effective as well as economical 
ornamental feature. 

The saddle-back springer on the mullion might 
with advantage be in stone. "Windows of this 
kind may be built for cased frames with sliding 
sashes, but they are more generally built in neat 
work inside and out, with 9-inch jambs, grooved 
to receive lead lights. Ornamental brickwork is 
a subject in itself, that to adequately describe 
would require more space than can be given to it 
in a treatise of this dimension. 

Mr. Euskin, advocating its use, says : " Here 
let me pause for a moment to note what one 
should have thought was well enough known 
in England, yet I could not, perhaps, touch 
upon anything less considered — the real use 
of brick. Our fields of good clay were never 
given us to be made into oblong morsels of 
one size. They were given us that we might 
play with them, and that men who could not 
handle a chisel might knead out some expression 
of human thought. In the ancient architecture 
of the clay districts of Italy, every possible adap- 
tation of the material is found, exemplified from 
the coarsest and most brittle kinds, used in the 
mass of the structure, to bricks for arches and 
plinths, cast in the most perfect curves, and of 
almost every size, strength and hardness; and 
moulded bricks wrought into flower work and 



ORNAMENTAL BRICKWORK. 91 

tracery as fine as raised patterns upon china. 
And just as many of the finest works of the 
Italian sculptors were executed in porcelain, 
many of the best thoughts of their architects 
were expressed in bricks, or in the softer material 
of terra-cotta ; and if this were so in Italy where 
there is not one city from whose towers we may 
not descry the blue outline of the Alps or Appen- 
nines — everlasting quarries of granite and marble 
— how much more ought it to be so among the 
fields of England." — Stones of Venice, vol. ii., 
p. 260. 

Judging by the remarks in the above quotation, 
one is led to think that the brickmakers of 
mediocval Italy were more skilled in their craft, 
or at least happier in results, than their fraternity 
of modern times ; for, with few exceptions, we 
have found moulded work wanting in that truth- 
fulness of form which distinguishes cut or gauged 
work. Doubtless this, in great measure, is due 
to the large amount of unskilled and juvenile 
labour employed in our brickworks, to the careless 
manipulation of the work, and the hurried de- 
mand for the material. To be assured that true 
form can be obtained in ceramic wares, one has 
only to look at the Natural History Museum, 
London. 



92 BRICKWORK. 

SECTION Y. 

r.OOF-TILIXG, POINTING, Eic. 

Tiling. 

Tiling is a branch of the bricklayer's trade, and 
owing to the rage for red-brick buildings is now 
very much in use. One advantage of the tiled 
roof is that it is cool in summer and warm in 
winter, but on acount of their weight stronger 
timbers are required than for slates. The Broseley 
tiles are considered the best ; they are 10| inches 
long, 6 inches wide, and f of an inch thick, and have 
three nibs or projections at the head for hanging. 
Good tiles are fairly smooth and slightly vitrified. 
Those of a bright red or clayey colour, with no 
vitrification, are absorbent, and not so capable of 
resisting the weather. Six kinds are used in good 
work, viz. under-eaves or three-quarter tiles, plain 
tiles, hips and valleys, ridge tiles and tile-and-a 
half, the last being used for cutting up to valleys 
and hips, and forming gables, so as to do away with 
the half tile that would be required to break joint. 
Valley and hip tiles are purposely made to suit 
the angles of the roof. As the tiles come to the 
hand of the tiler he should throw out the straight 
ones to be used by themselves, while those that 
have a hollow bed should be also kept by them- 
selves, as the straights will not lie close on the 
hollows. Good tiling is characterised by the tails 
of each course fitting closely upon the backs of 
the tiles in the course below them ; by the cross 



ROOF-TILING, POINTING, ETC. 93 

joints or "perpends" running in straight and 
regular lines from eaves to ridge, the vertical joint 
between each Uyo tiles coming immediately in the 
middle of the tile below them ; by the hips and 
valleys being in the same plane as the sides of the 
roof of which they form a part. It is a common 
sight to see hips standing up above the roof, so 
as to have more the appearance of ridges than 
hips. As the tiles are ordered before the roof is 
on, the angles should be set out and sent to the 
tile-maker to insure getting them to the required 
angle. The contained angle of hip tiles is made 
10^ greater than the contained angle formed by 
the intersection at the hip of the two sides or 
planes of the roof, to allow for the tilt and the 
thickness of the two eaves-tiles. For the same rea- 
son the valley-tile is made 10° more than the re- 
entering angle of the roof. In our experience we 
have frequently found that the contained angle 
has been guessed at or obtained by some " rule of 
thumb," and with the consequence that generally 
ensues from such work, viz. that the angle con- 
tained within the hip tile has been either too 
acute or too obtuse. 

Tiles are either laid dry on close boards, with 
battens above for hanging them, or on open bat- 
tens, in which case they should be bedded in lime 
and hair mortar. The most modern and improved 
way of hanging is shown in Fig. 76. The boards 
are 6 inches wide and are feather-edged, the top 
edge being ^ of an inch thick. Here we have a 
boarded roof without battens, and one that will 



94 



BRICKWORK. 



keep out the weather if the tiles should get broken, 
for the rain would cause the wood to expand, and 
thus tighten the joints of the boards, to the exclu- 
sion of all rain. The first course — the eaves and 
under-eaves — should be bedded in hair mortar. 
The " lap " (the distance that the tail of the third 
tile overlaps the head of the first) should be 




rig. 70. 

3 inches. The "gauge" (the distance between the 
tails of two consecutive courses) can always be ob- 
tained by dividing the length of the tile (measured 
from the under side of the hanging nibs) less the 
lap by two. Thus, (IQi - 3) -r 2 = 3f , the "gauge." 

Pioors HAVING Different Pitctiks. 
"SYhen roofs of different pitches intersecting in 
hips and valleys occur, the tiler has generally a 



ROOF-TILING, POINTING, ETC. 



95 



deal of trouble, and consequent waste of time, 
through carpenters frequently insisting upon 
intersecting the battens ; and very often after 
much time has been wasted, and a portion of the 
tiling done, it is found necessary to tear off all 
the battens to correct the error. 

The following rule will prevent such an error. 
Draw the plan of the two roofs (Fig 77), of 




different pitch, and from the centre of the valley 
set out two parallel lines, a h, c d, representing 
the true width of the tails of the valley tiles, 
which is from 1| to 2 inches. On a-// at right 
angles with the eaves of the main roof draw its 
section, on which set out the gauge 1, 2, 3, &c., 



96 imicK\voniv. 

and drop lines square with xy and intersecting 
the line a h. From these points of intersection 
square the short lines across the valley, and from 
where they intersect the parallel c d draw lines 
square with x y and intersecting a section of the 
smaller roof. The distance between any two 
points on y' g will be the "gauge" for the smaller 
roof. The line 3 on each section is drawn to 
their intersection, which is not in the centre of 
the valley, but very much on one side of it, thus 
proving the popular error of intersecting the 
battens in the middle of the valle}'. 

The "gauge" for hips should be obtained in 
the same way, excepting that the parallel lines, 
a b, c d, must be the same distance apart as the 
extreme points of the tail of the hip tile, measured 
in a straight line from point to point square with 
the hip. 

To OBTAIN THE NeCESSAPvY AxgLE OF Ilir OF 

Valley Tiles. 

Draw a h, Fig. 78, the plan of the hip, and 
erect a perpendicular, a c, the true height of the 
top of the hip. Draw a line from c to b, and 
the angle a h c will be the true inclination of the 
liip. Draw ed square with a b, cutting the eaves, 
and from ./'a line square with c b ; with this as 
radius, from the point ./' draw the semicircle, 
and from where it cuts a b draw the lines er/, d g; 
e (J d is the angle required for the hip tiles, or in 
other words it is a section or cut through the roof 
at right angles with the hip. The angle for 



ROOF-TILIKG, POINTING, ETC. 97 

valley tiles is obtained in the same way, remem- 




bering that tbe hip is a salient ai gle and the 
valley a re-entering angle. 

Pointing. 

Pointing is divided into two classes, tuck- 
pointing and flat-joint pointing. In tuck-point- 
ing the joints of the brickwork are filled in with 
mortar or stopping, of generally the same colour 
as the bricks, and rubbed down to a level surface 
with a piece of sacking or soft brick of the same 
colour as the work, and a putty joint made of 
lime and silver-sand placed upon it. Stone lime 
should be used for outside work. 

The mode of working is to have a parallel rule 
from 8 to 10 feet long, 5 inches wide, and 5 an 
inch thick, with one feather edge and four cleats 
-fV of an inch thick tacked on to the back to 



93 BRICKWORK- 

afford room for the putty that is cut off to fall 
through. The putty is spread out on the rule 
from which the bricklayers, one at each end, 
take it off with their jointers, and with the rule 
against the "waU, working on the top edge, trans- 
fer it to the wall. The ragged edges are then 
cut off with the Frenchman or knife, and the 
loose particles brushed off with a soft brush. 
Tuck-pointing is not suitable for outside work, 
as the putty joints projecting beyond the general 
surface arrest the weather and are consequently 
soon destroyed, unless protected by heavy pro- 
jections. 

Flat-joixt Pointing. 

This is the most general and durable kind of 
pointing. It should be made up of washed sand 
and stone lime several days at least before using 
it, that it may by the process of retempering 
acquire toughness, which will add very much to 
its durability and facility of working. The joints 
should be finished flush with the work (excepting 
in " weather-jointing," when the top of the joint 
should be kept back ^ of an inch, and the bottom 
flush to shed the rain) and neatly cut off top and 
bottom with the Frenchman, and brushed off. 
To ensure good pointing, the work should be 
well raked out and wetted not sparingly. If the 
joints are deep they should be filled in by going 
over them twice with tolerably stiff mortar to 
prevent cracking, and the work done with point- 
ing trowels. Jointers should not be used under 



ROOF- TILING, POINTING, ETC. 99 

.any pretext. In first-class work the pointing is 
done as the work proceeds during erection, and 
forming one body with the building will, if the 
mortar be good, last for many years. 

Malm work for tuck-pointing is generally 
stopped in with mortar, coloured with yellow ochre 
(21bs. of ochre to each hod of mortar), but it 
will bo found best to use no colour in the stopping, 
as by its earthy nature it very much injures the 
setting and hardening properties of the lime, 
which in a great measure accounts for so much 
pointing perishing soon after it is done. Stop 
the work in with good mortar, as described in 
flat-joint pointing, and rub it down with a soft 
malm, leaving the dust on the work, and with a 
soft stock brush go over it lightly with hot alum 
water. One pound of alum to 3 gallons of water. 

White Suflfolk bricks for tuck-pointing, are 
treated in the same way, rubbing the work with 
a soft white Sufiblk instead of with a malm. 

Red work for tuck- pointing is stopped in with 
mortar coloured with Venetian red and Spanish 
brown, with sometimes a little vegetable black 
added. The colour of the stopping must be 
determined by the colour of the bricks, so as to 
match them. It is best to avoid colourinff the 
bricks, but when stopped in rub them down with 
a soft brick, and apply alum water or white cop- 
peras, as already described. One pound of cop- 
peras to 3 gallons of water. The appearance of 
red brickwork is often spoilt through the applica- 
tion of colour. 

F 2 



100 BRICKWORK. 

To clean down red work, mix a pint of spirits 
of salts with a pailful of water. This applied with 
a stock brush will leave the work clear of all 
lime spots, &c. It maybe done on work recently 
erected, in which the joints have been struck 
during erection, and without injuring them. 

Copperas is very much used in connection with 
stock work, especially when the bricks are in- 
ferior or of a bad colour. One pound of green 
copperas is melted down with every 5 gallons of 
water. It should be mixed several days before 
required, and enough made to finish the job, that 
it may be all one colour. A small nob of lime 
mixed with the copperas very much heightens its 
colour. The copperas should be tried on the 
work to match it before being generally used, 
and weakened down by the addition of water if 
found necessary. 

Burning Cl.vy into Ballast. 

The use of burnt ballast is increasing every 
day, both for purposes of mortar and concrete. The 
chief reason for this is its cheapness in comparison 
with the cost of sand, for while sand costs from 
OS. to 7s. a cube yard, varying according to the 
locality, burnt ballast can be produced, including 
all materials and digging of clay, with a run of 
about 60 yards, at 2s. 6d. a cube yard. While we 
reiterate that for mortar nothing better than clean 
sand of a sharp angular grit can be used, we do 
not wish to be understood as condemning the use 
of burnt ballast. Thoroughly burnt and cool, with 



KOOF-TILING, POINTING, ETC. 



101 



the large aggregations (sponge- like lumps whose 
parts touch each other here and there, and are 
held in contact by vitreous matter) broken up, 
and the whole mixed with a fair proportion of 
Thames ballast or clean gravel (see previous re- 
marks on this subject in Article on Concrete), is 
capable of making a good concrete, for the ab- 
sorbent nature of the ballast attracting the sili- 
cates of the cement or lime, which entering the 
pores form so many threads or ties binding the 
whole mass together, and unlike Thames ballast, 
with its non-absorbent and smoothly water-worn 
surfaces, which simply beds itself in the matrix 
with comparatively little adhesion. 

Stiff or strong clay, just as it is dug up, is the 
best for burning, as it requires the least firing 
and will make the best ballast. The heap is com- 
menced by forming a cone of clay, about 3 feet in 
diameter and 5 feet in height, formed round a 
piece of pole placed on end as a centre. Fires are 
then made round the cone by placing bricks on 
edge forming a channel leading up to the centre. 
These are filled with wood and coal, and covered 
over and cased with a layer of clay about 6 inches 
thick before lighting. As the fire burns through 
it must be drawn down, which is done by means 
of long-handled prongs made specially for the 
work, and strewn with small coal called '' slack," 
and covered with another layer of clay. The 
thickness of the layers of clay may be increased 
as the work proceeds, until they become from 
18 to 24 inches, not forgetting the sprinkling of 



102 BRICKWORK. 

" slack " on each layer of clay. Care must be 
taken that the fire be drawn down, as it naturally 
draws to the top, and the unburnt portions thrown 
up into the fire. "When the clay is thoroughly 
burnt the fire will go out. 

Building Additions to Old "Work. 

When building additions to old buildings, it 
frequently occurs that the old work is found to 
be considerably out of perpendicular, generally 
overhanging. In such a case it is best to carry 
up with the new work, just where it joins with the 
old, a pier or pilaster, forming a break in the wall 
line, which will enable the bricklayer to keep the 
new work upright and hide the fault of the old, 
which otherwise would be exposed by junction 
with the new. The projection of the pilaster will 
of course be regulated by the amount that the 
work is out of the upright. 

Fire-proof Floors. 

Fire-proof floors are now very rarely constructed 
in bricks, being almost entirely superseded by tile 
arches brought to a level with concrete, or con- 
structed with rolled joists and concrete alone, or 
with cement and breeze, but more generally with 
Dennett's Patent, which is a concrete composed 
of broken bricks and gypsum. But in very large 
warehouses, and where great weights have to be 
carried, the fire-proof floors are still constructed 
with brick rings carried on rolled girders. 



APPLIED GEOMETRY. 



103 



SECTIO]S' YI. 



APPLIED GEOMETEY. 

Geometry of all studies is to the artisan the 
most attractive and useful. The problems given 
here are such as may be applied by the bricklayer 
to every-day practice, and therefore come within 
the meaning of the term applied geometry. But 
we would advise the young artisan not to rest 
satisfied with a Icnowledge of the few problems 
given herein, but to take up the subject as a 
separate study, and familiarise his mind with its 
principles, so as to be able to apply them generally 
and with understanding. 

To draw a square u-hose siqyerjicial area shall equal 
the sum of two squares whose sides are given. 

Let A B (Fig. 79) be the given sides. Draw 
the lines c d, e f at right 
angles, and from g set oflf 
G H equal to a, and g k 
equal to b : a line drawn 
from H to K will be the side 
of the required square. On 
G K complete the square 
G M, N. K ; and on g h the 
square ii l e g ; and on h k 
the square ii k o p. The 
area oi this square will 
equal the combined areas of the two smaller 




104 BRICKWORK. 

squares. To make this more clear, suppose the 
line A to be 8 inches and b 6 inches. The square 
of A would be 8 X 8 equal to 64 ; and the square 
of 6 would be 6 X 6 equal to 36, which added to 
64 makes 100. By drawing a and b square with 
each other and joining their extremes with a 
straight line, we will find that line to measure ex- 
actly 10 inches, and the square of that wiU be 100. 
The principle of this problem is that a square 
erected on the hypothenuse (the longest side) of a 
right-angled triangle is equal to the sum of two 
squares, erected on the base and perpendicular of 
the same triangle. Its application to practice is 
shown in the article on " Setting out Bmlding." 

To draic a right-angled triangle, base 1\ inches, 
height \ inch. 

Draw a semicircle of H inch diameter (Fig. 80), 
and from d erect the per- 
pendicular d e : a line 
drawn from e, | inch 
above the base line a c, 
will cut the semicircle 
in b ; lines drawn from 
a and c to i will form 
the required triangle. The principle of this is that 
aU triangles within a semicircle are right-angled 
triangles. If the lines be drawn from a c to e 
or to any other point in the semicircle, we 
shall get a right-angled triangle. Its practical 
application is seen in the article on " Setting out 
Building." 





APPLIED GEOMETRY. 105 

To draw an arc by cross-sectional lines. 

On a b, the span (Fig 81), erect the perpen- 
c.- diciilars, d e, equal to 

twice the required rise. 
Divide a e into any 
number of equal parts, 
1, 2, 3, 4, and e b into 
the same number of parts, and draw cross-sectional 
lines as shown. A curve traced through the 
intersections will be the required arc. 

Another method practised (we do not recom- 
mend its use) sometimes by carpenters for getting 
out turning-pieces for the bricklayer. Span 6 feet, 
rise 1\ inch. Divide the span into a number of 
equal parts, say six, and from the points erect 
perpendiculars, measuring upward ^ inch on the 
first, an inch on the second, and 1| inch on the 
third, which in this case is the centre line. Treat 
the other half of the span in the same way, and 
with a flexible straight-edge fixed at the springing 
points a b (Fig. 81) force it upward until it stand 
over the distance marks on the perpendiculars, 
and with a pencil trace the arc or curve. 

The foregoing methods do away with the neces- 
sity of laying down a large platform and getting 
out a long radius-rod ; the camber, for instance, 
which is the segment of a circle described by a 
radius-rod of 70 feet 2| inches in length. 



f3 



106 



BRICKWORK. 



To describe a Jlat arc (camber for instance) by 
mechanical means. 
Let a b (Fig. 82) be the cord of the arc. Bisect 




a b at c by the perpendicular c d, and make c d 
equal to the height of the segment. Draw d e 
parallel to a b, and make d e a, little larger than 
a d. This template should be got out of a piece 
of timber, and by moving the whole of the tem- 
plate, so that the two edges d a and d e may slide 
on two pins, a and d, the angular point d of the 
template will describe the segment required, and if 
the pin be taken out of a and put in the point b, 
the other portion d b of the segment a d b wiU 
be described in the same manner. This method 
should be practised in preference to the methods 
previously described. 

To find the joints of a flat arch icithout using the 
centre of the circle of which the arc is a part. 
Having determined the number of voussoirs or 




Fig. b3. 



courses," 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. (Fig. 83), from these points 



APPLIED GEOXTETRY. 



107 



erect perpendiculars by intersecting arcs ; these 
perpendiculars represent the joints. AVe need 
hardly to say that the practical application of 
this problem is to enable the workman to draw 
the courses or voussoirs in an arch similar to 
that given in the previous problem. 

To draw the joints of a semi ellipse arch icith mathe- 
matical accuracy. 
The point d (Fig. 84) is the middle of the arch, 



>-^ 



/ ./■■ 




U- 


'.''''S\ 


1 y * 
















1 ^j''--'"' 


c . 


\i^ 


1 


^^■~~^ 




-^S 





Fig. S4. 

and the point c the middle of the springing line. 
"With the distance c a or c b, from the point d 
describe an arc cutting a b at e, and also at/; cf 
are the foci. Let a joint be required at g. From 
e and / draw lines passing through g, and bisect 
the angle they make with each other, and from the 
point g erect a perpendicular, which will represent 
the required joint. The other joints are obtained 
in a similar manner. 



108 



BRICKWORK. 



To find the invisible arch contained in a camber. 

Bisect the springing line a h (Fig. 85) with the 
perpendicular c d, and 
produce the skewback 
h b until it cut the per- 
pendicular in c. Fromr, 
with distance c b draw 
the arc a d b, and with 
distance c g its concen- 
tric arc g fh. a g hb is 
the invisible arch. The 
soffit of the camber 
below the arc a d b i& 
upheld by the cohesion 
of its parts with the 
invisible arch. Here we 
would add that bricklayers Lave no fixed rule to 
determine the angle of skewback for the camber, 
some giving 4^ inches skewback for all open- 
ings, others 65 inches, and in many cases giving 
a skew of from f to 1 inch for every foot that the 
opening is wide ; as 3 inches for 3 feet, 4 inches 
for 4 feet, and so on. ^Ve would advise that 
the skew or angle of thrust should never exceed 
6 inches, for as the skew becomes more acute 
the carrying strength of the camber becomes less, 
in consequence of the invisible arch contained 
therein being thrown higher up, as shown by the 
middle arc struck from k with distance /.- b. 




Fig. 85. 



APPLIED GEOMETRY. 



109 



Ani/ two straight lines given to determine a curve by 
which they shall he connected. 

Let ah, cd (Fig. 86), be the given lines, and c b 



•-•v 




Fig. 86. 

the points to be connected. Produce the lines 
until they meet in e ; bisect the angle ceh with 
the line ef\ from c and b draw lines at right 
angles to ah and c d meeting ef in g. From g, 
with distance g c or g b describe the connecting 
curve. The given lines may be taken as two 
brick walls that have to be connected or formed 
with a round corner. 

Fig. 87 is an example in which the given lines 




Fig. 87. 

are parallel. From point b draw /a; at rig^^ 
angles with a h ; and from c, c e, at right a' 

/ 



es 



110 



BRICKWORK. 



witli c d. On /mark a point h any distance from 
h less than b c. Draw A- / througli A- parallel to 
h c and cutting c c m L From / as centre with 
the distance / c, which is equal to h h, describe the 
arc cm. Join Im and produce it in the same 
straight line towards m to meet/.r in n. From 
n as centre, with the distance u b or n rn, describe 
the arc b m. The given straight lines ab, c d are 
connected by the curve b m c. 

If the given straight lines are not parallel, but 
would meet if one or both were produced, as ^ A 
(Fig. 88), produced meets ab m. a, forming the 




Fig. 8S. 

small angle gab, draw, as before, /> and ^ o at 
right angles i<i ab and g h respectively. Take 
any point, A-, in bf; make^yy; equal to bk, and join 
kj). Bisect hp in q, and draw qr perpendicular 
to kp, meeting/ J" in ;•. Join r p, and irovap as 
."entre, at the distance g p, describe the arc g s, 
Xi '^ting rp in s. Then from the centre r, at the 
«^^ ce r 6 or r «, describe the arc completing the 



APPLIED GEOMETRY. Ill 

curve bs gyhj wliicli the given straight lines a b, 
g h are connected. 

To find the form or ciirvahire of a raking moulding 
that shall unite correctly tcith a level one. 

Let abed (Fig. 89) be part of the level 





h 


^":^£ 


3 c- 

Fig. 89. 


CO 



moulding (which we will here suppose to be an 
ovolo or quarter round), a and c the points where 
the raking moulding takes its rise on the angle, 
fc g the angle the raking moulding makes with 
the level one. Draw c/at the given angle, and 
from a draw a e parallel to it ; continue b a io h, 
and from c make c h perpendicular to Ah. Divide 
c h into any number of equal parts, as 1,2, 3, 4, 
and draw lines parallel to h a, as 1^, 2^ 2>^, 4^ ; 
and then in any part of the raking moulding, as 
f , draw i k, perpendicular to e a, and divide it into 
the same number of equal parts as h c is divided 
into; and draw 1% 2^ 3°, 4^ parallel to e a. 
Then transfer the distances l'"", 2^, 3^ 4*^, and a 
curve drawn through these points will be the 
form of the curve required for the raking 
moulding. 



112 BRICKWORK. 

The method here shown is for an ovolo, but it 
would be just the same for any other formed 
moulding, as a cavetto, ogee, &c. This problem 
can be applied in the construction of pediments 
in " gauged " work. 

To describe an ellipse by means of a carpenter's 
square and a piece of notched lath. 

Having drawn two lines to represent the 
diameters of the ellipse required, fasten the 
square so that the internal angle, or meeting of 
the blade and stock shall be at the centre of the 
ellipse. Then take a piece of wood, or a lath, 
and cut it to the length of half the longest 
diameter, and from one end cut out a piece equal 
to half the shortest diameter, and there will then 
be a piece remaining at one end equal to the 
difference of the half of the two diameters. 
Place this projecting piece of the lath in such a 
manner that it may rest against the square on 
the edge which corresponds to the two diameters ; 
and then turning it round horizontally, the two 
ends of the projection will slide along the two 
internal edges of the square, and if a pencil be 
fixed at the other end of the lath it will describe 
oae quarter of an ellipse. The square must then 
be moved for the successive quarters of the ellipse, 
and the whole figure wiU thus be easily formed. 
This method is on the principle of the trammel. 
There are several other ways of drawing an 
ellipse, but for these the reader must be referred 
to a work on geometry. 



APPLIED GEOMETRY. 



113 



To draw a Gothic of any given height and span ; 
or, in other words, an Ellipse Gothic. 

Let A B (Fig. 90) be the span and cd the height. 
Draw the line a b and bisect or centre it at c ; 




Fig. 90. 

draw c D, and make c i equal to c d. Divide c d 
into three equal parts, and draw a g, b h parallel 
with c D, and equal to two-thirds (f). of c d. Make 
c F equal to one-third of c d, and draw a f, f b. 
Divide a f into any number of equal parts, 1, 2, 
3, 4, and from i draw il, i2, i3, {4. Divide a g 
into the same number of parts as a f, and draw 
Id, 2d, 3d, 4d, and the intersection of lines will 
give the points in the curve, which must be drawn 
by hand. The other half must be found in the 
same way. 



114 



BRICKWORK. 



To draw the arch bricks of a Gothic arch, that is 
for the curve in the jjrevious problem. 

Having formed the angles c d g and c d h as 
before, from d (Fig. 91) draw d l perpendicular 




Fig. 91. 

to D H. Make b f and e d each equal to b ii ; 
join E F, and from the middle of e f draw i i, per- 
pendicular with E F. Draw l f, l and f are the 
points from which the joints of the arch will radiate. 

To find the radius of any arc or arch, the rise am 
span being given. 

Let a b represent the span, c d the rise ; a b 
equal 4 feet, c d 2 feet, a c (half the span) mul- 
tiplied by itself will be 2 X 2, or 4 feet ; divided 
hjcd will be ^, or 2 feet, c d added to this will 
be 4 feet, which divided by 2 will give 2 feet as 
the length of radius that will describe the required 
arc whose span and rise are given. In this case 
we have chosen a semicircle for the sake of 
simplicity and self-demonstration, but the rule 
may be applied to any arc of any circle. In 



APPLIED GEOMETRY. 115 

mathematical formula our calculation would stand 
thus : 

(d (? \ 

— + c d ]■— 2 =r the length of radius re- 
c a I 

quired. Or in plain words a c square, divided by 
c d, plus c d divided by 2 equal the length of 
radius. In the above explanation we have gone 
out of the beaten track for the purpose of making 
the rule clear to those of our readers who may 
not be familiar with trigonometrical and alge- 
braic expressions. 

It will, however, be recognised by some as the 
square of half the cord divided by the versed 
sine, plus the versed sine divided by 2 equal the 
radius. 

For mensuration of brickwork the Author 
refers the reader to Mr. Hammond's "Practical 
Bricklaying," forming vol. 189 in this series. 



I J^ D E X. 



A DDiTioxs TO Old Wokk, 102. 
■^ Angle of hip or valley IQcs, 

to obtain, 96. 
Angle of skew, 50. 
of strain, 29. 
Apertures, 26. 
Arc, to draw bv cross sectional 

lines, 10.5. 
Arches, 46. 

cutting of, 64. 
principles of, 47. 
whose courses have different 
bevels, S5. 
Axed work, 63. 

"Dase, Boxc of, 27. 
^ treatment of, 27. 
Battering jamb, S8. 
Bats, 30, 34. 
Bedding board, 66. 
Bends. 12. 

Berkshire builders, 17. 
Birdsmouthed key, 7 1 . 

objection to, 71. 
Blocking courses, 89. 
Blue lias, 9. 
Boaster, 6.5. 
Bond of brickwork, 20. 

underrated, 20. 

of footings and walls, 22. 

Gwilt on, 21. 

Smeaton on, 20. 
Bovd's flue-plates, 45. 
BrickS; 16. 

characteristics of good, 19. 

differences in sizes of, 39. 

case hardening of, 62. 

wetting of, 28. 



Brick groins, 58. 
Brickwork, 2*. 

characteristics of good, 40. 

good, samples of, 16. 
Broken bond, 27. 

cause of, 27. 

in Flemish, 33. 
Brondesbury bridge, 5.5. 
Broseley tiles, 92. 
Building new work into old, 40. 
Bull's-eye, 65. 

Burning clay into ballast, 100. 
Burnt ballast, 9. 
Buttering joints, evil of, 34. 

Pamber arch, 64, 68. 
^ invisible arch in, 108. 

mould, 69. 

to describe by mechanical 
means, 69. 

to take off lengths and 
bevels of courses, 68. 
Carved work, 64. 

gauged-work, composition 
for setting, 60. 
Catenary curve, 48. 
Cement- testing machine. 10. 
Centre for niche head, 81. 
Ceramic wares, 91. 
Chalk lime, 14. 
Chimney bond, 34. 
Chinoncy stacks, 34. 

wtJls of 4^ inches, 34. 
Closer or Closure, 22, 31. 
Colour in stopping, objection to, 

99. 
Concrete, 2. 

for filling in terxa-cotta, 8. 



INDEX. 



ii: 



Concrete, Mr. Keid on, 8. 

"packing," 7- 

proportion of ingredients, 8. 

quantity of water in mix- 
ing, 8. 

specitieation of mixing, G. 

thickness of, 5. 
Construction of arclies, 55. 
Copperas, 99. 
Coring holes, 43. 
Counterbalance, 85. 
Coursing joints, 50. 

mould, 52. 
Cross joints, 21. 
Cutting-shed, G4. 

TiEN.NETr'S PATENT, 102. 

-*^ Development of soffit of 

skew arch, 51. 
Dipping, 63. 
Dips in drains, 12. 
Dip-trap, 13. 
Doors, positions of, 26. 
Doulton's terra-cotta flue p:pes, 

45. 
Drains, laving of, 11. 

fall of, 11. 

cause of stoppage, 12. 

ventilation of, 12. 
Drain-pipes, sizes of, 13. 
1 )rawing and cutting arches, 6 1. 
Dutch bond, 37. 

advantages claimed for, 3S 

"pARTHENWARE TRAPS, 13. 

^ Ellipse, to describe, 112. 
Ellipse Gothic arch, 72. 

to describe by cross sec- 
tional lines, 113. 
Eaamellcd bricks, 18. 
English garden wall bond, 35. 
English bond in chimney stac ks, 

34. 
Excavations, 2. 
Extrados, 66. 

"P.VCE MOULD, 65, 66. 
-"- Fan-groining, sample of, 60. 
Fareham biicks, 17, CI. 
Fire bricks, 18. 



Fireclay, 19. 

Fireplace for register stove, 44. 

Fireproof floors, 102. 

Flat joint pointing, 98. 

Flashing to chimney-stacks, 35. 

Flat arch, to find joints of, 106. 

Flemish, 22, 31. 

Flemish garden wall bond, 35. 

Flues, 41. 

building of, 43. 
down draught, 12. 
disadvantage of too large 
sectional area, 42. 

Flues, sizes of, 44. 

Flushing, 28. 

Footings, 6, 22. 

Forcing-rods, 12. 

Furmation of centre for niche 
head, 81. 

Foundations, 1. 

Freestone lintels, cause of frac- 
turing, 48. 

GAKLET, 88. 
Gauge of tiles, 95, 96. 

Gauge-rod, 25. 
Gauged work, 17, 61. 
Gault bricks, 17. 
Geometry, 103. 
Gothic arches, 63, 70, 71- 

to draw arch bricks of, 114. 

on circle arch, 77. 

vaulting, 58, 59, GO. 

window, 89. 
Grizzles, 16. 
Groined vaulting, o8. 
Groimd blue lias, 2. 
Ground-damp, 2. 
Grouting, 28, 40. 

ni;.\Di>-G liOXD, 28. 
Ileiring-bone bond, 36. 
Hip tiles, 92, 93. 96. 



T 



NSPECTION HOLES, 10. 



Tamu, 26. 

" Jointers, 98. 



118 



INDEX. 



KINO CLOSURK, 2o. 
Kneeler, 88. 

T AERTIXG rp, 41. 

■*-' Level or datum, 2. 

Lime, 14. 

Lines offeree or thrust, bb. 

Line of frontage, 3. 

Line of radii, 55, 57. 

Lines, to connect by means of 

a curve, 109. 
Lintels, 48. 
London clay, 6. 
Lons skew arches, treatment 

of, 51. 
Lump lias, 14. 

MADE-rP GROUND, 6. 
Malms, 17, Gl. 
action of London smoke on, 
62. 
•Man-hole, 12. 
Mortar, 14, 28. 
Moulded courses, S3. 

■work, 91. 
Mullions, 74, 89. 

"^ICHK, 79. 

^^ hood, 81. 
mould, S3. 

length and bevel of courses 
to, 82. 

Aid ExoLisH bond, 21. 
^ Open soil-pipe, 12. 
Operculum or channel-pipe, 12. 
Oriel window, 85.' 
Ornamental arches, 84. 
Ornamental brickwork, 79, 90. 
Ornamental gable or pediment, 
88. 

PABGETTIKG, 34. 
PaA-ing. 36, 37. 
Perpends, 39. 
Philological School, l.'j. 
Picked stocks, 16. 
Place bricks, 16. 
Plain arches, 49. 
Plan of skew arch, 50. 



Plinth, 27. 
Pointing. 39, 97. 
Polychrome bricks, 15. 
Portland c*ment, 2, 6. 
Portland cement concrete, 7. 
Pressed bricks. 20. 
Principle of ordinarv skew arch, 

54. 
Projecting courses, 86. 
Purpose-made brick, 57. 

QUEEN AvXK's style OF ABCUI- 
TECTURE, 79. 

revival of, 14. 
Quoin, 4, 32. 

"DADirS-ROD, LKXGTU OP, FOB 
^*- CAMBER, 105. 

to obtain by formula, 114. 
Raking moulding. 111. 
Bed brickwork, 14. 

to clean down. 100. 
Red building bricks. 17. 
Relie\-iDg arches, 48. 
Eeveal, 26. 

bond of, 27. 
Beversing the bond, 33. 
Right-angled junctions, 12. 
Roman tile, 30. 
Roofs of different pitch, 94. 
Rosendalc cement, 57. 
Ruabon clay, analysis, 20. 

bricks and tf-rra-cotta, 20. 
Rubber?, 17, 61. 
Ruskin, inHuence of on red- 
brick designs, 15. 

advocacy of oroameDtal 
brickwork, 90. 

SAND, 9, 14. 
Scheme, 73. 
Scheme arch, 75. 
"Scotch," 65. • 
Scriber, 65. 
Section -box, 84. 
mould, 78. 
Section of niche, 79. 
Semi-ellipse arch, 73, 107. 
Semi and segmental arches, 66. 
Semi-Gk)thic arch, 76. 



INDEX, 



119 



Setting, 63, 64. 

Setting out and cutting, 62. 

Setting out building, 2. 

Setting out the bond, 26. 

Sewer gas, 12. 

Sewers, 57. 

Sharp bends in flues, evil oT, 42. 

Shippers, 17. 

Site, 1. 

Skew arch, 49, o2. 

Skewback of camber, 103. 

Smoky flues, 41. 

Snapped headers, 31, 34. 

Soakers, 35. 

Soffit-mould of Gothic on circle, 

78. 
Stacks in 4^-inch walla, 34. 
Staffordshire blue bricks, 18, 52. 
Stock bricks, 16. 
Stookwork, 01. 
Stone lime, 14, 63. 
Stone strings, 28. 
Stoppins: in pointing, 97. 99. 
Stourbridge fire bricks, 19. 
String courses, 30. 
Stuccoed buildings, 15. 
Subsoil, 5. 
Surface concrete, 2. 

Tailing dowx, 86. 
-'- Taking oflf bevel?, 65. 
Templates and strings, 30. 
Testing cement, 10. 
Tevnham bricks, 1 7. 
Thames ballast, 10, 101. 
Thick and thin joints, 28. 



Three-quarter stretcher, 24, 27. 
Tiled roof, advantage of, 92. 
Tiling, 92. 

characteristics of good, 92. 
Tile fillet, 88. 
Tiles, characteristics of good, 92. 

improved method of hang- 
ing, 93. 
Timber foundation, 57. 
T. L. B. Rubbers, CI. 
To find the radius of any arc or 

arch, 114. 
Tools for arch cutting, 64. 
Toothings, 39. 
Transverse joints, 23. 
Transversing the courses, 65. 
Triangle, 104. 
Tuck-pointing, 97, 99. 
Tumbling in buttresses, &c., 38. 
TjTnpana of arches, 36, 89. 

"\'''alley tiles, 96. 
' Valleys. 94. 
Various bonds, 34. 
Venetian arch, 74. 
Voussoirs, 47, 05. 

TTTall in Flemish face and 
'' English back, 32. 
"Washed stocks, 16. 
Water conduit, 56. 
Weather-jointing, 98. 
AMiito SufTolks, 18, 62. 
Windows, 27. 
Wing gatherings, 41, 44. 
Withes, 34, 35, 45. 



THE END. 



PKIXTK3 BY J. ?. YIETU» AND CO., LIHITXD, CrTY ROAD, LDXDOJI. 



Uniform icith this volume, price \s. 6d. 



THE EUDIMEXTS OF PRACTI- 
CAL BRICKLAYING. In Six Sections :— 
General Principles of Bricklaying — Arch Draw- 
ing, Cutting, and Setting — DifiFerent Kinds of 
Pointing — Paving, Tiling, Materials — Slating 
and Plastering — Practical Geometry, Mensura- 
tion, kc. By Adam Hammoxd. Illustrated with 
Sixty- eight \Voodcut3. Pifth Edition, carefully 
Eerised, \rith Additions. 



" This is the work of a practical bricklayer, and is intended 
for the junior members of the important, if laborious, pro- 
fession to which the author belongs- It is fall of details 
concerning all the parts of the shell of a building, firom 
foundation to tiles. To any workman anxious after improve- 
ment this volume will prove a valuable investment." — Iron. 

"Contains a considerable amount of practical information. 
with sound instructions on general matters, and useful 
recipes connected with both brickwork and plastering." — 
BrUUh ArchiUtt. 

" ilr. Hammond's practical treatise will be found of great 
value to students." — Bmlding Stws. 

"Any young bricklayer who reads Mr. Hammond's book 
careful^ will become a proficient craftsman." — Englith 
Mechanic. 

CBOSBY LOCK^OOD & CO., 
7, SiATiONEss' Hall Corai, Loxoos, E.C. 



^ 



I